Background: #fff
Foreground: #000
PrimaryPale: #8cf
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PrimaryMid: #04b
PrimaryDark: #014
SecondaryPale: #ffc
SecondaryLight: #fe8
SecondaryMid: #db4
SecondaryDark: #841
TertiaryPale: #eee
TertiaryLight: #ccc
TertiaryMid: #999
TertiaryDark: #666
Error: #f88
<div class='toolbar' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::EditToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit title'></div>
<div macro='annotations'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit text'></div>
<div class='editor' macro='edit tags'></div><div class='editorFooter'><span macro='message views.editor.tagPrompt'></span><span macro='tagChooser excludeLists'></span></div>
To get started with this blank [[TiddlyWiki]], you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* [[SiteTitle]] & [[SiteSubtitle]]: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* [[MainMenu]]: The menu (usually on the left)
* [[DefaultTiddlers]]: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
<link rel='alternate' type='application/rss+xml' title='RSS' href='index.xml' />
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> [[SaveBackups]]
<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
<<option chkAnimate>> [[EnableAnimations]]

Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
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<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
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<div class='headerForeground'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
<span class='siteSubtitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteSubtitle'></span>
<div id='mainMenu' role='navigation' refresh='content' tiddler='MainMenu'></div>
<div id='sidebar'>
<div id='sidebarOptions' role='navigation' refresh='content' tiddler='SideBarOptions'></div>
<div id='sidebarTabs' role='complementary' refresh='content' force='true' tiddler='SideBarTabs'></div>
<div id='displayArea' role='main'>
<div id='messageArea'></div>
<div id='tiddlerDisplay'></div>
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#backstageArea a {background:[[ColorPalette::Foreground]]; color:[[ColorPalette::Background]]; border:none;}
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ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
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ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}
ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-alpha;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:lower-roman;}
ol ol ol ol ol ol ol {list-style-type:decimal;}

.txtOptionInput {width:11em;}

#contentWrapper .chkOptionInput {border:0;}

.externalLink {text-decoration:underline;}

.indent {margin-left:3em;}
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code.escaped {white-space:nowrap;}

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/* the 'a' is required for IE, otherwise it renders the whole tiddler in bold */
a.tiddlyLinkNonExisting.shadow {font-weight:bold;}

#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkExisting,
	#mainMenu .tiddlyLinkNonExisting,
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#messageArea {position:fixed; top:2em; right:0; margin:0.5em; padding:0.5em; z-index:2000; _position:absolute;}
.messageToolbar {display:block; text-align:right; padding:0.2em;}
#messageArea a {text-decoration:underline;}

.tiddlerPopupButton {padding:0.2em;}
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.tabset {padding:1em 0 0 0.5em;}
.tab {margin:0 0 0 0.25em; padding:2px;}
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.tabContents li.listLink { margin-left:.75em;}

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#displayArea {margin:1em 17em 0 14em;}

.toolbar {text-align:right; font-size:.9em;}

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.tagClear {clear:both;}

.footer {font-size:.9em;}
.footer li {display:inline;}

.annotation {padding:0.5em; margin:0.5em;}

* html .viewer pre {width:99%; padding:0 0 1em 0;}
.viewer {line-height:1.4em; padding-top:0.5em;}
.viewer .button {margin:0 0.25em; padding:0 0.25em;}
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.viewer ul, .viewer ol {margin-left:0.5em; padding-left:1.5em;}

.viewer table, table.twtable {border-collapse:collapse; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
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table.listView {font-size:0.85em; margin:0.8em 1.0em;}
table.listView th, table.listView td, table.listView tr {padding:0 3px 0 3px;}

.viewer pre {padding:0.5em; margin-left:0.5em; font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em; overflow:auto;}
.viewer code {font-size:1.2em; line-height:1.4em;}

.editor {font-size:1.1em;}
.editor input, .editor textarea {display:block; width:100%; font:inherit;}
.editorFooter {padding:0.25em 0; font-size:.9em;}
.editorFooter .button {padding-top:0; padding-bottom:0;}

.fieldsetFix {border:0; padding:0; margin:1px 0px;}

.zoomer {font-size:1.1em; position:absolute; overflow:hidden;}
.zoomer div {padding:1em;}

* html #backstage {width:99%;}
* html #backstageArea {width:99%;}
#backstageArea {display:none; position:relative; overflow: hidden; z-index:150; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageToolbar {position:relative;}
#backstageArea a {font-weight:bold; margin-left:0.5em; padding:0.3em 0.5em;}
#backstageButton {display:none; position:absolute; z-index:175; top:0; right:0;}
#backstageButton a {padding:0.1em 0.4em; margin:0.1em;}
#backstage {position:relative; width:100%; z-index:50;}
#backstagePanel {display:none; z-index:100; position:absolute; width:90%; margin-left:3em; padding:1em;}
.backstagePanelFooter {padding-top:0.2em; float:right;}
.backstagePanelFooter a {padding:0.2em 0.4em;}
#backstageCloak {display:none; z-index:20; position:absolute; width:100%; height:100px;}

.whenBackstage {display:none;}
.backstageVisible .whenBackstage {display:block;}
StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which need larger font sizes.
body {font-size:0.8em;}
#sidebarOptions {font-size:1.05em;}
#sidebarOptions a {font-style:normal;}
#sidebarOptions .sliderPanel {font-size:0.95em;}
.subtitle {font-size:0.8em;}
.viewer table.listView {font-size:0.95em;}
@media print {
#mainMenu, #sidebar, #messageArea, .toolbar, #backstageButton, #backstageArea {display: none !important;}
#displayArea {margin: 1em 1em 0em;}
noscript {display:none;} /* Fixes a feature in Firefox where print preview displays the noscript content */
<div class='toolbar' role='navigation' macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::ViewToolbar]]'></div>
<div class='title' macro='view title'></div>
<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
<div class='tagged' macro='tags'></div>
<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagClear'></div>
KEEP version 0.85_0
	Eureqa I (Old Version):

is free and works installed on windows 7 of Vaio, drive D: and date changed to 1/Dez/2011

[[Monthly Notes of the Alternative Cosmology Group – May 2014|]]

The new research tested one of the striking predictions of the Big Bang theory: that ordinary geometry does not work at great distances. In the space around us, on earth, in the solar system and the Milky Way, as similar objects get farther away, they look fainter and smaller. Their surface brightness, that is the brightness per unit area, remains constant. In contrast, the Big Bang theory tells us that in an expanding universe objects actually should appear fainter but bigger

[[Micronewton electromagnetic thruster by Charrier at Applied Physics Letters (2012)|]]

[[EoS codes|]]

[[pyro: A teaching code for computational astrophysical hydrodynamics|]] [[here|]]
[[Lecture Notes on Computational Hydrodynamics for Astrophysics|]] pyro doc 120 pages
[[How Stars Work|]] 65 slides 
[[Chapte 4 - Energy transport in stellar interiors|,d.d2k]]
[[Equation of State|]] 22 pages
[[electron-photon cross-section|]]  $$\sigma_T=6.65e^{-25} cm^2$$ 
classical electron radius = $$r_e=2.8e^{-13} cm$$
[[MESA -  stellar evolution code |]] 
[[MESA slides|]] 
[[Motion of Particles through Fluids|]] 
[[Stellar Equations Of State codes|]] EOS solvers

[[WS 11/12: The Physics of Accretion Disks and Planet Formation|]] curso com 15 lições by Mordasini

[[astro codes|]]

[[Why Maxwell Couldn’t Explain Gravity|]] @ mathpages
[[Continuity and the Void||]] @ mathpages

[[Boost Your Wireless Using An Old Router|]] wifi repeater

[[pyrit|]] wpa2 crack on GPU
[[Theano|]] alternative to PyopenCL    see /usr/local/bin/theano-test 

[[Installing CUDA and Theano on Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwhal|]]


Today (2011/06/27) I'm thinking on this long shot:

!''Quirality and the rotation of Earth thru absolute space''
[[Coherence properties of spinor condensates at finite temperatures|]]

@@color:#4bbbbb;to explore:@@ [[Problem-with-the-two-slit-experiment|]]  
[[a novel way to “look” at atomic orbitals |Discovered]]

to explore colaborative work helps you
Follow the latest research in your field

Not widely known: 
math :

''Pag 38
Close PinnowCompositeParticles37
Next PinnowCompositParticles39''
<<image width:800>>
<<image width:800>>
<<image width:800>>
[[LMDB performance in-mem db|]]

[[Hustle db|]]  [[instalation|]]

A column oriented, embarrassingly distributed relational event database.
[[Google LevelDB|]]

LevelDb faster o writes 
LMDB  faster on reads
43/5557 = 2pi * 369.461/300000
43/5557 = 2pi*Solar System abosolute velocity / light speed
were 43 is the Mercury's anomalous precession, 5557 is the measured value of precession, in arcseconds.
Thus the 43 arcseconds value is consequence of the error in the gravito-electromagnetic distance measure Sun-Mercury. 
The planet orbit is an helix in 3D space and not a closed ellipse in 2D.
And Newton alone is enough to explain the non existent anomaly. 
GR haha.
[[Newton's theorem of revolving orbits |]] 1/r3 force Lunar precession

 [[Perihelion Precession of the Planets |]] 
  [[at mathpages||]]

[[Deep Space Communications and Navigation Series BOOKS|]]

[[Fundamentals of Electric Propulsion: Ion and Hall Thrusters|]]
include the chapter 
[[Basic Plasma Physics |]]

![[Makefile|]] A tutorial by example

!Manuais linux install 
[[Linode Library|]] very good how-tos on this hosting (root access)
find in files 
grep --include={*.c,*.h} -rnw 'directory' -e "pattern"
grep -H -n 'pattern' file  

[[list of linux commands every developer should know|]]


~HTTrack is an easy-to-use offline browser utility. It allows you to download a World Wide website from the Internet to a local directory

sudo /etc/init.d/webmin start
[[Webmin|https://velez-desktopub64:10000/]] user velez pwd 6fs or  [[https://localhost:10000]]

sudo /etc/init.d/postgresql stop &nbsp;&nbsp;
sudo pgpool stop 

[[Webmin|https://localhost:10000/]] velez xy****
mysql user root pwd xy****


[[local Sencha|http://localhost/sencha/docs/]]

[[share.js|]] Live concurrent editing in your app 
[[git ShareJS|]] (~4k LOC) coffeescript server & web client library for OT ( Operational Transformation). Website can let your users collaboratively edit text documents and arbitrary JSON data in realtime

[[local d3|http://localhost:8888/examples/]] after cd ~/d3 ;  python -m SimpleHTTPServer 8888

[[scam informer|]]

[[Simple statistics with SciPy|]] phyton stats
[[NumPy tutorial|]]

[[PYthon quik ref.|]] 

[[wayback|]] internet history

[[Sun Moon calculator|]]

![[Wikiversity, Fedosin|]]

![[Low energy nuclear matter transformations |]] Adamenko problem
[[Coherent photonuclear reactions for isotope transmutation|]] How to Transmute Elements with Laser Light

''How to lower the Coulomb barrier ?'' with a metamaterial ?
[[Relative permittivity|]]  Conjugated polymers	1.8-6 up to 100,000  !!
[[mendeley| pdf scy organizer]] From papers to productivity in seconds 
[[mendeley scy search engine|]] ...over 33 million papers 
[[overleaf|]] write latex online 

[[LaTeX|]] in short
[[BibTeX|]] summary
[[LaTeX - Bibliography Management|]] BibTeX WP
!!Lyx - latex editor
[[mirror|]] Windows choose [3] installer-bundler of Lyx and ~MikTex

[[Graphics in latex|]]  Wikibooks - Graphics in latex  
[[metapost|]] metapost manual

[[Tikz Trees|]] in [[TeXample|]]
[[Aprendo LaTeX|]]
[[nice unit circle example|]]
[img[unit circle example|]] png

[[Math mode|]] 135 pages PDF-document [CTAN] about different math-environments.

on ubuntu  
install Lyx
see [[LaTeX Matters|]] installing-latex
''[[LaTex - ubuntu |]]'' install (sudo texhash)
and [[Ubuntu forums|]] installing

install texlive-publishers

download from 
and follow links to download also natbib, url and textcase from CTAN
and unzip to 
download  revtex4-1.layout from, 
and copy to : on W$ in D:\Programas\Lyx20\Resources\layouts
on Ubuntu to : 
the program texmf (Tex Live manager) is missing, follow his
[[How to install LaTeX Style Files (.sty) on Ubuntu, using TeTeX or Tex Live|]]
On :  /usr/share/texmf-texlive/tex/latex
to install a style file you have to create a directory for it and copy the contents there. Next you have to run the program mktexlsr as root.
This is an example on how to install the prooftree extension, using the TeTeX distribution:
create a directory named prooftree on /usr/share/texmf-tetex/tex/latex
copy the file prooftree.sty and the file prooftree.tex to the directory /usr/share/texmf-texlive/tex/latex/prooftree
run ''sudo mktexlsr''

''[[Hypertext Help with LaTeX|]]'' @NASA 
''[[LaTeX Tables|]]'' @WikiBooks
''[[documentation LaTeX|]]'' 
''[[bibtex summary |]]''


''translation help''

[[linguee francais portugais|]]

*[[Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA)|]]  search for English correctness  

''[[sgv online editor|]]''
[[inkscape|]] manual

online programming

To render a text, type it into the text box below and choose the attributes you would like. You will need a modern Javascript-enabled browser to make this work.


Hybrid and Easy Discontinuous Galerkin Environment
hedge is an unstructured, high-order, parallel Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) code
Supports simplicial unstructured meshes in two and three dimensions (i.e. triangles and tetrahedra)
Approximates using orthogonal polynomials of any degree you specify at runtime
Solves your problem in parallel using MPI
Comes with canned operator templates for
*Wave equation
*Heat equation
*Poisson equation
*Maxwell's equations
Makes it really simple to roll your own operators using friendly, mathematically-oriented (and dimension-independent, if desired) notation
Visualizes your solutions in parallel with XML-based VTK or Silo files. It directly supports Paraview and Visit.
Runs on your Nvidia CUDA-capable graphics card.

html5 games

[[Acordo Ortográfico |]] 

[[graphics card benchmarks|]]
[[graphics card benchmarks|]]

[[AMD ATI Chips Comparison Table|]]

!Communities    (Research) 

[[KVM - share Keyboard Video e Monitor |]] and [[review|]]

regex evaluator tester -- program kiki

[[Synergy2|]] compartilhar KVM teclado video e rato entre várias máquinas

slitaz usr=root pwd=root
[[slitaz-aircrack|]] velez@velez-desktopUb64:~$ qemu-system-x86_64 -M pc -m 512 -cdrom /home/velez/Transferências/ISOs/slitaz-aircrack-ng-20091124.iso -net nic,vlan=0 -net user,vlan=0,hostname=emu  -boot d

/usr/bin/qemu-system-x86_64 -monitor stdio -k pt -m 512 -localtime -cdrom /home/velez/Transferências/ISOs/slitaz-aircrack-ng-20091124.iso -boot once=d,menu=off -net none -name "slitaz"

[[windows on linux - bordeaux |]] similar to codeweaver on top of wine
2012 [[A huge reservoir of ionized gas around the Milky Way:Accounting for the Missing Mass?|]]
Most of the baryons from galaxies have been “missing” and several studies
have attempted to map the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of galaxies in their
quest. We report on X-ray observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory
probing the warm-hot phase of the CGM of our Milky Way at about 106 K.
We detect O vii and O viii absorption lines at z = 0 in extragalactic sight lines
and measure accurate column densities using both Kα and Kβ lines of O vii.
[[ftp NOAA NGDC |]]

[img[WP Milankovitch|]]
> ([[WP|]]) Past and future Milankovitch cycles. VSOP allows prediction of past and future orbital parameters with great accuracy. ε is obliquity (axial tilt). e is eccentricity. ϖ is longitude of perihelion. esin(ϖ) is the precession index, which together with obliquity, controls the seasonal cycle of insolation.  is the calculated daily-averaged insolation at the top of the atmosphere, on the day of the summer solstice at 65 N latitude. Benthic forams and Vostok ice core show two distinct proxies for past global sealevel and temperature, from ocean sediment and Antarctic ice respectively. Vertical gray line is current conditions, at 2 ky A.D.

[[NOOA Geomagnetic Models and Software | ]]

[[The World Data Center A- Paleoclimatology |]]
[[NGDC National GeoPhysical Data Center |]]

[[WP Axis Tilt]]
[[The Milankovitch Cycles |]] ocean circulation, clima glacial periods
[[Oceanography lectures|]] 
  [[Orbital Geometry and Radiative Forcing |]]

Certainly all the *measures* are showing that the space is expanding.  
A distinction from 'the measure' and the correspondent ammount of space is imperative.   
The statement 'space expands' is based in the presumption, never proved, that the unit of measure is invariant.  
We measure with atomic properties. Lengt/hmass/charge/time units, and all other derived quantities, are dependent on the actual/local and present size of the atoms.  
It can be shown(*) that larger atoms in the past provide a model of the universe evolution whitout space expansion and whithout Dark Energy.  

We forget that the atoms are radiating gravitational and electrostatic energy away from them, at $c$ speed, since their begining and this fact is a well motivated reason for the **shrinking of matter**.  In the lab it is impossible to measure this effect. 

In short: 'space expansion' is the consequence of a wrong viewpoint and 
DE is an artifact of the wrong model.  

Anyone is welcome to show, with physics/math arguments, that I'm wrong. Until then I keep saying that the consensus interpretation is bad physics.  
(As an eng. I can never accept a model that is 95% misalligned with data).    

(*) [A self-similar model of the Universe unveils the nature of dark energy][1]


[[Detect Encoding for In- and Outgoing Text|]]
iconv -c -f encoding [-t encoding] [inputfile]...
          -l list 
    --from-code, -f encoding
              Convert characters from encoding.
       --to-code, -t encoding
              Convert characters to encoding. If not specified the encoding
              corresponding to the current locale is used.
       --list, -l       List known coded character sets.
       -c     Omit invalid characters from output.
       --output, -o file              Specify output file (instead of stdout).

dd      if=FILE of=FILE conv=CONVERSION[,CONVERSION]...'
     Convert the file as specified by the CONVERSION argument(s).  (No
     spaces around any comma(s).)

cobol inspect xx replacing 

[[in monetdb context |]]
iconv -f cp1252 -t utf-8 < /tmp/testdata.txt > /tmp/testdata-utf8.txt
mclient -lsql --database=myschema
    -t -i -s "COPY 20603 records into test_table from stdin using
    delimiters '\t','\n','\"' null as ''" < /tmp/testdata.txtt
mclien param -E UTF8, -E WINDOWS-1252 -E LATIN1 ...
[[Mocha|]] a [[TDD |Test-driven development]] framework , by the author of coffeescript
[[DbC|]] Design_by_Contract

[[Cerny.js|]] is a JavaScript library aiming to ease development of JavaScript projects in large development teams.
mysql -uroot -p wnv -D wnv
# inserir pwd

GRANT FILE ON /home/velez/kaggle/west_nile/working/*.* TO 'root'@'localhost';
GRANT FILE ON *.* TO 'root'@'localhost';

# returns the approx distance between two locations,  in km
drop  FUNCTION dist;
CREATE FUNCTION dist(lat1 decimal(8,6), long1 decimal(8,6), lat2 decimal(8,6), long2 decimal(8,6), round_out tinyint )
	RETURNS decimal(10,3)
return ( 
    (lat2 - lat1)*111*(lat2 - lat1)*111
   +( long2 - long1)*111*cos(lat2)
 *(long2 - long1)*111*cos(lat2) 

# returns the angle in degrees between two locations,  0º points North, clockwise
drop function angle;
create function angle (
     lat1 decimal(8,6), long1 decimal(8,6),
     lat2 decimal(8,6), long2 decimal(8,6))
	 returns decimal DETERMINISTIC
declare tx decimal(10,0);
SET tx= round(atan2((lat2 - lat1)*111 ,( long2 - long1)*111*cos(lat2) )*180.0/pi())+90 ;
IF tx < 0 THEN
   return (tx + 180); 
   return (tx);

# returns the direction of sector of 30º,  0 points to -15..15 (North), clockwise
drop function direction;
create function direction (
     lat1 decimal(8,6), long1 decimal(8,6),
     lat2 decimal(8,6), long2 decimal(8,6))
	 returns tinyint DETERMINISTIC
  return ( 
   (angle(lat1, long2, lat2, long2)-15 ) div 30); 

#------------  Weather and Weather1 

drop TABLE weather;
CREATE or replace TABLE weather (
Station TINYINT not null,
Tmax varCHAR(3) null,
Tmin varCHAR(3) null,
Tavg varCHAR(3) null,
Depart varCHAR(3) null,
DewPoint varCHAR(3) null,
WetBulb varCHAR(3) null,
Heat varCHAR(3) null,
Cool varCHAR(3) null,
Sunrise varCHAR(4) null,
Sunset varCHAR(4) null,
CodeSum varCHAR(20) null,
Depth varCHAR(4) null,
Water1 varCHAR(4) null,
SnowFall varCHAR(4) null,
PrecipTotal varCHAR(6) NULL,
StnPressure varCHAR(6) NULL,
SeaLevel varCHAR(6) NULL,
ResultSpeed varCHAR(6) NULL,
ResultDir varCHAR(6) NULL,
AvgSpeed varCHAR(6) NULL, 
PRIMARY KEY (Station,Data)

LOAD DATA INFILE '/home/velez/kaggle/west_nile/input/weather.csv' 
INTO TABLE weather
select count(*) as weather_nr from weather;
drop table tempt;
create table tempt as select * from weather where station=1; # with data;
select count(*) as tempt_nr from tempt;

update weather w SET sunrise = (select sunrise from tempt as wx where = )
where w.station = 2;
where w.sunrise is null; 
update weather w SET sunset = (select sunset from tempt as wx where = ) where w.station = 2;


# weather1 (not averaged)
drop TABLE weather1;
CREATE TABLE weather1 (
	Tmax decimal(3,1),
	Tmin decimal(3,1),
	Tavg decimal(3,1),
	DayHours decimal(4,2),
	CodeSum VARCHAR(20) ,
	PrecipTotal decimal(6,2),
	ResultSpeed decimal(6,2),
	ResultDir tinyint,
	SectorDir tinyint,
	PRIMARY KEY (Station, Data)
insert into weather1 (station , data, tmax,tmin,tavg,DayHours,CodeSum,PrecipTotal,ResultSpeed ,ResultDir ,SectorDir ) 
  select station , data, 
     tmax , 
     tmin, tavg,
     0 as DayHours,
     CodeSum ,
     ResultSpeed ,
     Resultdir ,
     0 as SectorDir 
  from weather;

 update weather1 w1 SET DayHours= (select (
          round((round((sunset)/100)*60+substring(sunset,3,2))/60,2) -
	  round((round((sunrise)/100)*60+substring(sunrise,3,2))/60,2) ) 
          from weather w where w.station = w1.station and; 

 update weather1 w SET SectorDir=
	case when (floor((resultdir*10+15)/30))<12 then floor(((resultdir*10+15)/30)) else 0 end; 	

update weather1 set Tavg = null where Tavg='M';

update weather1 set codesum = 'TS' where codesum = 'VCTS';
update weather1 set codesum = 'RA' where codesum = 'TSRA';
update weather1 set codesum = 'FG' where codesum = 'BCFG';

update weather1 set codesum = 'TS' where codesum like 'TS%';
update weather1 set codesum = 'FG' where codesum like 'FG%';
update weather1 set codesum = 'RA' where codesum like 'RA%';
update weather1 set codesum = 'BR' where codesum like 'BR%';
update weather1 set codesum = 'DZ' where codesum like 'DZ%';
update weather1 set codesum = 'FG' where codesum like 'FG%';
update weather1 set codesum = 'HZ' where codesum like 'HZ%';
update weather1 set codesum = 'TS' where codesum like 'VCTS%';
update weather1 set codesum = 'FG' where codesum like 'BCFG BR';
update weather1 set codesum = 'FG' where codesum like 'FU';
update weather1 set codesum = substring(codesum,3,2) where codesum like 'MI%';

update weather1 set preciptotal = 0 where preciptotal like '%M%' OR preciptotal like '%T%';

select distinct resultdir/1, SectorDir from weather1 order by 1;

# weather2 (week averaged or accumulated)
drop TABLE weather2;
CREATE TABLE weather2 (
	Tmax decimal(5),
	Tmin decimal(5),
	Tavg decimal(5),
	DayHours decimal(5,1),
	CodeSum VARCHAR(20) ,
	PrecipTotal decimal(6,2),
	ResultDir0 tinyint,
	ResultSpeed0 decimal(6,2),
	ResultDir1 tinyint,
	ResultSpeed1 decimal(6,2),
	ResultDir2 tinyint,
        ResultSpeed2 decimal(6,2),
	ResultDir3 tinyint,
        ResultSpeed3 decimal(6,2),
	ResultDir4 tinyint,
        ResultSpeed4 decimal(6,2),
	ResultDir5 tinyint,
        ResultSpeed5 decimal(6,2),
	ResultDir6 tinyint,
        ResultSpeed6 decimal(6,2),
	SectorDir tinyint,
	PRIMARY KEY (Station, Data)
insert into weather2 (station , data, tmax,tmin,tavg,DayHours,CodeSum,PrecipTotal  ,SectorDir ) 
  select station , data, 
     tmax , 
     tmin, tavg,
     CodeSum ,
   from weather1 ;

 delete from weather2 
   where NOT in  ( select distinct data from  (select data from test as T1 union select data from train as T2) as T3);

# now weather2 has 1 record per week on test/train
# accum ;)

update weather2 as w2
set tmax  = ( select sum(tmax) from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station 
                     and  between - interval '7' day and )
    , tmin  = ( select sum(tmin) from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station 
                     and  between - interval '7' day and )
    , tavg  = ( select sum(tavg) from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station 
                     and  between - interval '7' day and )
    , DayHours  = ( select sum(DayHours) from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station 
                     and  between - interval '7' day and )
#    CodeSum , 
   , PrecipTotal  = ( select sum(PrecipTotal) from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  between - interval '7' day and ) 

update weather2 as w2 
set ResultDir0  = ( select w1.ResultDir from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '0' day )    
  , ResultSpeed0  = ( select  w1.ResultSpeed from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '0' day )
, ResultDir1  = ( select  w1.ResultDir from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '1' day )    
  , ResultSpeed1  = ( select  w1.ResultSpeed from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '1' day )
  , ResultDir2  = ( select  w1.ResultDir from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '2' day )    
  , ResultSpeed2  = ( select  w1.ResultSpeed from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '2' day )
  , ResultDir3  = ( select  w1.ResultDir from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '3' day )    
  , ResultSpeed3  = ( select  w1.ResultSpeed from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '3' day )
  , ResultDir4  = ( select  w1.ResultDir from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '4' day )    
  , ResultSpeed4  = ( select  w1.ResultSpeed from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '4' day )
  , ResultDir5  = ( select  w1.ResultDir from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '5' day )    
  , ResultSpeed5  = ( select  w1.ResultSpeed from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '5' day )
  , ResultDir6  = ( select  w1.ResultDir from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '6' day )    
  , ResultSpeed6  = ( select  w1.ResultSpeed from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station  and  = - interval '6' day )

# upate it to sector value 
update weather2 as w2
     set ResultDir0 = case when (floor((resultdir0*10+15)/30))<12 then     
                      floor(((resultdir0*10+15)/30)) else 0 end
     , ResultDir1 = case when (floor((resultdir1*10+15)/30))<12 then     
                      floor(((resultdir1*10+15)/30)) else 0 end
     , ResultDir2 = case when (floor((resultdir2*10+15)/30))<12 then     
                      floor(((resultdir2*10+15)/30)) else 0 end
     , ResultDir3 = case when (floor((resultdir3*10+15)/30))<12 then     
                      floor(((resultdir3*10+15)/30)) else 0 end
     , ResultDir4 = case when (floor((resultdir4*10+15)/30))<12 then     
                      floor(((resultdir4*10+15)/30)) else 0 end
     , ResultDir5 = case when (floor((resultdir5*10+15)/30))<12 then     
                      floor(((resultdir5*10+15)/30)) else 0 end
     , ResultDir6 = case when (floor((resultdir6*10+15)/30))<12 then     
                      floor(((resultdir6*10+15)/30)) else 0 end;

/*  later ?????  
update weather2 as w2
set CodeSum  = ( select CodeSum from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station 
                     and  between - interval '7' day and 
                     and CodeSum is not null
                     and ( ,   w2.station )  in ( select max(count(*) from weather1 as w1 where w2.station =  w1.station 
                     and  between - interval '7' day and )


update weather2 as w2
set SectorDir=
	case when (floor((resultdir*10+15)/30))<12 then floor(((resultdir*10+15)/30)) else 0 end; 	

# instead exported from within dbeaver 
INTO OUTFILE '/home/velez/kaggle/west_nile/working/weather2.csv'
FROM weather2;

INTO OUTFILE '/home/velez/kaggle/west_nile/working/train1.csv'
FROM train1;

drop table train1_weather2 ; 
create or replace table train1_weather2 
CONCAT( site, w1.Data) AS `Id`,
ROUND((( w1 . Tmax * st1 ) +( w2 . Tmax * st2 ) ), 0 ) AS tmax,
ROUND((( w1 . Tmin * st1 ) +( w2 . Tmin * st2 ) ), 0 ) AS tmin,
ROUND((( w1 . Tavg * st1 ) +( w2 . Tavg * st2 ) ), 0 ) AS tavg,
w1 . DayHours AS DayHours,
ROUND((( w1 . PrecipTotal * st1 ) +( w2 . PrecipTotal * st2 ) ), 2 ) AS PrecipTotal,
site AS site,
w1.Data AS data,
species AS species,
week AS week,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultDir0 else w2.ResultDir0 end as ResultDir0,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultDir1 else w2.ResultDir1 end as ResultDir1,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultDir2 else w2.ResultDir2 end as ResultDir2,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultDir3 else w2.ResultDir3 end as ResultDir3,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultDir4 else w2.ResultDir4 end as ResultDir4,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultDir5 else w2.ResultDir5 end as ResultDir5,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultDir6 else w2.ResultDir6 end as ResultDir6,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultSpeed0 else w2.ResultSpeed0 end as ResultSpeed0,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultSpeed1 else w2.ResultSpeed1 end as ResultSpeed1,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultSpeed2 else w2.ResultSpeed2 end as ResultSpeed2,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultSpeed3 else w2.ResultSpeed3 end as ResultSpeed3,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultSpeed4 else w2.ResultSpeed4 end as ResultSpeed4,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultSpeed5 else w2.ResultSpeed5 end as ResultSpeed5,
case when t.st1> t.st2 then w1.ResultSpeed6 else w2.ResultSpeed6 end as ResultSpeed6,
lat AS lat,
lon AS lon,
addressaccuracy AS addressaccuracy,
main_trap AS main_trap,
trap AS trap,
NumMosquitos AS NumMosquitos,
WnvPresent AS WnvPresent
weather2 w1 JOIN weather2 w2 
) JOIN train1 t
( = w1.Data and w1.station = 1

AND( = w2.Data  and w2.station = 2
ALTER TABLE `train1_weather2`
	ADD PRIMARY KEY (`Id`, species);

update train1_weather2 as w2
set ResultDir0 = case when (floor((resultdir0*10+15)/30))<12 then 
floor(((resultdir0*10+15)/30)) else 0 end
, ResultDir1 = case when (floor((resultdir1*10+15)/30))<12 then 
floor(((resultdir1*10+15)/30)) else 0 end
, ResultDir2 = case when (floor((resultdir2*10+15)/30))<12 then 
floor(((resultdir2*10+15)/30)) else 0 end
, ResultDir3 = case when (floor((resultdir3*10+15)/30))<12 then 
floor(((resultdir3*10+15)/30)) else 0 end
, ResultDir4 = case when (floor((resultdir4*10+15)/30))<12 then 
floor(((resultdir4*10+15)/30)) else 0 end
, ResultDir5 = case when (floor((resultdir5*10+15)/30))<12 then 
floor(((resultdir5*10+15)/30)) else 0 end
, ResultDir6 = case when (floor((resultdir6*10+15)/30))<12 then 
floor(((resultdir6*10+15)/30)) else 0 end;

## maintains a table of distances from other sites to a site
## and the sector (directon of 30 degrees, ( 0 is up north) )
## the 'distance' d2_1 is computed as the inverse of the square distance in kms
## using the wind strenght in each sector it will be used to compute the mosquito 'charge'
drop table dist_sites;
create table dist_sites as
	select as site_from
	,case when (floor((angle(lat1,lon1,lat2,lon2)+15)/30))<12 then 
	floor(((angle(lat1,lon1,lat2,lon2)+15)/30)) else 0 end as sector
	, as site_to
   ,round(1.0/(dist(lat1,lon1,lat2,lon2,2)*dist(lat1,lon1,lat2,lon2,2)),3) as d2_1

	(select distinct site, lat as lat1 , lon as lon1
	from ( select site, lat , lon from train1  
	  union select site, latitude as lat , longitude as lon from test ) as tr1 
	) ori,
	(select distinct site, lat as lat2 , lon as lon2
	from ( select site, lat , lon from train1 
	  union select site, latitude as lat , longitude as lon from test ) as tr2 
	) dest 
	where lat1 - lat2 <> 0 and lon1 - lon2 <> 0
	and dist(lat1,lon1,lat2,lon2,2) < 10 

ALTER TABLE `dist_sites`
	CHANGE COLUMN `sector` `sector` BIGINT(14) NOT NULL DEFAULT 99 AFTER `site_from`,
	ADD PRIMARY KEY (`site_from`,  `sector`,site_to);
> the varying magnetization that is present is almost entirely crustal in origin.


[[JSON editor online|]]
[[JSON online viewer|]] 
[[JSON editor online|]]  maybe the best to visualize, and edit

[[ JsDoc Toolkit|]] , an automatic documentation
generation tool for JavaScript

[[FireBug|]] Firefox in its best
[[dailyJs|]] explore frameworks

SQLike is a small (10 kB) query engine for JavaScript, syntax is similar to that of SQL and it can be used to query arrays of objects or arrays of arrays.

[[SQLike editor|]] 
[[local version of SQLike editor|file:///home/velez/SQLike%20Editor.html]]

[[JSON Query Languages: 5 special purpose editors|]]

[[Online JavaScript beautifier|]]  js prettify 

[[functional javascript|]] library]]

[[dailyjs|]] functional-programming


[[jsFiddlers|]] jsFiddle is the playground for web developers, an online editor for web snippets. Helps to isolate bugs. Many frameworks supported.

[[jsfiddlers extension in CHROME|]]
''Pag 57
Close PinnowMassGravitation56

<<image width:800>>
<<image width:800>>

''Pag 56
Close PinnowCompositeParticles42
Next PinnowMassGravitation57''
<<image width:800>>
<<image width:800>>
|''Description''|provides access to tiddler revisions|
|''Contributors''|Martin Budden|
Extend [[ToolbarCommands]] with {{{revisions}}}.
!Revision History
!!v0.1 (2009-07-23)
* initial release (renamed from experimental ServerCommandsPlugin)
!!v0.2 (2010-03-04)
* suppressed wikification in diff view
!!v0.3 (2010-04-07)
* restored wikification in diff view
* added link to side-by-side diff view
!To Do
* strip server.* fields from revision tiddlers
* resolve naming conflicts
* i18n, l10n
* code sanitizing
* documentation
(function($) {

jQuery.twStylesheet(".diff { white-space: pre, font-family: monospace }",
	{ id: "diff" });

var cmd = config.commands.revisions = {
	type: "popup",
	hideShadow: true,
	text: "revisions",
	tooltip: "display tiddler revisions",
	revTooltip: "", // TODO: populate dynamically?
	loadLabel: "loading...",
	loadTooltip: "loading revision list",
	selectLabel: "select",
	selectTooltip: "select revision for comparison",
	selectedLabel: "selected",
	compareLabel: "compare",
	linkLabel: "side-by-side view",
	revSuffix: " [rev. #%0]",
	diffSuffix: " [diff: #%0 #%1]",
	dateFormat: "YYYY-0MM-0DD 0hh:0mm",
	listError: "revisions could not be retrieved",

	handlePopup: function(popup, title) {
		title = this.stripSuffix("rev", title);
		title = this.stripSuffix("diff", title);
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
		var type = _getField("server.type", tiddler);
		var adaptor = new config.adaptors[type]();
		var limit = null; // TODO: customizable
		var context = {
			host: _getField("", tiddler),
			workspace: _getField("server.workspace", tiddler)
		var loading = createTiddlyButton(popup, cmd.loadLabel, cmd.loadTooltip);
		var params = { popup: popup, loading: loading, origin: title };
		adaptor.getTiddlerRevisionList(title, limit, context, params, this.displayRevisions);

	displayRevisions: function(context, userParams) {
		if(context.status) {
			var callback = function(ev) {
				var e = ev || window.event;
				var revision = resolveTarget(e).getAttribute("revision");
				context.adaptor.getTiddlerRevision(tiddler.title, revision, context,
					userParams, cmd.displayTiddlerRevision);
			var table = createTiddlyElement(userParams.popup, "table");
			for(var i = 0; i < context.revisions.length; i++) {
				var tiddler = context.revisions[i];
				var row = createTiddlyElement(table, "tr");
				var timestamp = tiddler.modified.formatString(cmd.dateFormat);
				var revision = tiddler.fields[""];
				var cell = createTiddlyElement(row, "td");
				createTiddlyButton(cell, timestamp, cmd.revTooltip, callback, null,
					null, null, { revision: revision });
				cell = createTiddlyElement(row, "td", null, null, tiddler.modifier);
				cell = createTiddlyElement(row, "td");
				createTiddlyButton(cell, cmd.selectLabel, cmd.selectTooltip,
					cmd.revisionSelected, null, null, null,
					{ index:i, revision: revision, col: 2 });
				cmd.context = context; // XXX: unsafe (singleton)!?
		} else {
			$("<li />").text(cmd.listError).appendTo(userParams.popup);

	revisionSelected: function(ev) {
		var e = ev || window.event;
		e.cancelBubble = true;
		if(e.stopPropagation) {
		var n = resolveTarget(e);
		var index = n.getAttribute("index");
		var col = n.getAttribute("col");
		while(!index || !col) {
			n = n.parentNode;
			index = n.getAttribute("index");
			col = n.getAttribute("col");
		cmd.revision = n.getAttribute("revision");
		var table = n.parentNode.parentNode.parentNode;
		var rows = table.childNodes;
		for(var i = 0; i < rows.length; i++) {
			var c = rows[i].childNodes[col].firstChild;
			if(i == index) {
				if(c.textContent) {
					c.textContent = cmd.selectedLabel;
				} else {
					c.text = cmd.selectedLabel;
			} else {
				if(c.textContent) {
					c.textContent = cmd.compareLabel;
				} else {
					c.text = cmd.compareLabel;
				c.onclick = cmd.compareSelected;

	compareSelected: function(ev) {
		var e = ev || window.event;
		var n = resolveTarget(e);
		var context = cmd.context;
		context.rev1 = n.getAttribute("revision");
		context.rev2 = cmd.revision;
		context.tiddler = context.revisions[n.getAttribute("index")];
		context.format = "unified";
		context.adaptor.getTiddlerDiff(context.tiddler.title, context,
			context.userParams, cmd.displayTiddlerDiffs);

	displayTiddlerDiffs: function(context, userParams) {
		var tiddler = context.tiddler;
		tiddler.title += cmd.diffSuffix.format([context.rev1, context.rev2]);
		tiddler.text = "{{diff{\n" + context.diff + "\n}}}";
		tiddler.tags = ["diff"];
		tiddler.fields.doNotSave = "true"; // XXX: correct?
		if(!store.getTiddler(tiddler.title)) {
		var src = story.getTiddler(userParams.origin);
		var tiddlerEl = story.displayTiddler(src, tiddler);
		var uri = context.uri.replace("format=unified", "format=horizontal");
		var link = $('<a target="_blank" />').attr("href", uri).text(cmd.linkLabel);
		$(".viewer", tiddlerEl).prepend(link);

	displayTiddlerRevision: function(context, userParams) {
		var tiddler = context.tiddler;
		tiddler.title += cmd.revSuffix.format([tiddler.fields[""]]);
		tiddler.fields.doNotSave = "true"; // XXX: correct?
		if(!store.getTiddler(tiddler.title)) {
		var src = story.getTiddler(userParams.origin);
		story.displayTiddler(src, tiddler);

	stripSuffix: function(type, title) {
		var str = cmd[type + "Suffix"];
		var i = str.indexOf("%0");
		i = title.indexOf(str.substr(0, i));
		if(i != -1) {
			title = title.substr(0, i);
		return title;

var _getField = function(name, tiddler) {
	return tiddler.fields[name] || config.defaultCustomFields[name];

[[redshift, type Ia SN, distance modulus|]]

[[redshift images|]] copied from [[here (ned)|]]

answer to this one! [[Is it possible that galaxies' redshift is caused by something else than the expansion of space?|]] 

[[Other explanation for cosmological redshift?|]]

[[Time Dilation in Type Ia Supernova|]] as recent as 2008

[[Marginal evidence for cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae|]]
Abstract: The "standard" model of cosmology is founded on the basis that the expansion rate of the universe is accelerating at present --- as was inferred originally from the Hubble diagram of Type Ia supernovae. There exists now a much bigger database of supernovae so we can perform rigorous statistical tests to check whether these "standardisable candles" indeed indicate cosmic acceleration. Taking account of the empirical procedure by which corrections are made to their absolute magnitudes to allow for the varying shape of the light curve and extinction by dust, we find, rather surprisingly, that the data are still quite consistent with a constant rate of expansion.

[[String Manipulation|]]

[[OC FAQ|]]

[[OC guide pdf|]]

[[OC witout root access|]]
[[CGI with OC witout root access|]]
[[WP Nonradiation_condition|]]
[[Beltrami Fields|]]
[[On the Radiating and Nonradiating Components of Scalar, Electromagnetic,.. |]] Edwin A. Marengo and Richard W. Ziolkowski
This automatically characterizes localized NR sources as noninteractors. In other words, localized NR sources do not absorb power from incident fields. The
physical explanation of this property is provided by the well-known reciprocity principle: If a source does not radiate,then it does not receive either, and vice versa. The
NR component of a localized source is thus both invisible to external observers and noninteracting to external fields.
The question then arises naturally as to whether localized NR sources possess any physical significance at all. The answer is positive: A localized NR source stores (nontrivial)
field energy. It thus plays a role in a system’s energy budget and dynamics.
|''Description''|renders base64-encoded binary tiddlers as images or links|
(function($) {

"use strict";

var ctfield = "server.content-type";

var plugin = config.extensions.BinaryTiddlersPlugin = {
	isWikiText: function(tiddler) {
		var ctype = tiddler.fields[ctfield];
		if(ctype) {
			if (ctype === 'text/x-tiddlywiki') {
				return true;
			return !this.isBinary(tiddler) && !this.isTextual(ctype);
		} else {
			return true;
	// NB: pseudo-binaries are considered non-binary here
	isBinary: function(tiddler) {
		var ctype = tiddler.fields[ctfield];
		return ctype ? !this.isTextual(ctype) : false;
	isTextual: function(ctype) {
		return ctype.indexOf("text/") === 0
			|| this.endsWith(ctype, "+xml")
			|| ctype === 'application/json'
			|| ctype === 'application/javascript';
	endsWith: function(str, suffix) {
		return str.length >= suffix.length &&
			str.substr(str.length - suffix.length) === suffix;
	isLink: function(tiddler) {
		return this.isBinary(tiddler) && tiddler.text.indexOf("<html>") !== -1;

// Disable edit for linked tiddlers (for now)
// This will be changed to a GET then PUT
config.commands.editTiddler.isEnabled = function(tiddler) {
    var existingTest = config.commands.editTiddler.isEnabled;
    if (existingTest) {
        return existingTest && !plugin.isLink(tiddler);
    } else {
        return !plugin.isLink(tiddler);

// hijack text viewer to add special handling for binary tiddlers
var _view = config.macros.view.views.wikified;
config.macros.view.views.wikified = function(value, place, params, wikifier,
		paramString, tiddler) {
	var ctype = tiddler.fields["server.content-type"];
	if(params[0] === "text" && ctype && ctype !== 'text/x-tiddlywiki' &&
			!tiddler.tags.contains("systemConfig") && !plugin.isLink(tiddler)) {
		var el;
		if(plugin.isBinary(tiddler)) {
			var uri = "data:%0;base64,%1".format([ctype, tiddler.text]); // TODO: fallback for legacy browsers
			if(ctype.indexOf("image/") === 0) {
				el = $("<img />").attr("alt", tiddler.title).attr("src", uri);
			} else {
				el = $("<a />").attr("href", uri).text(tiddler.title);
		} else {
			el = $("<pre />").text(tiddler.text);
	} else {
		_view.apply(this, arguments);

// hijack edit macro to disable editing of binary tiddlers' body
var _editHandler = config.macros.edit.handler;
config.macros.edit.handler = function(place, macroName, params, wikifier,
		paramString, tiddler) {
	if(params[0] === "text" && plugin.isBinary(tiddler)) {
		return false;
	} else {
		_editHandler.apply(this, arguments);

// hijack autoLinkWikiWords to ignore binary tiddlers
var _autoLink = Tiddler.prototype.autoLinkWikiWords;
Tiddler.prototype.autoLinkWikiWords = function() {
	return plugin.isWikiText(this) ? _autoLink.apply(this, arguments) : false;

Unless you're delighted with the default theme you can make some quick changes by generating a new random color palette, hit this button to cycle through some alternatives.

<<RandomColorPaletteButton saturation_pale:0.67 saturation_light:0.53
saturation_mid:0.43 saturation_dark:0.06 pale:0.99 light:0.85 mid:0.5 dark:0.31>>

You can also change the look and feel completely by installing a new theme. To do this, find one you like in the @themes space, note down the name, and include it in this space by going to the space menu. You can reach the space menu by clicking on the blue and pink circle at the top-right of the page and chooshing "THIS SPACE". Here are a few to check out:
* @pip
* @caspian-ii
* @basalt
* @simplicity
* @cheesecake
* @jelly-doughnut

(//Note that if you are using a custom TiddlySpace install, these themes may not be present.//)
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?>
<!-- Created with Inkscape ( -->

   viewBox="918 510 14 14"
           rdf:resource="" />
         offset="0" />
         offset="1" />
       gradientTransform="matrix(11.473944,0,0,11.473944,922.3752,513.7837)" />
         d="m 929.6952,512.9018 c -2.5384,-2.53843 -6.654,-2.53843 -9.1924,0 -2.5384,2.5384 -2.5384,6.654 0,9.19238 2.5384,2.53839 6.654,2.53839 9.1924,0 2.5384,-2.53838 2.5384,-6.65398 0,-9.19238 m -4.5962,2.8407 2.07733,-2.07734 1.75547,1.75549 -2.0773,2.07735 2.0773,2.07732 -1.75547,1.75548 -2.07733,-2.07732 -2.07733,2.07732 -1.75547,-1.75548 2.0773,-2.07732 -2.0773,-2.07735 1.75547,-1.75549 z"
         style="fill:url(#Obj_Gradient)" />
         d="m 927.61447,515.38354 a 4.51205,4.2590378 0 1 1 -9.0241,0 4.51205,4.2590378 0 1 1 9.0241,0 z"
         style="fill:#000000;fill-opacity:0;fill-rule:evenodd;stroke:none;stroke-width:5;marker:none;visibility:visible;display:inline;overflow:visible;enable-background:accumulate" />
ThinLinc free up to 10 clients 
[[Away3d| ]] flash
[[jsAway|]] exposes Away3D to js
[[ThreeJs|]] provides <canvas>, <svg> and WebGL renderers

[[Flightgear - Contrails|]]

[[FG 3.4  - Flightgear installed from ppa:saiarcot895/flightgear|]]

There are a lot of interesting people using ~TiddlySpace that you might like to keep track of and interact with. There are a number of ways of doing this.

If you see a number in the speech bubble in one of your tiddlers, it means that someone is writing about the same thing as you. You can find out what they're saying by clicking on it. Likewise, if you see something interesting in someone else's space, you can respond to it and write up your own thoughts on the subject by clicking "Reply to this tiddler".

Additionally, if you find anyone interesting, or you find an interesting looking space and you'd like to know when it's changed, you can "follow" that space. To do this, simply create a tiddler with the title: {{{@space-name}}} and tag it {{{follow}}}. If you want, you can store some notes about that space in the body of the tiddler.

If you then want to know what happening, simply [[include|How do I include/exclude spaces?]]@docs the @tivity space and then visit your activity stream at [[/activity|/activity]], or just visit the @tapas space directly.

!Not sure who to follow?
Here's a few suggestions:
* @fnd
* @cdent
* @pmario
* @bengillies
* @dickon
|''Description:''|Enable LaTeX formulas for TiddlyWiki|
|''Date:''|Feb 11, 2012|
|''Author:''|Guy Rutenberg|
|''License:''|[[BSD open source license]]|
!! Changelog
!!! 1.0.1 Feb 11, 2012
* Fixed interoperability with TiddlerBarPlugin
!! How to Use
Currently the plugin supports the following delemiters:
* """\(""".."""\)""" - Inline equations
* """$$""".."""$$""" - Displayed equations
* """\[""".."""\]""" - Displayed equations
!! Demo
This is an inline equation \(P(E)   = {n \choose k} p^k (1-p)^{ n-k}\) and this is a displayed equation:
\[J_\alpha(x) = \sum_{m=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^m}{m! \, \Gamma(m + \alpha + 1)}{\left({\frac{x}{2}}\right)}^{2 m + \alpha}\]
This is another displayed equation $$e=mc^2$$
!! Code
config.extensions.MathJax = {
  mathJaxScript : "",
  // uncomment the following line if you want to access MathJax using SSL
  // mathJaxScript : "",
  displayTiddler: function(TiddlerName) {
    config.extensions.MathJax.displayTiddler_old.apply(this, arguments);
    MathJax.Hub.Queue(["Typeset", MathJax.Hub]);
jQuery.getScript(config.extensions.MathJax.mathJaxScript, function(){
      extensions: ["tex2jax.js"],
      "HTML-CSS": { scale: 100 }
    config.extensions.MathJax.displayTiddler_old = story.displayTiddler;
    story.displayTiddler = config.extensions.MathJax.displayTiddler;
	name: "mathJaxFormula",
	match: "\\\\\\[|\\$\\$|\\\\\\(",
	//lookaheadRegExp: /(?:\\\[|\$\$)((?:.|\n)*?)(?:\\\]|$$)/mg,
	handler: function(w)
		switch(w.matchText) {
		case "\\[": // displayed equations
			this.lookaheadRegExp = /\\\[((?:.|\n)*?)(\\\])/mg;
		case "$$": // inline equations
			this.lookaheadRegExp = /\$\$((?:.|\n)*?)(\$\$)/mg;
		case "\\(": // inline equations
			this.lookaheadRegExp = /\\\(((?:.|\n)*?)(\\\))/mg;
		this.lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
		var lookaheadMatch = this.lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source);
		if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart) {
			w.nextMatch = this.lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex;
body {
	font-size: 1em;
	font-family: helvetica, arial, sans-serif;
	background-color: #fff;
	color: [[ColorPalette::Foreground]];

body ul { margin: 0; }

#popup {
	background-color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryPale]];

#popup.confirmationPopup, .followList {
	font-size: 0.8em;
	padding: 1em;
	border: solid 1px [[ColorPalette::SecondaryMid]];
	background-color: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]];

.followList .listTitle {
	text-decoration: underline;

#popup .followTiddlersList a {
	display: inline;
	padding: 0;

#popup li a {
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	font-weight: bold;

#popup li a:hover {
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];

#popup li.listTitle {
	border-bottom: 1px solid #000;
	font-weight: bold;
	margin-bottom: 10px;

#popup.followList {
	margin-left: 50px;
	margin-top: -30px;

.followTiddlersList .label {
	display: block;
	left: 10px;
	top: 0px;
	line-height: 16px;
	position: relative;

#popup .followTiddlersList .siteIcon{
	height: auto;

#popup .followTiddlersList li{
	clear: both;
	display: block;
	height: 48px;
	margin-bottom: 8px;
	position: relative;

#popup .followTiddlersList a{
	display: inline;

#displayArea {
	margin: 0;
	top: 0px;
	left: 0px;
	width: 100%;
	position: relative;

.revisionCloak {
	position: absolute;
	position: fixed !important;
	height: 100%;
	width: 100%;
	top: 0;
	left: 0;
	border: 0;
	margin: 0;
	padding: 0;
	opacity: 0.5;
	filter: alpha(opacity=50);
	background-color: #000;

/* *** Header *** */
.header {
	position: relative;
	background-color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	_width: 100%; /* ie 6 demands */

.headerForeground {
	background-color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	float: left;
	margin: 24px 16px 0px 72px;
	padding: 0;
	position: relative;
	top: 0;
	_width: 70%; /*ie6: needed for the background to actually be transparent*/
	_background-color: transparent; /*ie6: needed to show the search box*/

.clearFloat {
	clear: both;

#contentWrapper {
	position: relative;
	padding-top: 1px;
	top: -1px;

#tiddlerDisplay {
	_position: relative; /* ie 6*/

.siteTitle {
	clear: both;
	display: block;
	font-size: 32px;
	font-weight: bold;
	line-height: 32px;

.siteSubtitle {
	display: block;
	font-size: 14px;
	height: 16px;
	margin-bottom: 8px;

#sidebarSearch {
	padding: 0;
	position: absolute;
	right: 80px;
	top: 8px;
	width: 176px;

#sidebarSearch .txtOptionInput {
	width: 100%;
	margin-top: 5px;
	_color: #bbb; /* ie6 danger */

#sidebarSearch .txtOptionInput:focus {
	color: #000;

#sidebarSearch .searchButton {
	display: none;

/* *** Menu Bar *** */

#mainMenu {
	position: static;
	text-align: left;
	margin-left: 72px;
	float: left;
	width: auto;
	padding: 0;
	font-size: 1em;
	line-height: normal;

#mainMenu a {
	color: #fff;
	padding: 8px;
	font-size: 0.9em;
	margin-right: 16px;

#mainMenu a:hover {
	background-color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	color: [[ColorPalette::Background]]

#sidebarOptions {
	margin-right: 72px;
	float: right;
	font-size: 1.1em;
	line-height: 1.6em;
	min-height: 1em;
	padding-top: 0;

#sidebarOptions a {
	margin-right: 8px;

.confirmationPopup .button,
#sidebarOptions .button {
	cursor: pointer;
	line-height: 1.4em;
	text-align: center;
	margin-right: 8px;

.confirmationPopup .button {
	font-size: 0.9em;
	padding: 2px;

#sidebarOptions .button {
	font-size: 0.7em;
	float: left;
	width: 80px;
	padding: 0px;
        color: #fff;

.confirmationPopup a.button,
#sidebarOptions a {
	border: none;
	margin: 0 0.2em;
	padding: 0.6em 0.25em;
	display: inline;
	color: #666;

.confirmationPopup a.button:hover,
#sidebarOptions a:hover {
	color: #000;

.confirmationPopup a.button:active,
#sidebarOptions a:active {
	border: solid 1px [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	background-color: #fff;
	background: -webkit-gradient( linear, left bottom, left top, color-stop(0.1,rgb(200,200,200)), color-stop(1, rgb(100,100,100)));
	background: -moz-linear-gradient(center bottom , rgb(200,200,200) 10%,rgb(100,100,100) 100%) repeat scroll 0 0 transparent;
/* *** Sidebar *** */

#sidebar .wizard table {
	margin: 0px;

.tabContents .listTitle:first-child {
	margin-top: 0px;

#menuBar {
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];
	left: 0;
	right: 0;
	position: relative;
	margin: 0;
	padding: 0.5em 0 0.5em 0;
	min-height: 1em;
	overflow: hidden;
	_width: 100%; /* for ie 6 */

#sidebarOptions a.button:hover {
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];
    background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];

#tiddlerDisplay, #searchResults {
	margin: 16px 448px 0 72px;

#sidebarTabs {
	position: absolute;
	right: 72px;
	width: 352px;
	top: 0;

#sidebarTabs .tabsetWrapper .tabset {
	width: 87px;
	border-top: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];
	border-left: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];
	border-bottom: 1px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];
	height: auto;
	float: left;
	word-wrap: break-word;
	top: 0;
	padding: 0;

#sidebarTabs .tabsetWrapper .tabContents {
	background-color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];
	border: 3px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	width: 242px;
	_width: 238px;
	left: -3px;
	_left: -5px;
	position: relative;
	min-height: 34em;
	padding: 8px;
	font-size: 0.8em;

/* ---- Side style --- */

#sidebarTabs .tabsetWrapper .tabset .tab {
	font-size: 0.9em;
	padding: 0.7em 8px 0.5em;
	color: #fff;
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]];
	border: none;
	line-height: 16px;
	position: relative;
	display: block;
	margin: 0;

#sidebarTabs .tabsetWrapper .tabset .tabSelected {
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];
	border-top: 3px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	border-bottom: 3px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	border-left: 3px solid [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	z-index: 10;
	margin-top: -1px;
	font-weight: bold;

#sidebarTabs .tabContents li {
	border: none;
	margin-left: 0;
	word-wrap: break-word;

.tabContents .timeline {
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];
	margin-bottom: 8px;

#sidebarTabs .timeline li.listTitle {
	color: #132E43;
	margin-left: 8px 0;
	padding: 0.3em 0.11em;
	font-size: 1em;
	border-bottom: none;

#sidebarTabs .tabContents li a {
	display: block;
	text-align: left;
	margin: 0 0 1px 0;
	padding: 0.3em 1em;
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];

#sidebarTabs .tabsetWrapper .tabset a:hover,
#sidebarTabs .tabContents li a:hover {
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryPale]];
	background: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];

/* Activity Stream */
#sidebarTabs .tabContents .activityStream .feedItem a {
	display: inline-block;
	padding: 0;
	background: none;

/* ---- Tagging box --- */
.tagInfo {
	border: 1px solid #cccccc;
	padding: 10px 15px;
	-moz-box-shadow: 0 2px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2);
	box-shadow: 0 2px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.2);
	color: [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];
	background: -moz-linear-gradient(100% 100% 90deg, #f4f4f4, #e5e5e5);
	background: -webkit-gradient(linear, left top, right top, from(#e5e5e5), to(#f4f4f4));
	margin-top: 1em;
	font-size: 13px;
	margin: 0 0 0 56px;

.tagInfo ul {
	list-style: none;
	padding-left: 2.2em;

.tagInfo ul li {
	display: inline;

.tagInfo ul li.listTitle,
.tagInfo .tagging ul li.listTitle {
	color: [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]];
	font-size: 13px;

.tagInfo ul li a {
	border: none;

.tagInfo .tagging ul li {
	float: none;
	display: inline-block;

.tagInfo .tagging {
	padding: 0;

.viewRevision .toolbar {
	right: 48px;
	top: 8px;

.viewRevision .modifierIcon img,
.viewRevision .modifierIcon svg {
	margin-right: 8px;

.viewRevision .toolbar svg {
	width: 32px;
	height: 32px;

/* --- IE hacks from lattice --- */

/* ie hacks */
* html #menuBar {
	margin-bottom: 8px;
.toolbar .svgIconText {
	*display: inline;

div.tiddler .toolbar a {
	cursor: pointer;
	float: left\9;
	display: inline\9;

* html .toolbar {
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[[ANU-ASTRO1x|]] Liquid Water in a Planet and the Habitable Zone : 100ºC problem
Q by HV
In the Lesson 'Habitable Zone', it is assumed that the range of the surface temperature should be **0ºC < T < 100ºC** .  
The 100ºC (373K) was chosen because of the boiling temperature of the water.  

But if the temperature rises then the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere will be larger and **the pressure and the boiling temperature will rise too**.  
I do not understand why this argument is not considered.  

The most primitive form of life [Archea][1] is doing very well with high temps. 

> hyperthermophilic archaea grow optimally at temperatures greater than
> 80 °C (176 °F).[139] The archaeal Methanopyrus kandleri Strain 116 can
> even **reproduce at 122 °C** (252 °F), the highest recorded temperature of
> any organism

How can the '**Snow Ball Earth**' model, be consistent with the data ?  
The model obtains a frozen Earth until 600 My ago. Comparing the life strength at the Artic/Antartic versus the equator it seems impossible the admission of a frozen scenario.  

The actual finding of the Mars past liquid water, that requires a hot past, seems impossible by present model.

The original question:  Why the upper temperature limit was fixed in 100ºC ?   


A keep it simple

HV Comment
Unfortunatly it is not true that:  

> Paul was trying to keep it relatively simple.

The Paul's error is shared in several studies, imo. It would be nice to have the teacher's opinion.

An example: In this extraordinary work by [Gaucher (2008) - (news here) Palaeotemperature trend for Precambrian life inferred from resurrected proteins ][1] 
the scale ends at 100ºC:  ![it ends at 100ºC][2] 

If a higher surface temperature was derived correctly  (as I think it was and the geologists are saying the same), the basic physic laws are:   

higher temp -> more water in the atmoshpere -> more pressure -> higher boiling water point.

The model of the Frozen Earth  conflicts with biological and geological data. [Here I give news][3] of a *paper to be* able to explain the background environment present in the Life's origin. 
 The Evolutionary Climate Model (ECM), a *hot* hot model.   

a snippet:
> There is a critical moment in Earth past, the one when the Earth cooled enough so that oceans began forming. Before that, if the amount of water was the same $1.386\cdot 10^9 km^3$  now existent (Shiklomanov, 1993), the pressure at the surface of the steam atmosphere was 26.6 MPa (263 atm) plus the pressure of other gases besides water vapor, therefore over water critical pressure of 22 MPa - water was in supercritical state near the surface. ...
when the surface temperature dropped under the water critical temperature of 374 ºC, due to the high atmospheric pressure (not at 100 ºC, as sometimes stated). 


12 days ago
OK - here is my take on this. The whole "Habitable zone" concept is a pretty loose one. It relies on lots of unproven assumptions:
1) That the atmosphere of a planet doesn't greatly affect its temperature (certainly untrue in our solar system - a naive calculation has Venus in the habitable zone and Earth not).
2) That life requires liquid water to get started (how do we know this?)
3) The dependence of boiling point on water pressure is ignored (i.e. we are assuming that exoplanet pressures are not that different from Earth's pressure).
Because of all these flaws, I don't take the habitable zone calculations too seriously. They are probably a rough guide to where the planets most similar to our own would most likely be found, but that's about it.
Clearly what we need to do is find lots of planets, measure their properties and the presence of life on them and compare it to their orbits. Until we do that, I think wild speculation is inevitable...

The Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall is more than eight times larger than the scale,[4] and so greatly exceeds the homogeneity scale. In accordance with this, the structure would still be heterogeneous as compared to the other parts of the universe even at the scale of the "End of Greatness", thereby putting the cosmological principle into further doubt.

huge structures > much larger than expacted
In November 2013, a new structure 10 billion light years wide has been discovered, the Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall, putting further doubt on the validity of the cosmological principle.[14]

SMBH mass versus bulge star velocity dispersion

[[bulgeless disk galaxies problem|]]

search PAVEL dark matter crisis

''[[SciPy astronomy data processing tutorial|]] Using Python for Interactive Data Analysis''
[[SciPy Tutorial|]] 2004

[[Lectures on Computational Economics |]] (in python)

[[The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing|]] BOOK FFT

[[Linear systems and optimization - the Fourier Transform and its applications |]] 30 online lessons on FFT and data analisys

[[A Practical Guide to Wavelet Analysis|]]
''[[Electronic Statistics Textbook |]] StatSoft''
''[[Signal Processing Course |]]''
''[[WikiBook DSP|]]''

''[[DSP links |]]''

[[Online course "Environmental Statistics for Climate Researchers|]] muito completo
''[[Astronomical Python (AstroPy)|]]'' and links to other libs
''[[SciPy Cookbook|]] index''
''[[NumPy and SciPy documentation|]] index''
''[[MATLAB mathworks : Signal Processing Toolbox |]]''  to read 
[[Scientific Python|]] [[start here|]]
[[SciLab signal processing tutorial|]]
[[StatPy: Statistical Computing with Python|]] and links to sci libs
[[HippoDraw Users Guide|]] a highly interactive data analysis environment

[[Python for Scientific Computing pdf|]] plotting map contours 
[[scipy_course |]]
[[Fourier Transforms IN SHORT |]]

[[Signal Smooth|]]

[[Python based scientific analysis cookbook|]]
[[PyLab cohere_demo |]]
[[WP Coherence (signal processing)|]]
[[WP Spectral density |]] (Power spectrum)
[[WP Cross-correlation|]]
''[[pyplot|]] '' ~MATLAB-like plotting framework - pylab = pyplot + numpy ,
''[[xcorr|]]'', acorr , ...

[[The Fundamentals of FFT-Based Signal Analysis in LabVIEW |]] tem pdf

Matplotlib, pylab, and pyplot: how are they related? :
[[Matplotlib pdf 840 pages manual |]]  instead of scylab -> use pyplot + numpy
[[The Matplotlib User’s Guide|]] pdf w/ 77 pags

[[FFT ref|]] fft ref music 

[[sage timeseries|]] data analysis
[[sage fft |]] data analysis

[[all about DSP|]]  (Question: Correlation using FFT)
[[MathWorld Cross-Correlation |]]
[[Fast Convolution (FFT) Filtering: From Basics to Filter Banks|]] 
[[2 defs of Cross Correlation |]] (matlab) 
[[Cross Correlation with FFT |]] with example in Matlab

[[MATH course om DSP|]] 
[[Time-Frequency Toolbox|]] for use with MATLAB was [[ported to SCILAB |]]

[[COSMOS - The SAO Encyclopedia of Astronomy|]]

[[wp Lyman series |]]
[[Ned Wright's Cosmology Tutorial|]]
[[Lyman Alpha Forest|]]
[[Redshift Evolution of the Lyman alpha Forest|]] pdf

[[pettini|]] lectures on Physical Cosmology/
, STARS, and The First Stars: clues from quasar absorption systems

[[Astronomy Today online book Chaisson McMillan|]]
[[Ruby CRUD framework|]]
 using: Rails 3.0.1, netzke-core 0.6.2, netzke-basepack 0.6.1, Ruby 1.9.2, Ext 3.3.0.

sudo apt-get install sqlite3 
sudo apt-get install libsqlite3-dev 

sudo rails new netzke_task_manager && cd netzke_task_manager

sudo gem 'netzke-core', :git => "git://"
sudo gem 'netzke-basepack', :git => "git://"

sudo gem install 'netzke-core'     (ficou assim version 0.7.5) 
sudo gem install 'netzke-basepack'  (version 0.7.4)

[[wiki |]]
Ruby >= 1.9.2 (1.8.7 may work, too)
Rails ~> 3.1.0
Ext JS = 4.0.2a

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[[On the Gravitational Field Produced by Light|]]
Two beams of light moving parallel to each other experience no gravitational interaction, while antiparallel beams do. See Tolman, R.C., Ehrenfest, P., and Podolsky, B. Phys. Rev. (1931) 37, 602

[[Tests of Physical Theories|]]  
[[Gerber gravity]]
[[Earth may be headed into a mini Ice Age within a decade |]] from National Solar Observatory (NSO) and , June 2011
!CMB theory 
[[Review Article Large-Angle Anomalies in the CMB|]]

[[Big Bang Acoustics: Sounds From The Newborn Universe|]]
[[Why CMB physics?|]] 168 pages
[[What’s Behind Acoustic Peaks in the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies|]]
'A Tour of CMB Physics in the next link'' 
[[Seing Sound|]] waynehu 
 Professor,University of Chicago
[[The Physics of Microwave Background Anisotropies|astro-ph/9504057]] 1995 waynehu 

''[[Task Force On Cosmic Microwave Background Research|]]''
''[[Baryon Acoustic Oscillations|]]''  Martin White
''[[Baryon Acoustic Oscillations|]]'' Martin White A standard ruler method for determining the expansion rate of the Universe
''[[Baryon Acoustic Oscillations|]]'' arxiv 2009

[[WP axis of evil|]] confirmed by Planck 

[[CMB Planck in video|]] 

[[CMB multipoles and axis of evil|]]

''[[Direct Observation Limits on Antimatter Gravitation|]]'' Mark Fischler et al 2008

''[[Report of the Dark Energy Task Force|]]'' A. Albrecht et al. 2006

''[[The Eöt-Wash Group: Laboratory Tests of Gravitational and sub-Gravitational Physics|]]'' Fifth force 

''[[Neutron Lifetime|]]'' assorted data
''[[NO DM found|]] Fermi Space Telescope Fails to See Evidence Of Dark Matter
''[[On the recently determined anomalous perihelion precession of Saturn|]]''
''[[Amplified Doppler shift observed in diffraction images as function of the COBE “ether drift” direction|]]''
''[[On the large-angle anomalies of the microwave sky|]]'' Ecliptic alignment of cosmic microwave background anisotropy by Craig Copi et al.
> we have shown that the quadrupole and octopole of the microwave background sky are correlated with each other at a level that is excluded from being chance in excess of 99%. This comes about from a preponderance of peculiar correlations and is statistically independent of their observed lack of power. This observation is in bold contradiction to the predictions of pre-existing cosmological model, and argues against an inflationary origin for these fluctuations. In addition, there is strong evidence (again of greater than 99% confidence) that ''the microwave background at these multipoles is correlated with the geometry and direction of motion of the solar system''. The observed signal is most unlikely to be due to residual contamination of the full-sky microwave background maps by known Galactic foregrounds.

''[[Does the motion of the solar system affect the microwave sky?|]]'' CERN Courier (see figure)
> Angélica de ~Oliveira-Costa and colleagues studied the cosmic quadrupole and octopole and realized that both are very planar and aligned, i.e. all minima and maxima  happen to fall on a great circle on the sky - another unexpected feature (de Oliveira- Costa et al. 2004)

> To their  surprise (Craig Copi, Dragan Huterer and Glenn Starkman), the new method revealed at high statistical significance (99.9% CL) that the observed quadrupole and octopole are inconsistent with a Gaussian random, statistically isotropic sky (the generic prediction of inflation). They also looked for correlations with any known directions on the sky. No significant correlation with the Milky Way was found, but a strong correlation with the orientation of the solar system (ecliptic plane) and with its motion (measured as the CMB dipole) showed up.
''[[Large-angle anomalies in the CMB|]]'' Coli et al 2010
> These apparent correlations with the solar system geometry are puzzling and currently unexplained.

''[[Multipole Vectors Information|]]''  Coli work
> Contained here are ''publications, images, and code'' associated with our work on these multipole vectors

''[[WMAP Seven Year Data Scientific Papers|]]'' WMAP official
and include Are There Cosmic Microwave Background Anomalies?, Cosmological Interpretation, 

''[[Parity in the CMB: Space Oddity|]]''

''[[The microwave background temperature at the redshift of 2.33771|]]'' CMB warmer in the past

[[Checking What’s Inside a Proton|]] Of Particular Significance -
Conversations About Science with Theoretical Physicist Matt Strassler 

!Matter/Antimatter asymetry
[[Proton-antiproton and neutron-antineutron |]]
[[D0 Collaboration|]] Matter-Antimatter
[[|Open Questions: Matter/Antimatter Asymmetry]]

[[Matter-antimatter asymetry and chiral behaviour in perturbed atom H|]]

''[[Voigt - ‘ON DOPPLER’S PRINCIPLE’|]]'' First Proposal of the Universal Speed of Light 
''[[Lorentz - Electromagnetic phenomena in a system moving with any velocity smaller than that of light|]]'' 
''[[Poincaré On the Dynamics of the Electron (June) |]]'' 1905/Jun/05

''[[Lorentz ether theory |]]'' WP (see [[local time) |]]
''[[History of Lorentz transformations|]]'' WP
''[[The Genesis of the Theory of Relativity|]]'' Séminaire Poincaré
''[[Logunov, A.A. (2004), Henri Poincaré and relativity theory|]]''

[[Real Length contraction as Einstein said (by Pauli, 1921) |]] Einstein said, the kinematic length contraction is "apparent" for an co-moving observer, but for an observer at rest it is "real" and the consequences are measurable.

!Magnetism is not a fundamental force
''[[The simplest, and the full derivation of Magnetism as a Relativistic side efect of ElectroStatics|]]'' Hans de Vries, 2008
''[[...fossil corals: Secular variation in ancient Earth-Sun distances |]]''  Experimental results indicate a special expansion with an average expansion coefficient of 0.57H0 
''[[Secular increase of astronomical unit |]]''
Secular increase of astronomical unit from analysis of the major planet motions, and its interpretation 
positive secular trend in the Astronomical Unit AU is estimated as d(AU)/dt=15m/cy
at present there is no satisfactory explanation of the detected secular increase of AU

''[[Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies|]]''
... four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. 
* flyby --
* Pioneer  - 
* Sun-Earth  - a secular change in the astronomical unit AU of 15 cm yr$^{-1}$
* Moon-Earth 
''[[Resolving Spacecraft Earth-Flyby Anomalies with Measured Light Speed Anisotropy |]]'' Cahill, Progress in physics 3, 9, (2008)
''[[Special relativity may account for the spacecraft flyby anomalies|]]''  Mbelek, March 2009

[[Experimental Comparison of the Gravitational Force on Freely Falling Electrons and Metallic Electrons by F. C. Witteborn and W. M. Fairbank , 1967| ]]
A free-fall technique has been used to measure the net vertical component of force on electrons in a vacuum enclosed by a copper tube. This force was shown to be less than 0.09mg, where m is the inertial mass of the electron and g is 980 cm/sec2. This supports the contention that gravity induces an electric field outside a metal surface, of magnitude and direction ''such that the gravitational force on electrons is cancelled''.
''[[Realization of a gravity-resonance-spectroscopy technique|]]'' Nature 2011
Spectroscopy is a method typically used to assess an unknown quantity of energy by means of a frequency measurement. In many problems, resonance techniques enable high-precision measurements, but the observables have generally been restricted to electromagnetic interactions. Here we report the application of resonance spectroscopy to gravity. In contrast to previous resonance methods, the quantum mechanical transition is driven by an oscillating field that does not directly couple an electromagnetic charge or moment to an electromagnetic field. Instead, we observe transitions between gravitational quantum states when the wave packet of an ultra-cold neutron couples to the modulation of a hard surface as the driving force. ''The experiments have the potential to test the equivalence principle and Newton’s gravity law at the micrometre scale''.


 ''[[ | ]]''  ''[[ | ]]'' ''[[ | ]]'' ''[[ | ]]''  ''[[ | ]]''


!Light interactions with light
[[Coherent Perfect Absorbers: Time-Reversed Lasers|]] anti-laser possible
[[Physicists Build World’s First Antilaser|]] anti-laser news
[[Time-Reversed Lasing and Interferometric Control of Absorption|]] ''anti-laser paper''
[[Billions of Anti-Matter Particles Created in Laboratory|]] laser + golden target
[[A small tutorial in gamma-gamma Physics|]] 
[[The universe and photons|]]  the photon can be the most fundamental
element of the universe
[[Laser technique produces bevy of antimatter|]]
[[Electron-Positron pair production by Photons in strong nonuniform Fields|]]
[[Proton-Antiproton Pair Production in Two-Photon Collisions at LEP|]] L3 Colaboration 2003
[[Pair production img|]] Photon+nucleus »e+e-
[[download Solving the Proton Spin Crisis - PHENIX, 2004 ppt|]]
[[Spin Crisis arxiv 2011/02|]]

''[[|]]'' WP Tajmar
''[[Experimental Detection of the Gravitomagnetic London Moment|]]'' Tajmar 
''[[Gyroscope's unexplained acceleration may be due to modified inertia|]]'' Tajmar effect
''[[Towards a new test of general relativity?|]]'' Tajmar effect 2006 
> It demonstrates that a superconductive ''gyroscope'' is capable of generating a powerful gravitomagnetic field, and is therefore the gravitational counterpart of the magnetic coil. Depending on further confirmation, this effect could form the basis for a new technological domain, which would have numerous applications in space and other high-tech sectors" says de Matos. Although just 100 millionths of the acceleration due to the Earth's gravitational field, the measured field is a surprising one hundred million trillion times larger than Einstein's General Relativity predicts.
![[Polarizable Vacuum]]

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Open Source [[talend|]], powerful 
The combined power of Talend's data and application integration solutions equips IT to deliver all data where, when, and how the business needs it. The Talend platform connects and integrates any type of data source, and delivers data in any form, style, velocity or location. Rich data quality, data governance, data services, security and monitoring capabilities enable organizations to better manage data resources, processes and integrity.
[[1880-2014 Chicago annual snowfall|]]
[[chicago climatestations|]] 
[[Chicago snowfall by season |]]
[[Chicago NOAA history|]]

<div class='toolbar'
	macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::ViewToolbar]] icons:yes height:16 width:16 more:popup'>
<div class='heading'>
	<span class='spaceSiteIcon'
		macro='tiddlerOrigin label:no spaceLink:yes height:48 width:48 preserveAspectRatio:yes'>
	<span class="titleBar">
		<div class='title' macro='view title text'></div>
		<span class="subtitle" macro='viewRevisions page:5'>
			last modified on
			<span macro="view modified date"></span>
		<div macro="view title replyLink"></div>
	<span class='followPlaceHolder' macro='followTiddlers'></span>
	<span class='modifierIcon'
		macro='view modifier SiteIcon label:no spaceLink:yes height:48 width:48 preserveAspectRatio:yes'>
	<div class='tagClear'></div>
<div class='content'>
	<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagInfo'>
	<div class='tidTags' macro='tags'></div>
	<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
[[My ATM Beliefs]]
[[Alfredo's blogs]]
[[Alfredo's papers]]
[[Douglas Pinnow|Our Resonant Universe by Douglas Pinnow]]
[[On the anomalous secular increase of the eccentricity ofthe orbit of the Moon|]] L. Iorio 2011
\[\alpha(t_s)=e^{-H_0 \cdot t_s}\]
\[\dot\alpha(t_s)=-H_0\cdot e^{-H_0 \cdot t_s}=-H_0\cdot \alpha(t_s)\]

\[\dot{e}_{meas}=(9\pm3)\cdot 10^{-12}yr^{-1}\]
\[H_0=2.2262\cdot 10^{-18}/s\]
\[H_0=7.025352912\cdot 10^{-11}yr^{-1}\]
[[Orbital_eccentricity| eccentricity]]

\[e=\sqrt{1+\frac{2\epsilon h^2}{\mu^2}}\]
where $$\epsilon=-\mu/2a$$ is the specific orbital energy 
ad $$\mu=G\cdot(m_1+m_2)$$
\( h = \mathrm{r}\times\mathrm{v}=\frac{\mathrm{L}}{\mu} \) is the specific relative angular momentum 
The units of \(\mathbf{h}\) are \(m^2s^{−1}\) then 
\[\dot h=\alpha(t_s)\]

\[d/dt(sqrt(1+x(t))) = (x'(t))/(2 sqrt(x(t)+1))\]
Team Work
[[eXo - The Enterprise Social Platform| ]] opensource Social collaboration solution
Radio-wave excess could point to dark matter

ARCADE - Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission




see eq 1 - A dark matter interpretation for the ARCADE excess?



[[google book The Galactic and Extragalactic Background Radiation: Proceedings of the |]]


[[Self-similarity of temperature profiles in distant galaxy clusters: the quest for a universal law|]]
port 3036
[[dblink from oracle to mariaDb|]] 
and [[oracle gateway|]]

mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown

[[connect engine |]]

[[csv2sql|]] csv2ddl online and [[here|]]

[[mysql from python|]]

dBeaver is instaled on Vaio

FROM information_schema.KEY_COLUMN_USAGE 
where TABLE_SCHEMA='voc'
select * from INFORMATION_SCHEMA.table_CONSTRAINTS  where constraint_schema='voc';
select * from INFORMATION_SCHEMA.REFERENTIAL_CONSTRAINTS  where constraint_schema='voc'; 

[[metadata from sqlServer and others|]] search inside : Detailed CONSTRAINT info

[[mySql metadata|]]

[[MySQL/Startup Guide|]]

no VAIO tem instalado o mariaDB root pwd xy**** 

-- mariaDb, mysql --
SELECT @A:=SUM(salary) FROM table1 WHERE type=1;
UPDATE table2 SET summary=@A WHERE type=1;
[[ALH84001 martian meteorite|]] 2kg 
(by 2005) crystallized from molten rock 4.091 billion years ago when liquid water existed on the now barren planet's surface. .. temperature of 18 °C with water and carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere.
(by 1999 ) ALH84001 was blasted off from the surface of Mars by a meteorite impact 4.5 billion years ago

by that time at Earth:


LL stands for Low (total) iron, Low metal.
That means that most of the iron is present as iron oxide (FeO) in the silicates;
 Some show textural evidence for extremely rapid cooling from a molten or...
Chondrules are believed to have formed by a rapid (flash) heating (within minutes or less) and melting of solid dust aggregates of approximately Solar composition under temperatures of about 1000 K. These temperatures are lower than those under which CAIs are thought to have formed.[1] However, the environmental setting, the energy source for the heating, and the precursor material are not known. The solar nebula or a protoplanetary environment are possible places of formation.
|''Description''|toolbar commands for drafting and publishing|
|''Author''|Jon Robson|
|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig TiddlySpaceFilters|
Provides changeToPrivate, changeToPublic and saveDraft commands
Provides TiddlySpacePublisher macro.
{{{<<TiddlySpacePublisher type:private>>}}} make lots of private tiddlers public.
{{{<<TiddlySpacePublisher type:public>>}}} make lots of public tiddlers public.
* add public argument?
(function($) {

var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;
var originMacro = config.macros.tiddlerOrigin;

tiddlyspace.getTiddlerStatusType = function(tiddler) {
	var isShadow = store.isShadowTiddler(tiddler.title);
	var exists = store.tiddlerExists(tiddler.title);
	if(isShadow && !exists) {
		return "shadow";
	} else if(!exists) {
		return "missing";
	} else {
		var types = ["private", "public"];
		var type = "external";
		for(var i = 0; i < types.length; i++) {
			var t = types[i];
			type =[t](tiddler) ? t : type;
		if( {
			type = type == "private" ? "unsyncedPrivate" : "unsyncedPublic";
		return type;

var cmd = config.commands.publishTiddler = {
	text: "make public",
	tooltip: "Change this private tiddler into a public tiddler",
	errorMsg: "Error publishing %0: %1",

	isEnabled: function(tiddler) {
		return !readOnly &&["private"](tiddler);
	handler: function(ev, src, title) {
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
		if(tiddler) {
			var newBag = cmd.toggleBag(tiddler.fields["server.bag"]);
			this.moveTiddler(tiddler, {
				title: tiddler.fields[""] || tiddler.title,
				fields: { "server.bag": newBag }
	toggleBag: function(bag, to) {
		var newBag;
		if(typeof bag != typeof "") {
			var tiddler = bag;
			bag = tiddler.fields["server.bag"];
		if(bag.indexOf("_private") > -1) { // should make use of endsWith
			to = to ? to : "public";
			newBag = bag.replace("_private", "_" + to);
		} else {
			to = to ? to : "private";
			newBag = bag.replace("_public", "_" + to);
		return newBag;
	copyTiddler: function(title, newTitle, newBag, callback) {
		var original = store.getTiddler(title);
		newTitle = newTitle ? newTitle : title;
		var adaptor = original.getAdaptor();
		var publish = function(original, callback) {
			var tiddler = $.extend(new Tiddler(newTitle), original);
			tiddler.fields = $.extend({}, original.fields, {
				"server.bag": newBag,
				"server.workspace": "bags/%0".format(newBag),
				"": "false"
			delete tiddler.fields["server.title"];
			tiddler.title = newTitle;
			adaptor.putTiddler(tiddler, null, null, callback);
		publish(original, callback);
	moveTiddler: function(tiddler, newTiddler, callback) {
			var info = {
			copyContext: {},
			deleteContext: {}
		var _dirty = store.isDirty();
		var adaptor = tiddler.getAdaptor();
		var newTitle = newTiddler.title;
		var oldTitle = tiddler.title;
		delete tiddler.fields["server.workspace"];
		var oldBag = tiddler.fields["server.bag"];
		var newBag = newTiddler.fields["server.bag"];
		var newWorkspace = "bags/%0".format(newBag);
		cmd.copyTiddler(oldTitle, newTitle, newBag, function(ctx) {
				info.copyContext = ctx;
				var context = {
					tiddler: tiddler,
					workspace: newWorkspace
				tiddler.title = oldTitle; // for cases where a rename occurs
				if(ctx.status) { // only do if a success
					if(oldBag != newBag) {
						adaptor.deleteTiddler(tiddler, context, {}, function(ctx) {
							info.deleteContext = ctx;
							var el;
							if(tiddler) {
								tiddler.fields["server.workspace"] = newWorkspace;
								tiddler.fields["server.bag"] = newBag;
							el = el ? el : story.refreshTiddler(oldTitle, null, true);
							if(oldTitle != newTitle) {
								store.notify(oldTitle, true);
							if(el) {
								story.displayTiddler(el, newTitle);
							if(oldTitle != newTitle) {
							if(callback) {
					} else {
						if(callback) {

var changeToPrivate = config.commands.changeToPrivate = {
	text: "make private",
	tooltip: "turn this public tiddler into a private tiddler",
	isEnabled: function(tiddler) {
		return !readOnly &&["public"](tiddler);
	handler: function(event, src, title) {
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
		var newBag = cmd.toggleBag(tiddler, "private");
		var newTiddler = { title: title, fields: { "server.bag": newBag }};
		cmd.moveTiddler(tiddler, newTiddler);
config.commands.changeToPublic = cmd;

/* Save as draft command */
var saveDraftCmd = config.commands.saveDraft = {
	text: "save draft",
	tooltip: "Save as a private draft",
	isEnabled: function(tiddler) {
		return changeToPrivate.isEnabled(tiddler);
	getDraftTitle: function(title) {
		var draftTitle;
		var draftNum = "";
		while(!draftTitle) {
			var suggestedTitle = "%0 [draft%1]".format(title, draftNum);
			if(store.getTiddler(suggestedTitle)) {
				draftNum = !draftNum ? 2 : draftNum + 1;
			} else {
				draftTitle = suggestedTitle;
		return draftTitle;
	createDraftTiddler: function(title, gatheredFields) {
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
		var draftTitle = saveDraftCmd.getDraftTitle(title);
		var draftTiddler = new Tiddler(draftTitle);
		if(tiddler) {
			$.extend(true, draftTiddler, tiddler);
		} else {
			$.extend(draftTiddler.fields, config.defaultCustomFields);
		for(var fieldName in gatheredFields) {
			if(TiddlyWiki.isStandardField(fieldName)) {
				draftTiddler[fieldName] = gatheredFields[fieldName];
			} else {
				draftTiddler.fields[fieldName] = gatheredFields[fieldName];
		var privateBag = tiddlyspace.getCurrentBag("private");
		var privateWorkspace = tiddlyspace.getCurrentWorkspace("private");
		draftTiddler.title = draftTitle;
		draftTiddler.fields[""] = title;
		draftTiddler.fields["server.workspace"] = privateWorkspace;
		draftTiddler.fields["server.bag"] = privateBag;
		draftTiddler.fields["server.title"] = draftTitle;
		draftTiddler.fields[""] = "false";
		delete draftTiddler.fields["server.etag"];
		return draftTiddler;
	handler: function(ev, src, title) {
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title); // original tiddler
		var tidEl = story.getTiddler(title);
		var uiFields = {};
		story.gatherSaveFields(tidEl, uiFields);
		var tid = saveDraftCmd.createDraftTiddler(title, uiFields);
		tid = store.saveTiddler(tid.title, tid.title, tid.text, tid.modifier,
			new Date(), tid.tags, tid.fields);
		autoSaveChanges(null, [tid]);
		story.displayTiddler(src, title);
		story.displayTiddler(src, tid.title);

var macro = config.macros.TiddlySpacePublisher = {
	locale: {
		title: "Batch Publisher",
		changeStatusLabel: "Make %0",
		noTiddlersText: "No tiddlers to publish",
		changeStatusPrompt: "Make all the selected tiddlers %0.",
		description: "Change tiddlers from %0 to %1 in this space"

	listViewTemplate: {
		columns: [
			{ name: "Selected", field: "Selected", rowName: "title", type: "Selector" },
			{ name: "Tiddler", field: "tiddler", title: "Tiddler", type: "Tiddler" },
			{ name: "Status", field: "status", title: "Status", type: "WikiText" }
		rowClasses: []

	changeStatus: function(tiddlers, status, callback) { // this is what is called when you click the publish button
		var publicBag;
		for(var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
			var newTiddler = {
				title: tiddler.title,
				fields: { "server.bag": cmd.toggleBag(tiddler, status) }
			cmd.moveTiddler(tiddler, newTiddler, callback);
	getMode: function(paramString) {
		var params = paramString.parseParams("anon")[0];
		var status = params.type ?
			(["public", "private"].contains(params.type[0]) ? params.type[0] : "private") :
		var newStatus = status == "public" ? "private" : "public";
		return [status, newStatus];
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		var wizard = new Wizard();
		var locale = macro.locale;
		var status = macro.getMode(paramString);
		wizard.createWizard(place, locale.title);
		wizard.addStep(macro.locale.description.format(status[0], status[1]),
			'<input type="hidden" name="markList" />');
		var markList = wizard.getElement("markList");
		var listWrapper = $("<div />").addClass("batchPublisher").
			attr("refresh", "macro").attr("macroName", macroName).
			attr("params", paramString)[0];
		markList.parentNode.insertBefore(listWrapper, markList);
		$.data(listWrapper, "wizard", wizard);
	getCheckedTiddlers: function(listWrapper, titlesOnly) {
		var tiddlers = [];
		$(".chkOptionInput[rowName]:checked", listWrapper).each(function(i, el) {
			var title = $(el).attr("rowName");
			if(titlesOnly) {
			} else {
		return tiddlers;
	refresh: function(listWrapper) {
		var checked = macro.getCheckedTiddlers(listWrapper, true);
		var paramString = $(listWrapper).empty().attr("params");
		var wizard = $.data(listWrapper, "wizard");
		var locale = macro.locale;
		var params = paramString.parseParams("anon")[0];
		var publishCandidates = [];
		var status = macro.getMode(paramString);
		var pubType = status[0];
		var newPubType = status[1];
		var tiddlers = params.filter ? store.filterTiddlers(params.filter[0]) :
		var enabled = [];
		for(var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
			var title = tiddler.title;
			if(!tiddler.tags.contains("excludePublisher") && title !== "SystemSettings") {
				publishCandidates.push({ title: title, tiddler: tiddler, status: pubType});
			if(checked.contains(title)) {

		if(publishCandidates.length === 0) {
			createTiddlyElement(listWrapper, "em", null, null, locale.noTiddlersText);
		} else {
			var listView = ListView.create(listWrapper, publishCandidates, macro.listViewTemplate);
			wizard.setValue("listView", listView);
			var btnHandler = function(ev) {
				var tiddlers = macro.getCheckedTiddlers(listWrapper);
				var callback = function(status) {
					$(".batchPublisher").each(function(i, el) {
				macro.changeStatus(tiddlers, newPubType, callback);
				caption: locale.changeStatusLabel.format(newPubType),
				tooltip: locale.changeStatusPrompt.format(newPubType),
				onClick: btnHandler
			$(enabled.join(",")).attr("checked", true); // retain what was checked before

[[Pyroelectric fusion|]]
[[Electric Waves |;cc=cdl;idno=cdl334]] Hertz equations by himself
[[Einstein 1905, ''On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies'' |]]]]  1889 nat.
>MR. WATSON's criticism, that Hertz's equations are only true for places at some distance from the oscillator, is no doubt perfectly valid.

[[HERTZIAN ELECTRODYNAMICS |]] (Correction of Maxwell's equations) 

[[The new sight on the Hertz’s electrodynamics of a moving bodies |]] arxiv Pechenkov A.N. 
> A little error was eliminated from Hertz’s equations. New Hertz’s equations don’t contradict to all electromagnetic experiments. Therefore Hertz’s electrodynamics is the alternative to Einstein’s electrodynamics. It means that the question about the absolute or relative character of both space and time must be rediscussed. Lorentz’s transformations can be used only if our theoretical model of an electromagnetic phenomenon is not complete one .

[[Radiation2D.exe |]]
[[A fundamental relation between mass, SFR and metallicity in local and high redshift galaxies|]] 

[[Spectroscopic Query Form|]]
[[SQL Search|]]

SELECT s.dec,str(s.ra,13,8) as ra,s.specClass,s.velDisp,s.z,s.zConf,s.zErr,s.zStatus
FROM BESTDR7..SpecObj as s
	JOIN BESTDR7..PhotoObj AS p ON s.bestObjID = p.objID
	JOIN dbo.fGetNearbyObjEq(180,0.2,30.0) AS b ON b.objID = p.objID
WHERE  ( p.type = 3 OR p.type = 6)

[[|SkyView Query Form]]
[[OpenSky Query (NVO) Advanced|]]
[[OpenSky Query (NVO)|]]

[[The Extragalactic Distance Database (EDD)|]] EDD 

[[search NED by region with redshifts|]]
[[NASA extragalactic Database|]] NED

milky way
[[Tycho, Hipparcos and Gaia ,start here|]]

[[A critique of Rees's theory of primordial gravitational radiation|]] Jackson (fingers-of-god)
[[8. PECULIAR MOTION OF CLUSTERS , Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 1988. 26: 631-86 |]] fingers-of-god
[[SSDS III Redshifts and Classifications|]]
[[Redshift-Space Distortions, Pairwise Velocities and Nonlinearities|]]
[[Visualization of large scale structure from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey|]] pratical equations, movies, very good

[[Red Shift Distortions|]]

[[LEVEL5|]] A Knowledgebase for Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology


[[The Universe as mapped by SDSS and WMAP|]] interactive visualization of 440000 gals

from [[WP Galaxy_rotation_curve|]] The rotation direction depends on how the galaxy was formed. It was claimed in 2006 that ''the spin axes of spiral galaxies align with filaments surrounding a void'',[7] and in 2007 Michael Longo discovered that there there are more galaxies rotating clockwise than anti-clockwise, aligned roughly along the so-called axis of evil...
[[Galaxies like necklace beads|]] here detailed with an image
[[Much ADO About Nothing |]] Voids 2006 conference, downladable presentations and movies about voids
[[Pending Problems with QSOs|]] quasars

[[Sloan Digital Sky Survey : Interactive Flythrough|]]
**The answer is a definite YES.**  
A larger atom in the past explain all the observed features, namely the redshift and the time dilation.  

from [Ned Wright's FAQ in Cosmology][1]:  
**Q:** **Is the Universe expanding or is it just that our definitions of length and time are changing?**

**A:** **The definitions of length and time are not changing in the standard model.** The second is still 9192631770 cycles of a Cesium atomic clock and the meter is still the distance light travels in 9192631770/299792458 cycles of a Cesium atomic clock.

**In physics the units of measure are derived from the atom's properties. This fact makes us insensitive to any eventual atomic change and, it was not found one single law sensible to the absolute and actual size of the atoms.**   
The study of the evolution of the universe should be done from *above*, not depending on atomic properties, and it was already done **[here (arxiv)][2]** with a more formal proof **[here (vixra pdf)][3]**.     

It is true that in the SM "The definitions of length and time are not changing" but I will show that they should vary. In the past, several authors tried variations on units or on constants like $G,c$ and failed because they did not understood that all units M,L,T,Q (mass,length,time and charge) must vary in sync to stay aligned with the way we define them. 
In other words the units are derived from the atom's *size*, whatever it is.        

**Below I will show in equations that a Larger atom in the past reproduces exactly the features we see in the skies (redshift of the ancient light, time dilation of ancient events - slower clock).**  

For example **the definition of the electron mass $m_e$ is a tautology**: in short - the electron mass is an electron mass. Lengthy - the electron mass is a tiny part of the unit kg which is equal to the mass of X atoms (prototype in Paris) each atom in turn having the mass of protons, neutrons, and binding energy expressible in $m_e$.  

What do NOT vary: dimensionless constants like $\alpha$ (the fine structure) and space dependent properties $c, \varepsilon_0,G$.    

M,L,T,Q units vary (dilation, a self-similar scaling) **in sync** with the atom under the law $\alpha(t)$ (see bellow)     
velocity and force are insensitive to the scaling.   

The most fundamental laws are insensitive the those variations, i.e. the force is always the same. Using dimensional analysis check that **the sum of the exponents is zero**:    
Newton'2nd law :  $[M^1][L^1][T^{-2}]$   
Electromagnetic interaction ${M^{-1}}{Q^{2}}{L^{-3}}{T^{2}}$  
Gravitational interaction  $M^{-1}L^{3}T^{-2}$  

Why the time unit change? because it is proportional to two specific energy levels, of a specific atom, which in turn is dependent on the distance between two specific orbitals which finally is dependent on $m_e$ which is $\propto \alpha(t)$.     

Horror: the $h$ constant vary as $\alpha^2$ (the sum of exponents is 2 from dimensional analysis $M^1L^2T^{−1}$)  
[Bohr radius][4]: $\propto \alpha$   
Energy :  $[M^1L^2 T^{−2}]$ i.e $\alpha$  
[Schrodinger equation][5] is $\propto \alpha$ (WP - "In plain language, it means "total energy equals kinetic energy plus potential energy" )   
**[Atomic Spectra][6]: the Sommerfeld relation, $E_{j,n}=−m_e∗f(j,n,\alpha,c)$ thus  $\propto \alpha(t)$ shows, without any doubt, that the redshift can be explained by a 'larger' atom.**   

Note :  
The law of evolution of the units was derived to be   
\alpha(t_{S})=e^{-H_{0}\cdot t_{S}}\
where $t_S$ is the time unit in the reference S (from Space) where the units are constant thru time, by definition. 
Some consequences of this viewpoint are:   
It is applied to all scales in contrast with the SM that no one know how to apply locally. It allows that the orbits enlarge as time goes by and the [Young Earth Paradox falls down (vixra pdf)][7].  
One parameter $H_0$ is enough to explain the evolution of the universe in large scale instead of the SM stack (6 parameters).  
There is no need to invoke GR (the space is flat, isn't it?) , no BB, no cosmological inflation, no cosmological constant, no space expansion, no superluminal motion, no Dark Energy, and it will be shown in the future no Dark matter.  
Physicist community adopted, as consensus, the SM expansion without knowing that another and quite simple model is possible. To read or not to read that vixra document? That is the question. It is up to the readers. 
In the past the physics and the philosophers would say :  
**from X  we can not obtain X+Y,** because of the [Principle of sufficient Reason][8].  (substitute X by SPACE and X + Y by SPACE + SPACE, and the SPACE is not null )  
A more recent doc named **"On the Evolution of the Universe**" is in preparation.   

a few sentences from it:  
**2.2 Does space expand or does the unit length decrease?**  
The difficulties of all cosmological theories indicate that particular attention must be paid to the fundamentals and assumptions behind all theoretical work presented thus far. In accomplishing this goal,several questionable aspects emerge, but one is particularly relevant: **the statement “space expands” is an
absolute statement of a result that is not absolute. The correct form of the statement is “space expands in standard units”. Because matter has invariant properties in standard units, this relative occurrence can result from three different phenomena: space expansion, evanescence of matter, or variations in both space and matter at different rates.**  
**A priori, the statement “space expands” is as valid as the statement “the universe rotates around us in 24 h”** – both are statements of what is observed disregarding that these observations are not absolute but relative to us. Of course, there are sound reasons that support both statements.  
The reason that supports the anthropocentric form “space expands” is the following: only in units that verify the concept of a reference body are physical laws known to be valid. All standard units support this concept, even when defined from constants that are assumed to represent properties of space, such as Planck units. Therefore, this type of unit, as far as is known, is privileged for the description of the universe. It is also known, however, that the invariance of the standard length unit is only apparent, as stressed by Einstein when he called the reference body a “reference-mollusc” [10]. Furthermore, in contrast to the case of Earth’s rotation, where the possibility of Earth rotating at such a fast speed without being noticed seemed impossible, here, the rate of decrease in the standard length unit would be so small that it could hardly be detected, even if it had detectable consequences.   

**3 Dilation Model**  
The following analysis assumes the **full validity of the laws of physics for the scenario in which they were established, i.e., invariant space and matter, as well as their validity in this evolving universe within the accuracy of measurements of current data;** in this way, there is no possible conflict with tested physics. It is also assumed that **all constants hold invariant in standard units** — note that we do not know, for example, whether the Boltzmann constant had in the distant past the same value it has today; this invariance is assumed because it is the simpler scenario and because it is in accordance with the characteristics of a self-similar phenomenon. **There are no ad hoc hypotheses;** therefore, the model cannot be adjusted by parametric fitting, and its validity does not depend on ad hoc hypotheses. **The model is obtained by deduction from two fundamental results of cosmic observations (in standard units):  
space expansion is a dilation, and field constants are invariant. No considerations of cosmological nature are made** (e.g., concerning a cosmological gravitational field, or space curvature), in accordance with 2.1. Naturally, there is no distinction between “cosmic scale” and “local scale” for the Dilation

''[[Curvature Cosmology Theory|]]''  David F. Crawford (a tired light model)

''[[Analogue Gravity|]]''

 zfs set compression=lzjb zfsmirrpool
 zpool list 

''[[Introducing genfio|]]''
gives output for ''fio2gnuplot'' 
 genfio -d /dev/sda2,/dev/sda5,/dev/sdb3 -m write,randwrite,read,randread -b 4k,128k,1m -D 32 -x outputdir -r 300 -a 
sudo fio outputdirvelez-VPCSB1S1E-4k,128k,1m-all-write,randwrite,read,randread-sda2,sda5,sdb3.fio 

[[Getting Started With Fio|]]
[[Fio Output Explained|]]
[[zfs raid speed capacity|]]

[[ssd tomshardware 2015 |,3269.html]]
[[file system bench portal|]]
[[Workload Modeling for Computer Systems Performance Evaluation|]] pdf book
[[fio-flexible io|]]
[[Fio - Flexible I/O Tester Synthetic Benchmark|]]

[[raid5 and fio|]]
[[zf administration, raidz|]]
[[phoronix test suite|]]
[[fio man|]]

;file: random-read-test.fio
;command: fio random-read-test.fio output=disks_bench.txt 
;random read of 128mb of data  (zfs-raid mirror)




Liberté Linux
Tor network

[[diaspora*|]] distributed social network
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  tem link malicioso de .ru
time dilation clock definition [[Has science lost touch in reality?|]]

OpenNebula has a goal: to offer standards-compliant, virtualized enterprise data centers. 
OpenClinica is the world’s first open source clinical trial software for electronic data capture (EDC) and clinical data management (CDM). 
OpenStack is an open source cloud operating system that allows you to control the different systems it has created
Kitware is a company committed to open source development. Currently, it has created software for software process, scientific computing, computer vision, medical computing, informatics, and data management.
OpenDaylight is a community-led, open source framework to enable the creation of innovative, transparent software-defined networks (SDNs).
ForgeRock has created an open identity stack to redefine identity and access management across enterprise, cloud, mobile, and social environments.
[[Facebook Open Compute|]] is set on hacking the conventional computer infrastructure. Long ago Facebook decided to create one of the most efficient computing infrastructures at the lowest possible cost.

|''Description''|Show tiddler revisions in a stack of cards view|
The viewRevisions macro can be attached to any element, which should be passed
in as a parameter.

For example:

&lt;&lt;viewRevisions page:10 link:"<<view modified date>>"&gt;&gt;

would show the revisions "stack of cards" view, 10 at a time, when the modified
date is clicked.
(function($) {

var me = config.macros.viewRevisions = {
	revisionTemplate: "RevisionTemplate",
	revSuffix: " [rev. #%0]", // text to append to each tiddler title
	defaultPageSize: 5, // default number of revisions to show
	defaultLinkText: "View Revisions", // when there's nothing else to use
	offsetTop: 30, // in px
	offsetLeft: 10, // in px
	shiftDownDelay: 50, // in ms
	visibleSlideAmount: 20, // amount of revisions to show on left hand edge after sliding
	zIndex: 100, // default z-index
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		params = paramString.parseParams(null, null, true)[0];
		var tiddlerElem = story.findContainingTiddler(place);

		var revButton;
		var pageSize = parseInt([0], 10) || me.defaultPageSize;
		var linkObj = ?[0] || me.defaultLinkText : false;
		if(linkObj) {
			revButton = $('<span class="button openRevisions" />')
			wikify(linkObj, revButton[0], null, tiddler);
		} else {
			revButton = place;

		$(revButton).click(function() {
			if (!$(tiddlerElem).hasClass("revisions")) {
				me.showRevisions(tiddlerElem, tiddler, pageSize);
			} else {

	// initialisation for revision view
	showRevisions: function(tiddlerElem, tiddler, pageSize) {
		var context = {
			host: tiddler.fields[""],
			workspace: tiddler.fields["server.workspace"]
		$(tiddlerElem).addClass("revisions").attr("revName", tiddler.title);
		// ensure toolbar commands deactivate RevisionsView
		$("a", ".toolbar", tiddlerElem).each(function(index, btn) {
			var _onclick = btn.onclick;
			btn.onclick = function(e) {
				_onclick.apply(this, arguments);
		// ensure default action deactivates RevisionsView
		var _ondblclick = tiddlerElem.ondblclick;
		tiddlerElem.ondblclick = function(e) {
			_ondblclick.apply(this, arguments);
		var type = tiddler.fields["server.type"];
		var adaptor = new config.adaptors[type]();
		var userParams = {
			tiddlerElem: tiddlerElem,
			pageSize: pageSize,
			title: tiddler.title
		adaptor.getTiddlerRevisionList(tiddler.title, null, context, userParams,
				function(context, userParams) {
					// strip the current revision
					me.expandStack(context, userParams);

	// fetch the actual revision and put it in the tiddler div
	showRevision: function(place, revision, callback) {
		var context = {
			host: revision.fields[""],
			workspace: revision.fields["server.workspace"]
		var userParams = {
			revElem: place
		var type = revision.fields["server.type"];
		var adaptor = new config.adaptors[type]();
		var revNo = revision.fields[""];
		adaptor.getTiddlerRevision(revision.title, revNo, context, userParams,
			function(context, userParams) {
				var tiddler = context.tiddler;
				tiddler.title += me.revSuffix
				tiddler.fields.doNotSave = true;
				if (store.getTiddler(tiddler.title)) {

				//now, populate the existing div
				var revElem = userParams.revElem;
				$(revElem).attr("id", story.tiddlerId(tiddler.title));
				$(revElem).attr("refresh", "tiddler");
				var getTemplate = function() {
					var themeName = config.options.txtTheme;
					if (themeName) {
						return store.getTiddlerSlice(themeName,
							me.revisionTemplate) || me.revisionTemplate ||
					} else {
						return (store.getTiddler(me.revisionTemplate)) ?
							me.revisionTemplate : "ViewTemplate";
				var template = getTemplate();
				story.refreshTiddler(tiddler.title, template, true);

	createCloak: function(promoteElem) {
		var el = $(promoteElem);
		// cache styles for resetting later{
			top: el.css("top"),
			left: el.css("left"),
			zIndex: el.css("z-index")

		$('<div class="revisionCloak" />').css("z-index", me.zIndex)
			.click(function() {

		el.css("z-index", me.zIndex + 1);

	// clean up, removing all evidence of revision view
	closeRevisions: function(promoteElem) {
		var el = $(promoteElem);
		// revert the original tiddler back to its previous state

		// remove any revisions still in the store
		var revisions = $(".revisions");
		revisions.each(function(index, revision) {
			var revAttributes = revision.attributes;
			if ((revAttributes.revname) &&
					(revAttributes.revision)) {
				var revName = revAttributes.revname.value;
				var revNo = revAttributes.revision.value;
				var title = revName + me.revSuffix.format([revNo]);

				if (store.getTiddler(title)) {

		// delete the previous revisions

		// remove the cloak

	// calback from getting list of revisions
	expandStack: function(context, userParams) {
		var pageSize = userParams.pageSize;

		var from = userParams.from || 0;
		var tiddlerElem = userParams.tiddlerElem;

		userParams.defaultHeight = $(tiddlerElem).height();
		userParams.defaultWidth = $(tiddlerElem).width();
		if (from < context.revisions.length) {
			me.displayNextRevision(tiddlerElem, userParams, context, from,
				from + pageSize - 1);

	// place the next div above and behind the previous one
	displayNextRevision: function(tiddlerElem, userParams, context, from, to) {
		var revision = context.revisions[from];
		var callback = function() {
			var revText = revBtn.getRevisionText(tiddlerElem, revision);
			tiddlerElem = me.createRevisionObject(tiddlerElem, context,
				userParams, revText);
				.attr("revision", (context.revisions.length - from));
			if ((from < to) && ((from + 1) < context.revisions.length)){
				me.displayNextRevision(tiddlerElem, userParams, context,
					from + 1, to);
			} else if ((context.revisions.length - 1) > to) {
				me.showMoreButton(tiddlerElem, context, userParams, to + 1);
		me.shiftVisibleDown(userParams.title, callback);

	createRevisionObject: function(tiddlerElem, context, userParams, text) {
		var newPosition = me.calculatePosition(tiddlerElem, context);
		return $('<div class="revisions tiddler" />')
				position: "absolute",
				left: newPosition.left,
				"z-index": me.zIndex + 1,
				height: userParams.defaultHeight,
				width: userParams.defaultWidth
			.attr("revName", userParams.title)

	// move the already present revisions down by 1 to fit the next one in
	shiftVisibleDown: function(title, callback) {
		var revisions = $("[revName='%0'].revisions".format([title]));
		var revisionCount = revisions.length;

		$(revisions).animate({top: "+=" + me.offsetTop},
				me.shiftDownDelay, function() {
					revisionCount -= 1;
					if ((callback) && (!revisionCount)) {

	// where we put the new revision
	calculatePosition: function(elem, context) {
		var offset = $(elem).offset();
		var currentPosition = $(elem).position();
		var newPosition = {
			top: - me.offsetTop
		if ((context.restrictLeft) ||
				((offset.left - me.offsetLeft) <
				$("#contentWrapper").offset().left)) {
			newPosition.left = $(elem).position().left;
			context.restrictLeft = true;
		} else {
			newPosition.left = currentPosition.left - me.offsetLeft;
		return newPosition;

	// equivalent of displayNextRevision, but for the more button
	showMoreButton: function(tiddlerElem, context, userParams, moreIndex) {
		userParams.from = moreIndex + 1;
		me.shiftVisibleDown(userParams.title, function() {
			var btn = me.createRevisionObject(tiddlerElem, context, userParams,

			var more = createTiddlyButton(btn[0], "more...", "show more revisions",
				function() {
					if ($(".viewRevision").length) {
					userParams.tiddlerElem = btn[0];
							.getRevisionText(btn[0], context.revisions[moreIndex]))
						.attr("revision", context.revisions.length - moreIndex);
					me.expandStack(context, userParams);
			$(more).css("float", "right");

	stripRevFromTitle: function(revisionTitle) {
		return revisionTitle.split(/ ?\[rev\. #[0-9]+\]$/)[0];

	onClickRevision: function(revElem, revision, callback) {
		// don't do anything if we are still loading
		if ($(".revisions").hasClass("loading")) {
			return null;

		var origTitle = me.stripRevFromTitle(revision.title);
		if ($(revElem).hasClass("viewRevision")) {
			me.slideIn(revElem, revision, origTitle, function() {
				revision.title = origTitle;
				if (callback) {
		} else {
			var viewRevision = function() {
				var prevPos = $(revElem).position().left;
				$(revElem).addClass("viewRevision").attr("prevPos", prevPos);
				me.showRevision(revElem, revision, function(rev) {
					me.slideOut(revElem, rev, origTitle, function() {
			// make sure another revision isn't already out
			if ($(".viewRevision").length) {
				var newRevElem = $(".viewRevision")[0];
				var newRevision = store.getTiddler($(newRevElem)
				me.onClickRevision(newRevElem, newRevision, viewRevision);
			} else {

	slideOut: function(revElem, revision, title, callback) {
		var leftMostPos = $("[revName='%0'].revisions".format([title]))
		var width = $(revElem).width();
		var originalLeftPos = $(story.getTiddler(title))

		var slideAmount = leftMostPos + width - me.visibleSlideAmount;
			.animate({left: "-=" + slideAmount}, 1000);
			.attr("baseHeight", $(revElem).css("height"))
			.css("height", "auto")
			.animate({left: originalLeftPos}, 1000, callback);

	slideIn: function(revElem, revision, title, callback) {
		var slideAmount = $(revElem).offset().left -
		var origRevPos = $(revElem).attr("prevPos");

			.animate({left: "+=" + slideAmount}, 1000);
		$(revElem).animate({left: origRevPos}, 1000, function() {
				.css("height", $(revElem).attr("baseHeight"))

var revBtn;
config.macros.slideRevision = revBtn = {
	btnText: "created by %0 at %1 on %2",
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		var btn = revBtn.getRevisionText(place, tiddler);

	getRevisionText: function(place, revision) {
		var text = revBtn.btnText.format([revision.modifier,
			revision.modified.formatString("0DD MMM YYYY")]);
		var btn = $('<a href="javascript:;" class="button revButton" />')
			.click(function() {
				var revElem = story.findContainingTiddler(this);
				me.onClickRevision(revElem, revision);
		return btn;

[[H 21 cm|]]    \(1420.40575177\ MHz\) ou \(21.10611405413\ cm\)
>1 To achieve the normalization on all planets a galactic decree stipulates the adoption of GSU - Galactic System Units.  The time unit will correspond to one period of the H hyperfine transition line (21 cm wavelength as of  \(SI_{now}\)) and Earth's actual SI constants -  \(c,G,\varepsilon_0\).  
The  units of length, mass and charge are such that the laws of physics are valid and maintain the present form. 
* meter-\(m\) - the length unit is derived from the constancy of the 'speed of light' \(c\) as a fixed 299792458 m/s
* kilogram-\(kg\) - the mass unit is derived from the Universal Gravitation Law and Kepler's 3th law \(kg=\frac{4\pi^2}{ G} m^3\ s^{-2}\). The gravitational constant  has a fixed value \(G = 6.67428 × 10^{−11} m^3 \ kg^{-1} \ s^{-2} \). All laws related to gravitation and inertia should kept the same form, namely the laws of Newton.

The vacuum permitivity \(\varepsilon_0\) is also defined as a constant keeping the actual SI value   \(\delta\nu=9192631770 \ Hz\) ; \(s=1/Hz\) ;  \(s=9192631770/\delta\nu\)
  \(c=299792458\ m\ s^{-1}\); \(m=c/299792458 \ s\);
 the definition of the \(kg\) mass unit is such \(G\) has the same value of \(SI_{now}\)
  \(G = 6.67428 × 10^{−11} m^3 \ kg^{-1} \ s^{-2} \)
from Kepler 3th law : 
\(kg=\frac{4\pi^2}{ G} m^3\ s^{-2}\)

the definition of the \(e\) charge unit is such \(\varepsilon_0\) - the electromagnetic interaction constant has the same value of \(SI_{now}\) in the Coulomb law. 
\(\varepsilon_0 = 8.854187817 × 10^{−12}\)  \(A^2·s^4·kg^{−1}·m^{−3}\)

At the conceptual level it was intended that all the equations of physics remain unchanged and indeed that was the case, but at the implementation level it was far from practical. 
Report of some difficulties faced by humans on Earth by implementation of the ~GSU:  
* The old SI mass unit prototype is now in a museum at  Paris
* All the clocks were replaced 
* The day now has 10 hours, each 10 minutes,..??? seconds 
* or The day now has 12 hours, each 60 minutes,..??? seconds 

* The sidereal year now has ??? days ??? hours
* The Earth / Sun / Moon masses now: ??? / ??? / ??? kg
* The elementary charge is not the charge of a proton 
* The Planck constant is ???  
* The  ??? is  
* The Planck mass is ???  

obs: the choice of a specific spectroscopic line is not important except for the stability and reproducibility of a material clock. 


from [WP](  
In 1905 the value E, the energy of a charged atomic oscillator, was theoretically associated with the energy of the electromagnetic wave itself, representing the minimum amount of energy required to form an electromagnetic field (a "quantum"). Further investigation of quanta revealed behaviour associated with an independent unit ("particle") as opposed to an electromagnetic wave and was eventually given the term photon.

In physics the units of measure are established by convention. 
The second was chosen to be 1/60 of a minute, 1/60 of an hour, 1/24 of a solar day. 
This is the same science on the same Earth and the same physical laws expressed in the same simple way as we know them. 
Trying to keep the transformation as simple as it gets the constants \(c,\varepsilon_0,G\) were kept identical to the values of the old system and, of course, the others unit of measure had to change accordingly in such a way that the laws make sense.

The implementation of the new system consisted on the  adoption of a different time unit .

!new SI
$$e=1.602176565\cdot 10^{-19}\ C $$
$$C= A \ s$$
$$c=299792458\ m\ s^{-1}$$
$$\delta\nu=9192631770 \ Hz$$
$$s=1/Hz ; Hz=1/s$$
$$h=6.62606957\cdot 10^{-34}\  kg \ m^2 \ s^{-1}$$
$$kg=\frac{h}{6.62606957\cdot 10^{-34}} \ m^{-2} \ s$$
$$A=\frac{e}{1.602176565\cdot 10^{-19}}\ s^{-1}$$

!old SI
from [CODATA  2006](
$$G = 6.67428(67) × 10^{−11} m^3 \ kg^{-1} \ s^{-2} $$
Kepler 3th law
$$\frac{s^2}{m^3}kg=\frac{4\pi^2}{ G}$$

$$kg=\frac{m^3}{s^2}\frac{4\pi^2}{ 6.67428(67) × 10^{−11} m^3 \ kg^{-1} \ s^{-2} }$$
$$kg=\frac{4\pi^2}{ 6.67428(67) × 10^{−11} \ kg^{-1} }$$
$$kg=\sqrt{\frac{4\pi^2}{ 6.67428(67) × 10^{−11}} }$$


[[XKCD - A webcomic of romance, sarcasm, math, and language|]]

Some scientists have since argued that the weather system is not as sensitive to initial condition as previously believed.[9] David Orrell argues that the major contributor to weather forecast error is model error, with sensitivity to initial conditions playing a relatively small role.[10][11] Stephen Wolfram also notes that the Lorenz equations are highly simplified and do not contain terms that represent viscous effects; he believes that these terms would tend to damp out small perturbations.[12]
look inside the formula of 'Wigner quasiprobability distribution' and compare it with Vries formula:    Vries formula

made it clear that complexity could be generated as an emergent feature of extended systems with simple local interactions. Over a similar period of time, Benoît Mandelbrot's large body of work on fractals showed that much complexity in nature could be described by certain ubiquitous mathematical laws, while the extensive study of phase transitions carried out in the 1960s and 1970s showed how scale invariant phenomena such as fractals and power laws emerged at the critical point between phases.
testes e alguns links 

[[MODELICA Tutorial, May 2011|]]  122 slides OK
[[ElastoGap best doc|]] maplesoft ElastoGap doc
[[modelica2008/Proceedings|]] good slides
[[Conference2003/Modelica03-Advanced Tutorial pdf|]]
[[ bouncing ball|]] 
[[modelica-tutorial 2009|]] Bouncing Ball with Stairs 
para sermos completamente específicos nunca acabariamos um simples enunciado.
Não existe a possibilidade de criar uma linguagem generica sem ambiguidades. 
A verdade pode ser 'está concordante com os factos'

Verdade e contexto. O pensamento científico.
''Contexto'' ou ''marco de referência'' é o conjunto de circunstâncias e condições que rodeiam e determinam uma ideia, teoria, proposição ou conceito. e as verdades ou falsidades são relativas ao contexto em causa.
Os factos são analisados sob perspectivas distintas ' o homem economicus' , social, político, biológico, pensante, etc...
o Subjectivismo depende do observador
o Objectivismo tenta descrever os factos de modo independente do observador
na Filosofia o Positivismo Lógico explora o lado objectivista
o Constructivismo postula que as verdades são uma construção social, mesmo na ciência ( Pierce e Wittgenstein) .
Empiricismo, Racionalismo foi desenvolvido durante a idade moderna.
A matemática e a lógica têm também as suas limitações 
A verdade ou não de qualquer afirmação é dentro de unn contexto. 

''Verdade e Linguagem''
Nas regras da linguagem também existem modos de construir verdades/falsidades 
a Linguagem é a ligação entre o Real e o Conhecimento
A realidade é independente do Observador mas o Conhecimento é criado por um observador
A Filosofia pergunta: Como é que nos podemos conhecer 
>Epistemologia - Estudo (logos, gr) do Conhecimento (epistem, gr), como se 
estuda Verdades Nominais = Descrições corretas

>Ontologia - (Ontos, gr) SER,  estuda (logos,gr) como os factos são, i.e. a realidade

Se uma árvore cai num bosque sem que exista um observador então : A Árvore realmente caiu ? : epistemologicamente não é verdade, mas ontologicamente será.

Wittgenstein perguntava o que é que significam as palavras e como é que com elas podemos julgar. O seu significado é atribuído pelo uso que fazemos delas. 

[[List.js|]] vanilla Javascript that adds search, sort, filters and flexibility to plain HTML lists, tables, or anything.

[[Building Android Apps with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript (and jQ)|]] Jonathan Stark, O'Reilly

[[node tutorials @daily.js|]]

[[backbone vs spine frameworks|]] spine wins
[[backbone vs spine frameworks|]] backbone answer , rocks, 

[[batman.js|]] single-page browser applications  in cs
[[batman in github|]]

[[util: array diff in js|]]

[[util: colony.js - visual doc of node apps with d3|]] 
[[git colony|]]

[[bootstrap, app assembler brunch|]]  Brunch is an assembler for HTML5 applications, coffeescript...
Application assembler
Brunch is an assembler for HTML5 applications. It‘s agnostic to frameworks, libraries, programming, stylesheet & templating languages and backend technology.

To simplify app development, brunch watches your files for changes and automatically wraps your scripts and templates in common.js modules.

[[tutorialzine|]] node online drawing game 

[[iWEB_FAQ|]]  how-to share on facebook

[[html5libs| ]]   Moderm WEB  Libraries  - a good repo 

A simple but powerful library for building data applications in pure Javascript and HTML.

[[pouchdb||]]  Portable CouchDB JavaScript implementation

[[TouchDB-Android|]]  is the Android port of TouchDB 

[[HTML5 demos|]] online 

[[Mastering NODE.js book|]]

[[Node.js para leigos|]]
[[tutorial book for beginner|]] 

[[nodetuts|]] tutorials around node vimeo by Pedro Teixeira

[[HOW to NODE|]]

[[cradle|]] A high-level, caching, CouchDB client for Node.js
also [[nano|]] is a minimalistic client ( and db ?)

jade is a good templating engine and express.js a clean framework

[[express tutorial|]] 

[[CreateJS and txtjs|!/CreateJS]] powerfull set of libs

[[SELENIUMHQ - to test web applications|]] Selenium to automate web browsers
[[SELENIUM doc|]]

Find & Replace across multiple files in linux :
           $ find . -name "*.php" -print | xargs sed -i 's/foo/bar/g'

[[AngularJs]] wonderful

[[sed tut|]] short tut
[[sed online|]]
[[web-based document authoring and publishing platform|]]  (it uses data.js)

[[ | web-based interface for managing text-based content in your GitHub repositories. Use it to create, edit, and delete files, and save your changes directly to GitHub]] 
[[jekyll|]] is a simple, blog aware, static site generator. It takes a template directory (representing the raw form of a website), runs it through Textile or Markdown and Liquid converters, and spits out a complete, static website suitable for serving with Apache . This is also the engine behind GitHub Pages.

!js Grids 
[[slickGrid is the best |]] it rocks with millions of rows
[[SlickGrid extensions|]]

[[Headjs|]] head.js The only script in your head, script parallel loading of js
|''Description''|Allows to use MarkDown syntax in a tiddler|
|''Author''|Tobias Beer|
|''Contributions''|Mario Pietsch, Paul Downey|
|''License''|[[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|]]|
Install ShowDown.js first and tag it <<tag systemConfig>>.
    name: "showdown",
    match: "§§§",
    lookaheadRegExp: /\s?§§§((?:.|\n)*?)§§§\s?/mg,
    handler: function (w) {
        var match, t;
        this.lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
        match = this.lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source);
        if (match && match.index == w.matchStart) {
            t = (new Showdown.converter()).makeHtml(match[1]);
				'<html>' + t + '</html>',
				createTiddlyElement(w.output, 'div', null, 'showdown')

            w.nextMatch = match.index + match[0].length;
[[convetring plots to data |]]
[[instalado o ''PlotDigitizer''|]]
correr e no fim clicar em 'done' para exportar dados para xml
depois em RStudio , ou R ( fileIn : test12.xml dataOut: convert)
mytree <- xmlTreeParse('test12.xml') 
mylist <- xmlToList(mytree)
mylist2 <- mylist[4:length(mylist)]
mydf <-,mylist2)
convert <- data.frame(x=as.numeric(mydf[,'dx']),y=as.numeric(mydf[,'dy']))

[[WP - Converting scanned graphs to data|]]

[[plot digitizer|]]   the ability to semi-automatically digitize lines off a plot

[[autotrace|]]  from  bitmap to vector graphics
[[delineate|]] fom raster images to SGV
[[datathief|]] shareware , It is capable of tracing any more or less continuous lines, very interesting

instalados g3data, ~XYscan, 
by Anderson
... K = 3.099 10^(-6) * ...
note that :
reads 373 is the absolute Solar System velocity in relation to the CMB
300000 is the light _c_ speed

2nd Thermodynamic law, gravity and an homogeneous universe:
start with temperature 0ºK , move 1 atom and temperature will rise. Video see at 8min20 [[Stephen_Hawking__The_Story_of_Everything (start at 7min)|]], and the equations are [[posted   here|]].
Having made this discovery, the present author recently formulated
a theory of Light in which the ''photon is regarded, not as a single
Dirac corpuscle, but as a pair of Dirac corpuscles analogous to
the par formed by a positive and a negative electron.''
<svg xmlns="" xmlns:xl="" version="1.1" viewBox="450 366 38 57"
width="30" height="30">
	<g stroke="none" stroke-opacity="1" stroke-dasharray="none" fill="none" fill-opacity="1">
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			L 485.8595 377.29688 L 487.9688 377.29688 L 487.9688 375.53906 L 485.8595 375.53906 
			C 485.8595 375.53906 481.12463 371.59341 473.02023 370.52802 C 472.6824 368.9689 471.72098 366.75 468.9844 366.75 
			C 466.24783 366.75 465.28638 368.9689 464.94864 370.52802 
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			Z M 467.12247 370.32086 L 467.12247 370.32086 C 467.3805 369.42395 467.90762 368.50781 468.9844 368.50781 
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			L 458.4375 421.2422 L 454.21875 421.2422 Z M 460.5469 420.92804 L 460.5469 420.92804 
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			L 464.76566 421.2422 L 460.5469 421.2422 Z M 466.87503 420.92804 L 466.87503 420.92804 
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			L 471.09378 421.2422 L 466.87503 421.2422 Z M 473.2032 420.92804 L 473.2032 420.92804 
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			L 483.75006 421.2422 L 479.5313 421.2422 Z" fill="black" class="glyph"/>
[[ | ]] [[ | ]] [[ | ]] [[ | ]] 

[[Alberta (CA) geological survey|]]

[[Geological Atlas of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin |]] Alberta Geological Survey

[[Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments|]]

[[ Loess-paleosol records |]] enc. britannica 
", the succession provides an exceptional climatic and chronological record that extends back 2.4 million years to the late Pliocene. In total, up to 44 climatic cycles have been delineated, with more frequent cycles occurring during the early Pleistocene. Although not directly related to glaciation, correlation with the marine oxygen isotope record is excellent, and many of the specific loess and soil units have similar climatic inferences, as do their correlative oxygen-18 stages."
|''Description''|configuration settings for TiddlyWebWiki|
|''Requires''|TiddlyWebAdaptor ServerSideSavingPlugin|
|''Keywords''|serverSide TiddlyWeb|
(function($) {

if(!config.extensions.ServerSideSavingPlugin) {
	throw "Missing dependency: ServerSideSavingPlugin";
if(!config.adaptors.tiddlyweb) {
	throw "Missing dependency: TiddlyWebAdaptor";

if(window.location.protocol != "file:") {
	config.options.chkAutoSave = true;

var adaptor = tiddler.getAdaptor();
var recipe = tiddler.fields["server.recipe"];
var workspace = recipe ? "recipes/" + recipe : "bags/common";

var plugin = config.extensions.tiddlyweb = {
	host: tiddler.fields[""].replace(/\/$/, ""),
	username: null,
	status: {},

	getStatus: null, // assigned later
	getUserInfo: function(callback) {
		this.getStatus(function(status) {
				name: plugin.username,
				anon: plugin.username ? plugin.username == "GUEST" : true
	hasPermission: function(type, tiddler) {
		var perms = tiddler.fields["server.permissions"];
		if(perms) {
			return perms.split(", ").contains(type);
		} else {
			return true;

config.defaultCustomFields = {
	"server.type": tiddler.getServerType(),
	"server.workspace": workspace

// modify toolbar commands

config.shadowTiddlers.ToolbarCommands = config.shadowTiddlers.ToolbarCommands.
	replace("syncing ", "revisions syncing ");

config.commands.saveTiddler.isEnabled = function(tiddler) {
	return plugin.hasPermission("write", tiddler) && !tiddler.isReadOnly();

config.commands.deleteTiddler.isEnabled = function(tiddler) {
	return !readOnly && plugin.hasPermission("delete", tiddler);

// hijack option macro to disable username editing
var _optionMacro = config.macros.option.handler;
config.macros.option.handler = function(place, macroName, params, wikifier,
		paramString) {
	if(params[0] == "txtUserName") {
		params[0] = "options." + params[0];
		var self = this;
		var args = arguments;
		args[0] = $("<span />").appendTo(place)[0];
		plugin.getUserInfo(function(user) {
			config.macros.message.handler.apply(self, args);
	} else {
		_optionMacro.apply(this, arguments);

// hijack isReadOnly to take into account permissions and content type
var _isReadOnly = Tiddler.prototype.isReadOnly;
Tiddler.prototype.isReadOnly = function() {
	return _isReadOnly.apply(this, arguments) ||
		!plugin.hasPermission("write", this);

var getStatus = function(callback) {
	if(plugin.status.version) {
	} else {
		var self = getStatus;
		if(self.pending) {
			if(callback) {
		} else {
			self.pending = true;
			self.queue = callback ? [callback] : [];
			var _callback = function(context, userParams) {
				var status = context.serverStatus || {};
				for(var key in status) {
					if(key == "username") {
						plugin.username = status[key];
							"value", plugin.username, "input");
					} else {
						plugin.status[key] = status[key];
				for(var i = 0; i < self.queue.length; i++) {
				delete self.queue;
				delete self.pending;
			adaptor.getStatus({ host: }, null, _callback);
(plugin.getStatus = getStatus)(); // XXX: hacky (arcane combo of assignment plus execution)

[[Baltic Sea Youth Philharmonic|]]
[[Advanced Quantum Mechanics (PartII) and other lectures|]]  
[[Advanced Quantum Mechanics (PartII)|]]
Ben Simons 24 lectures 
[[Atomic structure lecture (lectures 12-13|]]
[[Atomic structure lecture (lectures 12-14 compressed) |]]

\(\Delta\ E= \frac{ m_e c^2}{2} \left (\frac{Z\alpha}{n}\right )^4  n\times \frac{8}{3}\ g_n  \frac{m_e}{m_p} \frac{1}{2}\begin{Bmatrix}

[[Splitting of the Hydrogen Ground State @ |]]
\(\Delta\ E= \frac{4}{3} (Z\alpha)^4 \frac{m_e}{m_p} m_ec^2 g_n \frac{ 1 }{n^3} =  m_e\  K_0;\)
[[Field/Matter and Vacuum |]] Prof Matt Strassler 
[[cheat sheet|]]
[[printf format|]]

1. The stability of the neutron 
a. Free neutron beta decay yield. 
Neutron mass =  0.93956563 GeV/c^2 
Proton mass =  0.93827231 GeV/c^2 
Electron mass =  0.000511 GeV/c^2 
Energy yield =   0.00078232 GeV/c^2 0.78232 MeV/c^2

[[WP Earth Tide |]] ...  important
> There is zero vertical displacement at 35°16' latitude.  .... Displacements caused by ocean tidal loading can exceed the displacements due to the earth body tide.
Tidal constituents

Principal body tide constituents. The amplitudes may vary from those listed within several per cent.[3][4]

Tidal constituent	Period	Vertical amplitude (mm)	Horizontal amplitude (mm)
M2	12.421 hr	384.83	53.84
S2 (solar semi-diurnal)	12.000 hr	179.05	25.05
N2	12.658 hr	73.69	10.31
K2	11.967 hr	48.72	6.82
Tidal constituent	Period	Vertical amplitude (mm)	Horizontal amplitude (mm)
K1	23.934 hr	191.78	32.01
O1	25.819 hr	158.11	22.05
P1	24.066 hr	70.88	10.36
φ1	23.804 hr	3.44	0.43
ψ1	23.869 hr	2.72	0.21
S1 (solar diurnal)	24.000 hr	1.65	0.25
[edit]Long term
Tidal constituent	Period	Vertical amplitude (mm)	Horizontal amplitude (mm)
Mf	13.661 days	40.36	5.59
Mm (moon monthly)	27.555 days	21.33	2.96
Ssa (solar semi-annual)	0.50000 yr	18.79	2.60
Lunar node	18.613 yr	16.92	2.34
Sa (solar annual)	1.0000 yr	2.97	0.41

[[Results of Russian geomagnetic observatories in the 19th century |]] ''analisar e imprimir isto''
[[Instituto Hidrográfico |]]  tem bonecos animados
refere 12h54 min e 29.5 dias para as marés vivas
mas em algum lado fui buscar   12h25.2 min e 24h50.4 

[[Tidal Forces and their Effects in the Solar Syste|]] '' resumé - I will use the equations here''
[[WP Tidal force|]] Mathematical treatment
> The lunar tidal acceleration at the Earth's surface along the Moon-Earth axis is about 1.1 × 10−7 g, while the solar tidal acceleration at the Earth's surface along the Sun-Earth axis is about 0.52 × 10−7 g, where g is the gravitational acceleration at the Earth's surface.
>  In the case of ''synchronous rotation'' with the secondary body much smaller than the primary, on the line through the centers of the two bodies this "centrifugal force" adds 50% to the tidal force
[[Loading Primer|]] Ocean tide loading explained 

[[Millennial Climate Variability: Is There a Tidal Connection?|]]
> A different physics is based on the ''beat frequencies'' between the harmonics of the tidal frequencies. Some of the ''harmonics are densely packed'' with opportunities for small difference frequencies, as will be shown. The generation of sum and difference frequencies is the familiar tool of the signal processing community.

[[Displacement of Reference Points|]] Chapter 7 , model tides
> The crustal loading at a particular location due to a given tidal harmonic is computed 

[[Welcome to the free ocean tide loading provider|]] codes here 

[[Tides and the Moon|]] ''NASA codes here''  and [[here ?|]]

[[A brief descripton of the available ocean tide models|]]

> Amazingly, the overall trend of the log-log-relationship closely follows the simple equation N = 4 A^(-0.5) .. A=.. N(A)=...  log-log ...
> So far the findings are purely empirical. In the search for a theoretical reasoning it may be worthwhile to investigate whether any form of the frequency-magnitude relation of the harmonic development of tides could be justified, or if a fractal distribution reflects some intrinsic, natural aspect in the phenomenon of tides. 

[[International Center for Earth Tides |]] ''Pointer to references'' (For any request please contact:...)

[[The Interaction between Earth's rotation and GeoPhysical Processes|]] book 'good' from 83£
[[WP Chandler_wobble|]] 
> The Chandler wobble is a small motion in the Earth's axis of rotation relative to the Earth's surface, which was discovered by American astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler in 1891. It amounts to 9 metres (30 ft)[citation needed] on the Earth's surface and has a period of 433 days. This wobble combines with another wobble with a period of one year so that the total polar motion varies with a period of about 7 years.

[[International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service|]] http:\\
''math model'' search google books "On the tidal force" by Avsyuk 1977
[[Cosmological Principle and Relativity - Part I|]]  eq. 18

[[OPERA expexriment|OPERAexp]]
a 168000 ly no LMC na Tarantula nebula: os neutrinos chegaram 3h antes da luz visivel !! o que dá (v-c)/c aprox The observed delay was only 3 hours, which is smaller by a factor of roughly ten thousand.
2.9×10−5, would correspond to a delay ("prelay"?) of around 4 years for neutrinos coming from SN1987A. 

 the progenitor star was identified as [[Sanduleak -69° 202a|]], a blue supergiant.
Qual será a velocidade peculiar do objecto explodido ? em relação à Terra, e em relação ao CMB ?
apurar qual o redshift :
LMC vem ??? 600 km/s  ???   + Sun-CMB = 369 km/s 
mais correcção da distância pela formula 17 

?  acresce 286 km/s, ou 1000 km/s ? pag 363, ou mesmo mais 6000 km/s pag 366 ?, da frente de onda a afastar-se do local ? acho que não, ou melhor, talvez sim que a luz já foi emitida com a matéria acelerada pela onda de choque.  dados aqui:

It  expands at z=(x²+y²)/2ct - ct/2  (paraboloid)

other courses (Coursera and Stanford)
using octave :
Aprendizagem Automática

[[H2O as a frontend workflow to Spark|]] pdf

NLP Natural Language Processing

[[Machine Learning Cheat Sheet|]] which techniques should be applied

[[laerd statistics - learn SPSS|]]

[[pyspark in pictures|]]  [[on github|]]

[[Tutorial: Spark-GPU Cluster Dev in a Notebook|]] with Aparapi

[[quick start|]]
[[programming guide|]]


[[EDX lectures |]]

   master parameter 
     local [k]    where k=cores
     spark://HOST:PORT      connect to a spark standalone cluster, default port 7077 
     mesos://HOST:PORT      connect to an apache mesos  cluster, default 5050 

cd ~/myvagrant
vagrant up


go inside VM the data catalog is already there
vagrant ssh

!!lecture 4
Programming Spark
Creating Resilient Distributed Datasets (RDD)
Spark Transformations and Actions
Spark Programming model
[[Spark Documentation|]]
[[Spark Programming Guide|]]
[[broadcast & accumulators|]]

!! python
[[re regexp|]]
import re
m ='(?<=abc)def', 'abcdef')
resultado 'def'

import datetime
print 'This was last run on: {0}'.format(
[[ visual-intro-to-machine-learning-part-1/|]]
[[H2O video|]]
[[H2O Deep Learning|]] in memory

[[Deep Learning through Examples video|]]

no youtube find h2o deep 

[[H2O as a frontend workflow to Spark|]] pdf

[[NeuroFlow - on GPU|]] alpha 

[[Programming Tutorials]]
[[What every programmer needs to know about game networking|]] GAFFER ON GAMES

[[unreal engine 4|]] FREE

[[Amitp Game programming resources|]]
[[how-to-write-html5-game-in-30-days-with HTML5 and Python |]]
[[Google app engine and Python|]]

[[Alice, StoryTelling|]] 
[[youtube Alice tutorials|]]

[[City In A Bottle |]] excellent NodeBox for OpenGL from Python code 
City In A Bottle is an interactive project bordering between art, science and games 

[[Gamvas Web|]]  is a well documented 2D HTML5 canvas. Nice game engine in JavaScript

[[Shoot 'Em Up Kit |]] 
[[Storymoto |]] JavaScript game-story scripter and engine


vixra offline 30/Jan/2015
alf 1107 -- 544 downloads  
alf 1412 -- 101 downloads  
vixra offline 15/Abr/2016
alf 1107 -- 742 downloads  
alf 1412 -- 174 downloads


check answers at

The planetary orbits have been studied as ellipses but the solar system is in motion in relation to the distant stars. Their path is along the tip of an **helix** and the ecliptic plane is a convenient plane of projection. I think that the studies were never conducted under this viewpoint.  

The sunlight we see now was emitted more than 8 minutes ago when the Sun was ‘below’ the ecliptic but we see it centered in the plane. I wonder why we do not see any consequence of this.

I’m following a line of reasoning that the motion can have consequences and I revisited the anomalous precession of the perihelion of Mercury,  settled long time ago by Einstein, and I found this perturbing equation:

$$\frac{43}{5557} = 2\pi\frac{369.2\ \text{km}\ \text{s}^{−1}}{299792.458\ \text{km}\ \text{s}^{−1}}$$

Where 5557 is the predicted theoretical value (in [mathpages][1]) for the advance and the 43 is the anomaly.

The simplicity of the formula $$\text{error}/\text{theoric}=2\pi\ V/c$$  and because $V$ is [ **0.054%** off the central measured value of the speed of solar system][2] - $369(\pm0.9$) - makes me wonder if this can be more than a coincidence.

Any kind of reasoning on the why's will be helpful.


IMO, the relation may be justified by the way we make measures, a la Einstein: a *mean* value of a two-way ligth ray path procedure, that is not used in any natural process. This is a human invention.  

To illustrate the error in our measures of distance I will make clear the distinction between ‘gravitational distance’ and the ‘Einstein measure’ with the Earth-Moon system with the help of this image ![help of this image][1].   

At the space position \(E_0\), and time \(t_0\), a laser light is emitted, that propagates with spherical waves in the medium at \(c_0\) speed. It is reflected at \(M_1\) (Moon’s position at time \(t_1\)) and, because the Earth is in motion, is received back at position \(E_2\) and time \(t_2\).  
The solar system, hence the Earth and the Moon, is in motion in the direction \(\overline{E_0 E_2}\) . The Einstein distance measure is a *mean value* \(d_E= c\cdot (t_2-t_0)/2\) and it reports the same distance when the Moon is located at any point in the red curve at moment \(t_1\) (a notable property of ellipses).   
At the moment of reception the Moon is at the gravitational distance \(r= \overline{E_2 M_1}\)  and this is the value that must be used in the inverse square law. The factor of conversion between the Einstein measure \(d_E\) and the effective gravitational distance \(d_g\) is dependent on the angle of the light ray at reception \(\theta\) and obeys  the relation 
$$dg=dE\ \frac{1-e^2}{1-e\cos\theta}$$  
([WP][2] ) where \(e\) is the eccentricity. \(d_E\) is equal to \(d_g\) only for \(e=0\), i.e. \(V=0\) . This error in the distance measure, or light speed, must have consequences.    
I'm not taking in account the light aberration nor the clock rate correction.  
Measuring correctly distances is fulcral in energy balance, orbit determination (flyby/pioneers).  

Can it be the case that we have bad distances or bad speed of light measures?  

! downvote iznogud without a critique, or post an answer !   
$$e=\sqrt{1-\left(\frac{b}{a}\right)^2} =f/a=0.00123$$




The distance to the Moon is calculated approximately using this equation:
Distance = (Speed of light × Time taken for light to reflect) / 2.
In actuality, the round-trip time of about 2.5 seconds is affected by the relative motion of Earth and the Moon, Earth's rotation, lunar libration, weather, polar motion, propagation delay through Earth's atmosphere, the motion of the observing station due to crustal motion and tides, velocity of light in various parts of air and relativistic effects.[5] Nonetheless, the Earth–Moon distance has been measured with increasing accuracy for more than 35 years. The distance continually changes for a number of reasons, but averages about 384,467 kilometers.


WP-Doppler Effect
For waves which do not require a medium, such as light or gravity in general relativity, only the relative difference in velocity between the observer and the source needs to be considered.

mathpages - The Doppler Effect
with velocity C in terms of an inertial coordinate system in which the signal’s speed |C| is independent of direction.

mathpages - Doppler Shift for Sound and Light
 This sometimes gives the impression that relativity requires us to apply a different set of kinematical rules to the propagation of sound than to the propagation of light, but of course that is not the case. 
Consider a frame of reference in which the medium of signal propagation is assumed to be at rest, and suppose an emitter and absorber are located on the x axis, with the emitter moving to the left at a speed of ve and the absorber moving to the right, 
It may seem surprising that the formula for sound waves in a fixed medium with absolute speeds for the emitter and absorber is also applicable to light, ...
Consequently, as cs increases to c, the absolute speeds ve and va of the emitter and absorber relative to the fixed medium merge into a single relative speed u between the emitter and absorber, independent of any reference to a fixed medium, 
.... $$\nu_a=\nu_e\ \sqrt{\frac{1-u/c}{1+u/c}}$$

[[ImCreator - the very best|[]] and its free
   widget to include forms from [[JotForm|]]  free until 100 submisions (month)


	choose map from here:							
	Collection	Maps						
	Model	map	
	#map	#mapDef #date	name	
	m1	md1	2012-01	map1		
	m2	md1	2012-02	map2		
	m3	md2	2012-01	map3		
	Collection	MapsData						
	model	mapData	
	#map	[dims]		[vals]			
	[map:m1	[here,low]	[10,5.05,50.5]			
		[there,low]	[20,1.0,20.0] ]					
	Collection	Users						
	model	user 	
	#user	#classes				
	u1	[cl1,cl2]				
	u2	[cl1]				
	Collection	Dates						
	Model		dates	
	[[y:yyyy, ym:[yyyy-mm...]]...] 
	[ [y:2012, ym:[2012-01,2012-02,2012-09]], [y:2011, ym:[2011-02,2011-02,2011-12]] ]		
	Collection	MapsDefs						
	Model		mapDef
				#mapDef	#classes	name		tags		numViewed	headers
				md1	[cl1,cl2]	nom_map1	[tag1,tag2,tag3]	11	[[local,type],[qty,value, totVal]]
	Collection	TagColors						
	model		tagColor	tag	color	rank			
	ex:				tag1	yellow	1			
	Collection	UsersFavs						
	Model		userFavs	#user	#mapDef	numViewed	taggedAcum		
	ex:				u1	md1	3		[tag1:3,tag2:2,tag3:1]

-----------------   2013-01-26
navigation : tag colored cloud + rotating drum or clickable pie chart (log scale)+ ? ,top 6+others ,explode and implode.
the background is a colored rectangle to show how many itens are selected now. 
dates selection. 
     background horizontal rectangle to dismayed list of selected maps, starting with the favorits and the most viewed, color shows how many maps are selected.
subordinated to the choice of the maps in the pie the dates show only available maps
box 2012 nov out set ago .... jan.    
       01 02  03 ...    31       (if exist day)
        2011 2010 ...         2000  years
        1990s 1980s ........   
 when choose on 2nd or 3th line they are moved up by one line and selected.
on entry most recent year and month are selected
    strings and dates colored and sized; similar coloros are rendered nearer and grouped with the most significant color, with nearer colors in a pie: top 5 and others , explode to see and map if it is a leaf.
dates in another drum:
same color, white on black log sized by number of maps % times number
most recent date at front, by year, explode to get 12 year+month, explode month to days if they exist.
grid for pivot tables : lib slickback = slickgrid + backbone
graphs : d3 or rickshaw or nvd3 or [[radian.js|]] (nice com angular)
models for graphs : 
app with with backbone and d3 and slickgrid
data served from couchdb:
    each map has:
prefered view model
autorized user groups per map and per column (derived from original data definition)
user map preferences saved back 
A DOCument is emsemble of MAPs 
kanso db, cofeescript, coffeedry (coffeecup aka coffeekup) , 
kanso backbone-d3 , the chart autoredraw when the collection changes.

Collections and Models
	choose map from here:							
	Collection       Maps						
	Model		map	#map	#mapDef	#date	name		
	ex:			m1	md1	2012-01	map1		
				m2	md1	2012-02	map2		
				m3	md2	2012-01	map3		
	Collection	MapsData						
	model		mapData	
#map		[dims]		[vals]			
ex:	[map:m1	[here,low]	[10,5.05,50.5]			
			[there,low]	[20,1.0,20.0] ]		
	Collection	Users						
	model	user 	
#user	#classes
		u1	[cl1,cl2]				
			u2	[cl1]				
	Collection	Dates						
	Model		dates	[ [y:2012, ym:[2012-01,2012-02,2012-09]], [y:2011, ym:[2011-02,2011-02,2011-12]] ]					
	Collection	mapDefs
	Model		mapDef	
#mapDef	#classes	name		tags		numViewed	headers
	md1		[cl1,cl2]	nom_map1	[tag1,tag2,tag3]	11	[[local,type],[qty,value, totVal]]
	Collection	TagColors						
	model		tagColor	
tag	color	rank			
ex:	tag1	yellow	1			
	Collection	UsersFavs						
	Model		userFavs	
#user	#mapDef	numViewed	clickedTagsAcum		
ex:	u1	md1		3		[tag1:3,tag2:2,tag3:1]		

[[Butterfly emerges from stellar demise in planetary nebula NGC 6302 |]] see description ;)

>The central star itself cannot be seen, because it is hidden within a doughnut-shaped ring of dust, which appears as a dark band pinching the nebula in the centre. The thick dust belt constricts the star's outflow
>The star's surface temperature is estimated to be over 220 000 degrees Celsius, making it one of the hottest known stars in our galaxy.
>Some of this gas was cast off from its equator at a relatively slow speed,
>where fast-moving gas overtakes and collides with slow-moving gas that left the star at an earlier time
[[Trigonometric Parallaxes of Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae|]]
[[Zothero - Grab your research with a single click|]]
Zotero [zoh-TAIR-oh] is a free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources. 

[[Data Crow|]] Data Crow is the ultimate media cataloger and media organiser
A [[SiteIcon|SiteIcon tiddler]]@glossary helps provide some identity to your space.  Ideally it'd be a square and a minimum of 48*48 pixels size.  You can upload your site icon using the uploader below.

<<binaryUploadPublic title:SiteIcon>>
[[Online Geany colour scheme editor|]]
[[start here|]]

[[aky combo a 94€|]]

[[iris 8800|]]
[[mirage 1604 a 99€ em vez de 199|]]
<!DOCTYPE html>
	<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8">
	<link href="/bags/common/tiddlers/profile.css" type='text/css' rel='stylesheet' >
	<link href="/bags/common/tiddlers/admin.css" type='text/css' rel='stylesheet' >
	<link href="/bags/common/tiddlers/jquery-ui.custom.css" type='text/css' rel='stylesheet' >

<div id="container">
	<div class="main section">
		<a class="app" href="/">home</a>
		<div class="left">
		<div id="siteiconArea">
		<h2>User Icon</h2>
			<img id="siteicon" class="siteicon">
			<form id="upload" method="POST" enctype="multipart/form-data">
				<input type="hidden" name="title" value="SiteIcon" />
				<input type="hidden" name="tags" value="excludeLists">
				<input type="hidden" name="csrf_token" class="csrf" />
				<input type="file" name="file" accept="image/*" />
				<input type="submit" value="upload" />
			<div id="dropzone">Drop file here
				<img class="notloading" src="/bags/common/tiddlers/ajax-loader.gif" alt="submitting SiteIcon" />
		<h2>Find Space</h2>
		<form class="spaceSearch">
			<input class="inputBox" type="text" placeholder="find space" />
			<a href="" class="help"
				title="What is a space?">What is a space?</a>
			<button>view all</button>
		<div class='list-container'>
			You are a member of the following spaces:
			<ul class='ts-space-search'>
		<h2>Create New Space</h2>
		<form class="ts-spaces">
			<input class="inputBox" type="text" name="spacename" placeholder="space name"><span class="hostSuffix"></span>
			<input type="submit" value="Create Space" />
		<div class="right">
		<h2>Change Password</h2>
		<form class="ts-password">
			<input class="inputBox" placeholder="existing password" type="password" name="password">
			<input class="inputBox" placeholder="new password" type="password" name="new_password">
			<input class="inputBox" placeholder="new password"	type="password" name="new_password_confirm">
			<input type="submit" value="Change password">
		<h3>Why OpenID?</h3>
		<a href=""><img src="/bags/common/tiddlers/openid.png" alt="openid" ></a><br />
		Use just one username and password across hundreds of OpenID-enabled sites.<br />
		It's an open standard.<br />
		<a href="">learn more</a>
		<ul class="ts-identities"></ul>
		<form class="ts-openid" target="_top">
				Add an openid:
			<input class="inputBox" type="text" name="openid" placeholder="your openid" />
			<input type="submit" value="Register" />
			<a href="" class="help"
			title="What is an open id?">What is an open id?</a>
		<div class="clear"></div>
<script src="/bags/common/tiddlers/backstage.js"></script>
<script src='/bags/common/tiddlers/jquery.js'></script>
<script src='/bags/tiddlyspace/tiddlers/chrjs'></script>
<script src='/bags/common/tiddlers/'></script>
<script src='/bags/common/tiddlers/chrjs.users'></script>
<script src='/bags/common/tiddlers/chrjs.identities'></script>
<script src="/bags/common/tiddlers/jquery-ui.custom.js"></script>
<script src='/bags/common/tiddlers/jquery-form.js'></script>
<script src="/bags/common/tiddlers/siteiconupload.js"></script>
<script src='/bags/common/tiddlers/ts.js'></script>
<script src="/status.js"></script>
<script type="text/javascript">
 * jQuery UI Autocomplete HTML Extension
 * Copyright 2010, Scott González (
 * Dual licensed under the MIT or GPL Version 2 licenses.
(function( $ ) {

var proto = $.ui.autocomplete.prototype,
	initSource = proto._initSource;

function filter( array, term ) {
	var matcher = new RegExp( $.ui.autocomplete.escapeRegex(term), "i" );
	return $.grep( array, function(value) {
		return matcher.test( $( "<div>" ).html( value.label || value.value || value ).text() );

$.extend( proto, {
	_initSource: function() {
		if ( this.options.html && $.isArray(this.options.source) ) {
			this.source = function( request, response ) {
				response( filter( this.options.source, request.term ) );
		} else { this );

	_renderItem: function( ul, item) {
		return $( "<li></li>" )
			.data( "item.autocomplete", item )
			.append( $( "<a></a>" )[ this.options.html ? "html" : "text" ]( item.label ) )
			.appendTo( ul );

})( jQuery );

_accounts application specific javascript
var link;
ts.init(function(ts) {
	if(ts.user.anon) { // redirect to homepage when user not logged in
		window.location = ts.getHost();
	} else if( === ts.currentSpace){
	} else {
		link = $("<a />").attr("href", ts.getHost( + "/_account").text("Change User Icon");
		$("#siteiconArea div").empty().append(link);
	$(".hostSuffix").text("." + ts.getHost("").split("//")[1]);
	ts.getSpaces(function(spaces) {
		$("<div class='info' />").text("You have " + spaces.length + " spaces.").insertBefore($(".spaceSearch")[0]);
		$("form.spaceSearch input").autocomplete({
			html: true,
			source: function(req, response) {
				ts.getSpaces(function(spaces) {
					var selected = [];
					for(var i = 0; i < spaces.length; i++) {
						var space = spaces[i];
						if( > -1) {
							var host = ts.getHost( ;
							var img = host + "/SiteIcon";
								label: '<a href="' + host + '" target="_parent" class="autocompleteLink"><img src="' + img + '" style="height:24px;width:auto;max-height:24px;max-width:24px;"/>' + + '</a>'
			select: function(event, ui) { = ts.getHost(ui.item.value);

		var $ul = $('.ts-space-search');
		$.each(spaces, function(i, space) {
			$ul.append($('<li/>').html($('<a/>').attr('href', space.uri)

		$('form.spaceSearch button').click(function(ev) {
			return false;

if(window != {
	$("a").live("click",function(ev) {
		$("target", "_parent");
<!--[if lt IE 8]>
<script type="text/javascript" src="/bags/common/tiddlers/json2.js"></script>
''Pag 26
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''Pag 22
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from Astrophysical Plasmas of Steven J. Schwartz , pg 60
We treat the plasma as isothermal (i.e., γ = 1, constant temperature), with the pressure given by the ideal gas law $$p = nk_b (T_e + T_i ) = 2nk_b T$$ and where the ''mass density is related to the particle number density'' by 
$$\rho = nm (m = m_e + m_i )$$. 
The assumption of constant temperature is equivalent to assuming infinite 
thermal conductivity.

[[Number_density Mass_density |]]
For atoms or molecules of a well-defined ''molar mass'' M (in kg/mol), the number density can be expressed in terms of their mass density  (in kg/m3) as
$$n = \frac{\mathrm{N_A}}{M} \rho_\mathrm{m}$$.

[[molar mass|]]
The molar mass of atoms of an element is given by the atomic mass of the element[2] multiplied by the molar mass constant, M
u = 1×10−3 kg/mol = 1 g/mol:[3]
M(H) = 1.007 97(7) × 1 g/mol = 1.007 97(7) g/mol
M(S) = 32.065(5) × 1 g/mol = 32.065(5) g/mol
M(Cl) = 35.453(2) × 1 g/mol = 35.453(2) g/mol
M(Fe) = 55.845(2) × 1 g/mol = 55.845(2) g/mol.

[[2008 thesis |]]
Improved Thermodynamics of the Dense Solar Plasma and Molecular-dynamics ...
	pag 108 Current Controversy
<r> average distance between particles =( 3/4 pi n)^(1/3) 

[[Basic Plasma Physics|]]

[[12 lectures+videos, course Cosmic plasma physics - WS 2014/15|]]

[[Resources inside |]]

[[Introduction to Plasma Physics|]]

interior of a Red Giant Star showing the layers of the elements inside the star.  
In a first impression it seams fine with the most dense material (Iron) in the deep interior.    

IMO that ordering is not correct :  
The density used appears to be the density in solids/liquids - a packaging factor is in presence, not the one in gases nor in ionized plasma. The radiative zone of a star is a mix of neutral and ionized gases . 
The definition of density is Mass/Volume and the interior of an atom is  a vast  vacuum . The interior is blinded to the penetration, other than photons, by the exterior electronic cloud.  
The most dense material inside the star is the plasma sea of ionized Hydrogen and Helium, and the other atoms are less dense and will migrate to the top of that radiation zone.       
I prepared a table using the atomic (neutral) and the ionic radius and the atomic masses to show that the densities in presence are not like the ones in that image.

Is the standard viewpoint (that layering with deep Fe) sustained by data, or is only a theoretical viewpoint ?  

|Elem  |	Radius  |	Ionic   |	   Mass   |	Ion           |	Neutral  |
|           |Neutral     |	Radius|                  |Density     |        Density|
|H	|53	|0|	1|	Infinity|	0.16|
|He	|31	|0|	4|	Infinity|	3.21|
|N	|56	|146	|14	|0.11	   |    1.90|
|O	|48	|140	|16	|0.14	   |    3.45|
|F	|42	|133	|19	|0.19	   |    6.12|
|K	|243	|138	|39	|0.35	   |    0.06|
|Mg	|145	|72	|24	|1.54	   |    0.19|
|Al	|118	|53	|27	|4.33	   |    0.39|
|Fe	|156	|61	|56	|5.89	   |    0.35|
|Si	|111	|40	|28	|10.44 |	0.49|
|W	|193	|66	|184	|15.28 |	0.61|
|C	|67	|16	|12	|69.94 |	0.95|

Elem	Radius	Ionic	Mass	Ion	Neutral

Neutral	Radius	
Density	Density
H	53	0	1	Infinity	0.16
He	31	0	4	Infinity	3.21
N	56	146	14	0.11	1.90
O	48	140	16	0.14	3.45
F	42	133	19	0.19	6.12
K	243	138	39	0.35	0.06
Mg	145	72	24	1.54	0.19
Al	118	53	27	4.33	0.39
Fe	156	61	56	5.89	0.35
Si	111	40	28	10.44	0.49
W	193	66	184	15.28	0.61
C	67	16	12	69.94	0.95

N Avogadro = 6.02e23
12.01 grams of C12 contains 6.02e23 atoms

R=0+   \rho=150 g/cm3   = 7.5e24 particles/cm3 
             per cm                                            (=)  ^0.33 = 161e6 particles/cm
1cm   161e6 particles
x            1     
distance particle to particle = 1/(161e6)=6.2e(-9) cm= 6.2e(-11) m = 61800 fm = 61 pm
265 billion bar to atm = 2.6 × 10^11 atm

the radius of the proton is about 0.84–0.87 fm  approx 8.5 e(-5) Angtrsom*C.mean+free+path-_*Formula.dflt-&f2=1+cm%5E3&f=MeanFreePath.V%5Cu005f1+cm%5E3&f3=1+amu&f=MeanFreePath.m%5Cu005f1+amu&f4=15000000+K&f=MeanFreePath.T%5Cu005f15000000+K&f5=7.5e24&f=MeanFreePath.N%5Cu005f7.5e24&f6=0.85+fm&f=MeanFreePath.r_0.85+fm&a=*FVarOpt.1-_***MeanFreePath.N-.*MeanFreePath.V--.***MeanFreePath.P--.**MeanFreePath.n---.**MeanFreePath.r---&a=*FVarOpt.2-_***MeanFreePath.r--.***MeanFreePath.d---.**MeanFreePath.N-.*MeanFreePath.V---

[[Algorithmic symphonies from one line of code -- how and why?|]]
[[One-line Algorithmic Music in XNA|]]

[[Sound Toy|]] piano in javascript
[[maths sound great!|]] visual sound with javascript and Sound Toy

[[já foi feito em OSLO|]]

[[GSR - Galvanic Skin Response Sensor|]]
[[GSR - Smartphone Version|]]
[[GSR -pro 400€|]]
[[GSR amazon $100|]]


[[Espruino Pico: JavaScript on a USB Stick|]]

[[E-Health to RaspBerryPI or Arduino|]]

see [[WaspMote|]]
and [[also |]]

search arduino / raspberry pi e-health platform

[[O2 regulators|]] 
The title and subtitle of your space are visible to visitors and are also displayed in your browser's tabs. Click on the SiteTitle and SiteSubtitle tiddler links below to make changes.
* [[SiteTitle]]
* [[SiteSubtitle]]
<div macro='slideRevision'></div>
<div class='heading'>
	<span class="titleBar">
		<div class='title' macro='view title text'></div>
	<span class='modifierIcon'
		macro='view modifier SiteIcon label:no height:48 width:48 preserveAspectRatio:yes'>
	<div class='toolbar'
		macro='toolbar [[ToolbarCommands::RevisionToolbar]] icons:yes height:48 width:48 more:popup'>
	<div class='tagClear'></div>
<div class='content'>
	<div class='viewer' macro='view text wikified'></div>
<div class='tagInfo'>
	<div class='tidTags' macro='tags'></div>
	<div class='tagging' macro='tagging'></div>
[[arduino spray gun |]]
[[LOOK raid max auto trigger|]] and [[here|]]
[[LOOK raid max auto trigger large volume (Max 128 oz. Bug Barrier)|]] [[youtube |]]
[[pistolas de rega|]] [[e mais|]]  [[e mais|]]

[[ Airwick Freshmatics wih motor and spray|]]
[[AirWick Freshmatic Teardown - Bypass Protection Method| ]]
[[3D print heads: 3d-printer-series|]]

[[geradores honda ?|]]
[[peclise-digital|]] 12€

[[motor 10cc novo|]] 85€ excelente preço
[[é o Magnum XLS-61A Engine|]] a $250 ??  [[e o manual|]]

[[aeromodelismo lisboa|]]

[[55cc gas motor|]]
[[Goliath is a open source prototype vehicle for developing gas powered quadcopter|]]
[[git goliath-quadcopter|]]

[[battery 6S2P|]]
[[li-ion vs lipo|]]
[[li-ion vs lipo|]]

[[The data that we should know about motor for RC Quad copter.|]]

[[ARDUINO- How to build your own Quadcopter Autopilot / Flight Controller|]]
[[arducopter low-cost-arduino-based-auto-stabilizing-system|]]
[[dji550 SPECS|]]
[[olx Dji f550 - quadro- motores- esc's- trem de aterragem- etc 180€|]]
[[Motor brushless brutal ! para drone ou modelismo|]] do fundão
[[4 ESC 30A 40€|]]
[[55A ESP |]] do fundão
[[opensource Book:AeroQuad+Manual|]]
[[olx hexa frame 110 cm aluminio|]]
[[loja de Mafra|]]
[[tricopter-v3-kit|]] with 3D print instrauctions and [[mounting|]]
[[at TED|]]
[[WP QuadCopter|]]
[[singlecopter-and-coaxcopter|]] ardupilot
[[APM Copter|]] ardupilot
[[DIY Drones|]]
[[3drobotics caro|]]
[[six aeriCam expensive and good|]]
[[Build Your Own MultiCopter|]]
[[nano 4copter|]] e [[aqui|]]
[[hexacopter f550|]] [[specs|]][[hobbyking parts|]] [[680 hexframe|]]
[[3d printed drone|]] and [[here|]]  [[git soft, adapted from aerocontrol|]]
[[git copters|]]
[[Rpi quad|]]
[[RTLinux|]] see rtos
[[eCos hardware|]]
[[eCos opensource RTOS|]]
[[book eCos dwnl pdf|]]
[[Build Tips - Avengers Helicarrier|]]
[[Tritan Demo|]]
[[Heavy Lift|]]
[[heavyLift HLQ|]]
[[Y3 Tricopter TypeⅡ & KK2.0 FW 1.6 Vol.53 Test Flight|]]
[[Flite Test - Tricopter - SCRATCH BUILD|]] 
[[    Part List|]]
[[Heavy Lift 50lbs 22.7kg 685mm X8 Multi Rotor|]]

[[Aptana studio3 videos|]] 
[[vimeo 6886661 introduction|]]
[[vimeo 7339502 file workflow|]]
[[vimeo RadRAils channel|]]


[[Ruby Version Manager (RVM) |]]

[[Ruby downloas|]]  source 1.9.2

  sudo apt-get install ruby irb rdoc
  (no Ubunto 11.10 ficou com a versão 1.8.7

from source compiled and installed version 1.9.2
gem rack ri irb rdoc  installed
sudo gem install rails

help gems
[[Twiter BootStrap|]] uses LESS instead of SASS

ruby-oci8 in /usr/local/lib/ruby/gems/1.9.1/gems/ruby-oci8-2.1.0
instructions at&nbsp;
&nbsp;gzip -dc ruby-oci8-2.1.0.tar.gz | tar xvf -
&nbsp;cd ruby-oci8-2.1.0
sudo &nbsp;make install

downloaded ,.. cd 
gem install activerecord-oracle_enhanced-adapter
at work the cmd bundle install  did not worked , did not connected to github (proxy problem ?)

proxy and gems see

rdocs fot the installed gems:
>gem server 

>bundler install
options available in the Gemfile
[[Oracle and RoR|]]

[[Accessorize Oracle Database with Ruby|]]

require 'rubygems'
require 'active_support/core_ext'
schema ='db/schema.rb')
schema.scan(/create_table "(\w+)",.*?\n(.*?)\n  end/m).each do |name, ddl|
  puts "rails generate scaffold #{name.classify} " +
    reject {|type,name| %w(created_at updated_at).include? name}.
    map {|type,name| "#{name}:#{type}"}.join(' ')
[[TextMate for Ubuntu Linux|]] plugins for gedit

DocPad. Intuitive web development.

[[Ruby CoffeeScript|]] gem install coffee-script 


[[NoSql inside your browser|]] [[page source|view-source:]]
|''Description''|Provides a TiddlySpace version of the backstage and a homeLink macro|
|''Contributors''|Jon Lister, Jon Robson, Colm Britton|
|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig ImageMacroPlugin TiddlySpaceViewTypes|
.tiddler .error.annotation .button{
	display: inline-block;

#backstageArea {
	z-index: 49;
	color: white;
	background-color: black;
	background: -webkit-gradient(linear,left bottom,left top,color-stop(0, #222),color-stop(0.5, #333),color-stop(1, #555));
	background: -moz-linear-gradient(center bottom,#222 0%, #333 50%, #555 100%);
	filter: progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr=#ff555555, endColorstr=#ff222222);
	-ms-filter: "progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.gradient(startColorstr=#ff555555, endColorstr=#ff222222)";
	height: 25px;
	padding: 0;

#backstageButton {
	overflow: hidden;

#backstageButton #backstageShow,
#backstageButton #backstageHide {
	margin: 0px;
	padding: 0px;

#backstageButton #backstageShow:hover,
#backstageButton #backstageHide:hover {
	background: none;
	color: none;

#backstageButton img,
#backstageButton svg {
	width: 24px;
	height: 24px;

#messageArea {
	top: 50px;

#backstageToolbar {
	position: relative;

#backstageArea a {
	padding: 0px;
	margin-left: 0px;
	color: white;
	background: none;

#backstageArea a:hover {
	background-color: white;

#backstage ol,
#backstage ul {
	padding: auto;

#backstageButton a {
	margin: 0;

.backstagePanelBody ul {
	padding: 5px;
	margin: 5px;

#backstage #backstagePanel {
	margin-left: 5%;
	padding: 0em;
	margin-right: 5%;

#backstageToolbar a {
	position: relative;

#backstageArea a.backstageSelTab,
#backstageToolbar .backstageTask {
	line-height: 25px;
	color: #767676;

.backstageTask .externalImage,
.backstageTask .image {
	display: inline;

#backstageToolbar a span {
	z-index: 2;

a.backstageTask {
	display: inline;
        margin-left: 1em !important;

.backstagePanelBody .button {
	display: inline-block;
	margin-right: 10px;

.backstagePanelBody {
	margin: 0 0 0 0.6em;
	padding: 0.4em 0.5em 1px 0.5em;

#backstage table {
	margin: auto;

#backstage .wizard table {
	border: 0px;
	margin: 0;

#backstage div  li.listLink {
	border: 0px;
	width: 78%;
	font-size: 0.7em;

#backstage div li.listTitle {
	font-weight: bold;
	text-decoration: underline;
	font-size: 1em;
	background: #ccc;
	width: 100%;

#backstage fieldset {
	border: solid 1px [[ColorPalette::Background]];

#backstage .viewer table,#backstage table.twtable {
	border: 0px;

#backstageToolbar img {
	padding: 0;

#backstage .wizard,
#backstage .wizardFooter {
	background: none;

.viewer td, .viewer tr, .twtable td, .twtable tr {
	border: 1px solid #eee;

#backstage .inlineList ul li {
	background-color: [[ColorPalette::Background]];
	border: solid 1px [[ColorPalette::TertiaryMid]];
	display: block;
	float: left;
	list-style: none;
	margin-right: 1em;
	padding: 0.5em;

.backstageClear, .inlineList form {
	clear: both;
	display: block;
	margin-top: 3em;

.tiddlyspaceMenu {
	text-align: center;

span.chunkyButton {
	display: inline-block;
	padding: 0;
	margin: 0;
	border: solid 2px #000;
	background-color: #04b;

span.chunkyButton a.button, span.chunkyButton a:active.button {
	white-space: nowrap;
	font-weight: bold;
	font-size: 1.8em;
	color: #fff;
	text-align: center;
	padding: 0.5em 0.5em;
	margin: 0;
	border-style: none;
	display: block;

span.chunkyButton:hover {
	background-color: #014;

span.chunkyButton a.button:hover {
	border-style: none;
	background: none;
	color: #fff;

#backstage .unpluggedSpaceTab .wizard,
.unpluggedSpaceTab .wizard {
	background: white;
	border: 2px solid #CCC;
	padding: 5px;

.syncKey .keyItem {
	border: 1px solid black;
	display: inline-block;
	margin: 0.2em;
	padding: 0.1em 0.1em 0.1em 0.1em;

.keyHeading {
	font-size: 2em;
	font-weight: bold;
	margin: 0.4em 0em -0.2em;

.unpluggedSpaceTab .putToServer,
.unpluggedSpaceTab .notChanged {
	display: none;

.tiddlyspaceMenu ul {
	margin: 0;
	padding: 0;

.tiddlyspaceMenu ul li {
	list-style: none;

.unsyncedChanges .unsyncedList {
	display: block;

.unsyncedList {
	display: none;
(function ($) {
    var name = "StyleSheet" + tiddler.title;
    config.shadowTiddlers[name] = "/*{{{*/\n%0\n/*}}}*/".
        format(store.getTiddlerText(tiddler.title + "##StyleSheet")); // this accesses the StyleSheet section of the current tiddler (the plugin that contains it)
    store.addNotification(name, refreshStyles);

    if (!config.extensions.tiddlyweb.status.tiddlyspace_version) { // unplugged
        config.extensions.tiddlyweb.status.tiddlyspace_version = "<unknown>";
        config.extensions.tiddlyweb.status.server_host = {
   }; // TiddlySpaceLinkPlugin expects this
    var disabled_tasks_for_nonmembers = ["tiddlers", "plugins", "batch", "sync"];

    var tweb = config.extensions.tiddlyweb;
    var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;
    var currentSpace =;
    var imageMacro = config.macros.image;

    if (config.options.chkBackstage === undefined) {
        config.options.chkBackstage = false;

// Set up Backstage
    config.tasks = {};
    config.tasks.status = {
        tooltip:"TiddlySpace Info",
        content:"<<tiddler Backstage##Menu>>"
    config.tasks.tiddlers = {
        tooltip:"tiddlers control panel",
        content:"<<tiddler Backstage##BackstageTiddlers>>"
    config.tasks.plugins = {
        tooltip:"Manage installed plugins",
        content:"<<tiddler Backstage##Plugins>>"
    config.tasks.batch = {
        tooltip:"Batch manage public/private tiddlers",
        content:"<<tiddler Backstage##BatchOps>>"
    config.tasks.tweaks = {
        tooltip:"Tweak TiddlyWiki behaviors",
        content:"<<tiddler Backstage##Tweaks>>"
    config.tasks.exportTiddlers = {
        tooltip:"Import/export tiddlers from/to a TiddlyWiki",
        content:"<<tiddler Backstage##ImportExport>>"
    config.tasks.sync = {
        tooltip:"Check Sync status",
        content:"<<tiddler Backstage##SpaceUnplugged>>"

    if (window.location.protocol === "file:") {
        config.unplugged = true;

    config.backstageTasks = ["status", "tiddlers", "plugins",
        "batch", "tweaks", "exportTiddlers", "sync"];

    config.messages.backstage.prompt = "";
// initialize state
    var _show =; = function () {
        // selectively hide backstage tasks and tabs based on user status
        var tasks = $("#backstageToolbar .backstageTask").show();
        var bs = backstage.tiddlyspace;
        if (!config.unplugged) {
            tweb.getUserInfo(function (user) {
                if (user.anon) {
                    jQuery.each(disabled_tasks_for_nonmembers, function (i, task) {
                        var taskIndex = config.backstageTasks.indexOf(task);
                        if (taskIndex !== -1) {
                            config.backstageTasks.splice(taskIndex, 1);
                    config.messages.memberStatus = bs.locale.loggedout;
                } else {
                    config.messages.memberStatus = readOnly ?
                        bs.locale.nonmember : bs.locale.member;
        } else {
            config.messages.memberStatus = bs.locale.unplugged;

        // display backstage
        return _show.apply(this, arguments);
    if (readOnly) {
        jQuery.each(disabled_tasks_for_nonmembers, function (i, task) {
            var taskIndex = config.backstageTasks.indexOf(task);
            if (taskIndex !== -1) {
                config.backstageTasks.splice(taskIndex, 1);

    var tasks = config.tasks;
    var commonUrl = "/bags/common/tiddlers/%0";

    backstage.tiddlyspace = {
            member:"You are a member of this space.",
            nonmember:"You are not a member of this space.",
            loggedout:"You are currently logged out of TiddlySpace.",
            unplugged:"You are unplugged."
        showButton:function () {
            var showBtn = $("#backstageShow")[0];
            var altText = $(showBtn).text();
            imageMacro.renderImage(showBtn, "backstage.svg",
                { altImage:commonUrl.format("backstage.png"), alt:altText});
        hideButton:function () {
            var hideBtn = $("#backstageHide")[0];
            var altText = $(hideBtn).text();
            imageMacro.renderImage(hideBtn, "close.svg",
                { altImage:commonUrl.format("close.png"), alt:altText, width:24, height:24 });

    var _init = backstage.init;
    backstage.init = function () {
        _init.apply(this, arguments);
        var init = function (user) {
            var bs = backstage.tiddlyspace;

    var home = config.macros.homeLink = {
            linkText:"your home space"
        handler:function (place) {
            var container = $("<span />").appendTo(place)[0];
            tweb.getUserInfo(function (user) {
                if (!user.anon && !== currentSpace) {
                    createSpaceLink(container,, null, home.locale.linkText);

    config.macros.exportSpace = {
        handler:function (place, macroName, params) {
            var filename = params[0] ||
            $('<a class="button">download</a>').// XXX: i18n
                attr("href", filename).appendTo(place);


Gambas , VB like
[[Sctratch , Visual programming, MIT|]]
[[Scratch Getting Started, pdf|]]
[[App Inventor, MIT, android|]]
[[App Inventor, learn|]]
''[[App Inventor, tuts|]]''
[[Getting Started with Quickly||]]
[[Tiny C Compiler, x86|]]

"Insanity is doing the same thing over and over and expecting different results." - Albert Einstein
![[PSR J0337+1715, A millisecond pulsar in a stellar triple system|arXiv:1401.0535v1]] 2 Jan 2014 
[[Pulsar Catalog|]]
[[Atnf pulsar catalog|]]
[[ATNF Pulsar Catalogue, v1.48 : Documentation|]] and [[download and install|]]
[[Education and advanced on Pulsars |]] 
[[Data Access Portal - CSIRO|]] exemple here
[[tese e dados muito actuais google "Long-Term Timing of Millisecond Pulsars"]] 
[[A Tutorial on Radio Pulsars|]]

![[List of pulsars in binary systems|]] 
[[inspiral time formula|]] PSR J1829+2456: a relativistic binary pulsar (coalescence time)

The period derivatives of pulsars:
[[On the Rate of Change of Period for Accelerated Motion and Their Implications in Astrophysics|]] R. Rajamohan and A. Satya Narayanan

[[GenCelestia|]] generate Celestia files
[[online digitize|]] 
[[TEMPO2 parameters|]] open source 
3.3 Removing timing noise
Some of these structures are understood; cusps, for instance, signify sudden changes in the pulsar's spin rate during a glitch, sinusoidal oscillations can represent unmodelled companions (such as planets) or the pulsar precessing. However, many of the structures seen in the residuals are still not understood and are known as "timing noise". To obtain the most accurate pulsar's positional and proper motion parameters (and dispersion measure) it is essential to remove this timing noise. Traditionally this has been carried out by fitting higher order pulsar rotational derivative terms. However, Hobbs et al. (2004) described an improved method that used the fitting of harmonically related sinusoids.

see binary pulsar 
[[PSR_B1913|]] 7.75 hours 
The pulses from the pulsar arrive 3 seconds earlier at some times relative to others, showing that the pulsar’s orbit is 3 light-seconds across, approximately the diameter of the Sun. Since this is a binary system, the masses of the two neutron stars can be determined, and they are each around 1–3 times the mass of the Sun. Observations have shown that the pulsar’s orbit is gradually contracting, due to the emission of energy in the form of Gravitational Waves, as predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity, causing the pulsar to reach periastron slightly early. Also, periastron advances 4º per year in longitude due to the gravitational field (thus the pulsar’s periastron moves as far in a day as Mercury’s moves in a century).

[[Timing Measurements of the Relativistic Binary Pulsar PSR B1913+16|]] proper motion 
|''Description''|Allows the rendering of svg images in a TiddlyWiki|
|''Notes''|Currently only works in modern browsers (not IE)|
{{{<<image SVG>>}}} will render the text of the tiddler with title SVG as an SVG image (but not in ie where it will fail silently)
width/height: specify width/height parameters
link: make the image link to a given location
tiddlyLink: link to a tiddler

Binary tiddlers in TiddlyWeb when passed through the wikifier will be shown as images.
eg. {{{<<view text wikified>>}}} on a binary tiddler will show the image.
{{{<<view fieldname image>>}}}
will render the value of the tiddler field 'fieldname' as an image. This field can contain a tid
{{{<<image SiteIcon>>}}}
will create an image tag where the tiddler has content type beginning image and not ending +xml
will attempt to create svg object in other scenarios
{{{<<image /photos/x.jpg>>}}}
will create an image tag with src /photos/x.jpg as long as there is not a tiddler called /photos/x.jpg in 
which case it will render that tiddler as an image. Note for the case of svg files it will attempt to render as an svg if possible via the image
tag. It doesn't embed the svg in the dom for security reasons as svg code can contain javascript.
(function($) {

var macro = config.macros.image = {
	shim: "/bags/common/tiddlers/shim",
	ieVersion: config.browser.isIE ? parseInt(config.browser.ieVersion[1], 10) : false,
	svgns: "",
	xlinkns: "", 
	svgAvailable: document.implementation.hasFeature("", "1.1"),
	_fixPrefix: 1,
	_external_cache: {},
	_image_tag_cache: {},
	_image_dimensions: {},
	locale: {
		badImage: "This image cannot be displayed."
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler){
		var imageSource = params[0];
		// collect named arguments
		var args = macro.getArguments(paramString, params);
		this.renderImage(place, imageSource, args);
	init: function() {
		var startupImages = store.getTaggedTiddlers("systemImage");
		var place = $("<div />").attr("id", "systemImageArea").appendTo("body").hide()[0];
		for(var i = 0; i < startupImages.length; i++) {
			var image = startupImages[i];
			macro.renderImage(place, image.title, { idPrefix: "" });
		var data = new Image();
		data.onload = function() {
			// note ie 8 only supports data uris up to 32k so cannot be relied on
			macro.supportsDataUris = this.width != 1 || this.height != 1 ? false : true;
			macro.supportsDataUris = macro.ieVersion && macro.ieVersion < 9 ? false : macro.supportsDataUris;
		data.onerror = data.onload;
		data.src = "data:image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhAQABAIAAAAAAAP///ywAAAAAAQABAAACAUwAOw==";
	refreshImage: function(src) {
		var elements = macro._image_tag_cache[src] ? macro._image_tag_cache[src] : [];
		if(macro._image_dimensions[src]) {
			macro._image_dimensions[src] = false;
		for(var i = 0; i < elements.length; i++) {
			var el = $(elements[i]);
			var newSrc = "%0?nocache=%1".format(src, Math.random());
			el.attr("src", newSrc); // force reload
	isBinaryImageType: function(contentType) {
		return (contentType && contentType.indexOf("image") === 0 &&
			contentType.indexOf("+xml") != contentType.length - 4) ? true : false;
	isImageTiddler: function(tiddler) {
		return macro.isSVGTiddler(tiddler) || macro.isBinaryImageTiddler(tiddler);
	isSVGTiddler: function(tiddler) {
		var type = tiddler ? tiddler.fields['server.content-type'] : false;
		return type == "image/svg+xml";
	isBinaryImageTiddler: function(tiddler) {
		return macro.isBinaryImageType(tiddler.fields['server.content-type']);
	renderImage: function(place, imageSource, options) {
		var imageTiddler = store.getTiddler(imageSource);
		var container;
		var classes = ["image"];
		if( {
			classes = classes.concat(["imageLink", "externalLink"]);
			container = $("<a />").attr("href",[0];
		} else if(options.tiddlyLink) {
			container = createTiddlyLink(place, options.tiddlyLink, false);
		} else {
			container = $("<span />").appendTo(place)[0];
		$(container).addClass(classes.join(" "));

		options = options ? options : {};
		if(imageTiddler && macro.isBinaryImageTiddler(imageTiddler)) { // handle the case where we have an image url
			return macro._renderBinaryImageTiddler(container, imageTiddler, options);
		} else if(imageTiddler){ // handle the case where we have a tiddler
			return macro._renderSVGTiddler(container, imageTiddler, options);
		} else { // we have a string representing a url
			return macro._renderBinaryImageUrl(container, imageSource, options);
	_renderAlternateText: function(container, options) {
		var img;
		var src = options.src || "";
		if(options.width && options.height) {
			img = $("<img />").attr("src", src).addClass("svgImageText").attr("width", options.width).
				attr("height", options.height).appendTo(container);
		var alt = options.alt;
		if(img && alt) {
			img.attr("alt", alt).attr("title", alt);
		} else if(alt) {
		macro._image_tag_cache[src] = img;
	_renderSVGTiddler: function(place, tiddler, options) {
		if(!options) {
			options = {};
		merge(options, { tiddler: tiddler, fix: true});

		if(macro.svgAvailable) {
			this._importSVG(place, options); // display the svg
		} else if(options.altImage) {
			var image = options.altImage;
			delete options.altImage;
			this._renderBinaryImageUrl(place, image, options);
		} else {
			this._renderAlternateText(place, options); // instead of showing the image show the alternate text.
	_renderBinaryImageTiddler: function(place, tiddler, options) {
		var resourceURI;
		var fields = tiddler.fields;
		if(fields["server.type"] == "tiddlyweb") { // construct an accurate url for the resource
			resourceURI = "%0/%1/tiddlers/%2".format(config.defaultCustomFields[""],
				fields["server.workspace"], encodeURI(fields["server.title"]));
		} else { // guess the url for the resource
			resourceURI = tiddler.title;
		var ctype = fields["server.content-type"] || tiddler.type;
		var text = tiddler.text;
		if(macro.supportsDataUris && ctype && text.indexOf("<html") == -1) {
			var uri = "data:%0;base64,%1".format(ctype, text);
			options.src = resourceURI;
			return macro._renderBinaryImageUrl(place, uri, options);
		} else if(options.src) {
			return macro._renderBinaryImageUrl(place, options.src, options);
		} else {
			return macro._renderBinaryImageUrl(place, resourceURI, options);
	_renderImageTag: function(container, src, width, height, options) {
		var img;
		img = $("<img />").appendTo(container);
		if(height) {
			img.attr("height", height);
		if(width) {
			img.attr("width", width);
		if(macro.ieVersion && macro.ieVersion < 7 && macro.shim && options.ie6png) {
			$(img).css({width: userW, height: userH,
					filter: "progid:DXImageTransform.Microsoft.AlphaImageLoader(src='%0', sizingMethod='scale')".format(src)
				}).attr("src", macro.shim);
		} else {
			img.attr("src", src);
		if(!macro._image_tag_cache[options.srcUrl]) {
			macro._image_tag_cache[options.srcUrl] = [];
		img = $(img).addClass(options.imageClass)[0];
		return img;
	_getDimensions: function(realDimensions, reqDimensions, preserve) {
		var w = realDimensions.width;
		var h = realDimensions.height;
		var reqh = reqDimensions.height;
		var reqw = reqDimensions.width;
		var finalw = w, finalh = h;
		var ratiow = reqw / w, ratioh = reqh / h;
		var scaledw = ratioh * w;
		var scaledh = ratiow * h;
		if(!reqw && reqh) {
			finalw = scaledw;
			finalh = reqh;
		} else if(reqw && !reqh) {
			finalw = reqw;
			finalh = scaledh;
		} else if(reqh && reqw) {
			var preserveWidth = w > h ? true : false;
			if(preserve) {
				if(preserveWidth && scaledh < reqh) {
					finalh = scaledh;
					finalw = reqw;
				} else {
					finalh = reqh;
					finalw = scaledw;
			} else {
				finalw = reqw;
				finalh = reqh;
		return { width: parseInt(finalw, 10), height: parseInt(finalh, 10) };
	_renderBinaryImageUrl: function(container, src, options) {
		var srcUrl = options.src ? options.src : src;
		srcUrl = srcUrl.indexOf("/") === -1 ? "/%0".format(srcUrl) : srcUrl; // for IE. 
		var image_dimensions = macro._image_dimensions[srcUrl];
		var image = new Image(); // due to weird scaling issues where you use just a width or just a height
		var createImageTag = function(dimensions, error) {
			if(error) {
				var altImage = options.altImage;
				if(altImage) {
					delete options.altImage;
					macro._renderBinaryImageUrl(container, altImage, options);
				} else {
					options.src = src;
					macro._renderAlternateText(container, options);
			} else {
				var dim = macro._getDimensions(dimensions, { 
					width: options.width, height: options.height }, options.preserveAspectRatio);
				options.srcUrl = srcUrl;
				macro._renderImageTag(container, src, dim.width, dim.height, options);

		if(!image_dimensions) {
			image.onload = function() {
				var dimensions = { width: image.width, height: image.height};
				macro._image_dimensions[srcUrl] = dimensions;
			image.onerror = function() {
				createImageTag(null, true);
			image.src = src;
		} else {
	_generateIdPrefix: function(){
		return "twsvgfix_" + (this._fixPrefix++).toString() + "_";
	_fixSVG: function(childNodes, idPrefix) {
		var urlPattern = /url\(\#([^\)]*)\)*/ig;
		var fixes = [
		{ attr: "id", pattern: /^(.*)$/ig },
		{ attr: "href", namespace: macro.xlinkns, pattern: /^#(.*)$/ig }
		var url_fixes = ["filter", "fill", "mask", "stroke", "style"];
		for(var i = 0; i < url_fixes.length; i++) {
			fixes.push({ attr: url_fixes[i], pattern: urlPattern });
		for(var t = 0; t < childNodes.length; t++) {
			var node = childNodes[t];
			for(var a = 0; a < fixes.length; a++) {
				var fix = fixes[a];
				var attr = fix.attr;
				var ns = fix.namespace || "";
				if(node.hasAttributeNS && node.hasAttributeNS(ns, attr)) {
					var v = node.getAttributeNS(ns, attr);
					fix.pattern.lastIndex = 0;
					var match = fix.pattern.exec(v);
					if(match) {
						// Make sure replacement string doesn't contain any single dollar signs
						var toReplace = match[1];
						if(toReplace.indexOf(idPrefix) !== 0 && toReplace.indexOf("twglobal_") !== 0) {
							var replacement = (idPrefix + toReplace).replace("$", "$$$$"); 
							v = v.replace(match[1], replacement);
						node.setAttributeNS(ns, attr,v);
			var children = node.childNodes;
			if(children.length > 0) {
				this._fixSVG(children, idPrefix);
	_importSVG: function(place, options){
		options = options ? options : {};
		var svgDoc, tiddlerText = options.tiddler.text;
		if (window.DOMParser) {
			svgDoc = new DOMParser().parseFromString(tiddlerText, "application/xml").documentElement;
			var idPrefix = options.idPrefix || this._generateIdPrefix();
			this._fixSVG([svgDoc], idPrefix);
			var el = document.importNode(svgDoc, true);
			var svgHolder = document.createElementNS(macro.svgns,"svg");
			var width = options.width;
			var height = options.height;
			if(width || height) {
				if(width && height) { // set view box of containing svg element based on the svg viewbox and width and height.
					var viewBox = el.getAttribute("viewBox");
					var topLeft = "0 0";
					if(viewBox) {
						topLeft = viewBox.replace(/([0-9]*) +([0-9]*) +([0-9]*) +([0-9]*) */gi,"$1 $2");
					svgHolder.setAttributeNS(macro.svgns, "viewBox", "0 0 %0 %1".format(width, height));
				} else {
					if(!width) {
						width = el.getAttribute("width");
					if(!height) {
						height = el.getAttribute("height");
				svgHolder.setAttribute("width", width);
				svgHolder.setAttribute("height", height);

				el.setAttribute("width", "100%");
				el.setAttribute("height", "100%");
				svgHolder.setAttribute("class", "svgImage svgIcon %0".format(options.imageClass || ""));
			else {
				var existing = el.className ? el.className.baseVal : "";
				el.setAttribute("class","svgImage %0".format(existing));
			// if a tiddler attribute is set this is read as a link
			$("[tiddler], [tiddlyLink]", place).attr("refresh", "link").click(function(ev) {
				var tiddler = $("tiddlyLink");
				if(tiddler) {
					story.displayTiddler(, tiddler);
	getArguments: function(paramString, params) {
		var args = paramString.parseParams("name", null, true, false, true)[0];
		var options = {};
		for(var id in args) {
			if(true) {
				var p = args[id];
				if(id == "def") {
					options[id] = p;
				} else {
					options[id] = p[0];
		var width = isNaN(params[1]) ? false : parseInt(params[1], 10);
		var height = isNaN(params[2]) ? false : parseInt(params[2], 10);

		options.width = macro.lookupArgument(options, "width", width);
		options.height = macro.lookupArgument(options, "height", height);
		options.preserveAspectRatio = args.preserveAspectRatio && 
			args.preserveAspectRatio[0] == "yes" ? true : false;
		options.tiddlyLink = macro.lookupArgument(options, "tiddlyLink", false); = macro.lookupArgument(options, "link", false);
		return options;
	lookupArgument: function(args, id, ifEmpty) {
		return args[id] ? args[id] : ifEmpty;

// update views
var _oldwikifiedview = config.macros.view.views.wikified;
// update wikifier to check tiddler type before rendering
merge(config.macros.view.views, {
	wikified: function(value, place, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		if(macro.isImageTiddler(tiddler) && params[0] == "text") {
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			macro.renderImage(newplace, tiddler.title, { alt: macro.locale.badImage });
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			_oldwikifiedview.apply(this, arguments);
	image: function(value, place, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
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		var title = params[0] == "text" ? tiddler.title : value;
		var args = macro.getArguments(paramString, params);
		macro.renderImage(place, title, args);
config.shadowTiddlers.StyleSheetImageMacro = [".wikifiedImage svg, .wikifiedImage .image { width: 80%; }",
	".svgImageText { background-color:[[ColorPalette::Error]]; color:#ddd; display: inline-block; }",
	"span.svgImageText { display: inline-block; overflow: hidden; }"
store.addNotification("StyleSheetImageMacro", refreshStyles);

[[2011 course lessons|]]

[[Data Science coursera|]]

[[Statistics and R for the Life Sciences EDX|]]
Média  μ 
μ = Σx.P(x)
Variância  σ^2 
σ^2 = Σ[(x- μ)^2 .P(x)]
σ^2 = [Σx^2 .P(x)] - μ^2
Desvio Padrão σ

!Distribuição Binomial
Experimentos de Bernoulli
Em todas estas situações temos um conjunto
de provas que satisfazem as seguintes
as provas se realizam sob as mesmas condições
cada prova comporta apenas dois resultados possíveis (mutuamente exclusivos), designados por S (sucesso) e F (falha).
a probabilidade de sucesso P(S) é a mesma em cada prova
a variável aleatória de interesse, X, 
X, representa o número de sucessos em cada prova 
as provas são independentes entre si

probabilidade de sucesso é p
q=(1-p) é a probabilidade de falha
$$P ( X = x ) = \frac{n!}{(n-x)!x!} p^x ( 1 − p )^{n − x}$$
A distribuição binomial tem os parâmetros:
média : $$μ = n ⋅ p$$
desvio padrão : $$σ = \sqrt{n ⋅ p ⋅ q}$$

Notação para Distribuição Binomial
S e F (Sucesso ou falha): os dois resultados possíveis
p e q: probabilidades de S e F, respectivamente
P(S) = p; P(F) = q
n: número fixo de provas
x: número específico de sucessos em n provas, podendo ser qualquer inteiro entre 0 e n
P(x): probabilidade de se obter exatamente  ́x ́ sucessos em cada prova.

n=15 provas; x=3; p=0,1 e q=0,9
Dado que 10% das pessoas são canhotas, qual a probabilidade de obtermos exatamente 3 estudantes canhotos numa turma com 15 estudantes.
Verifique se é um experimento binomial e identifique n, x, p e q.
Número fixo de provas
Independência: Sim. O fato de uma pessoa ser canhota ou destra não afeta a probabilidade do outro ser canhoto ou destro.
Duas categorias de resultados: canhota ou destro
Probabilidades constantes: a probabilidade de 0,1 canhoto permanece constante para cada um dos 15 estudantes

!Distribuição Uniforme
Uma V.A. contínua tem distribuição uniforme se seus valores se espalham uniformemente sobre uma faixa de possibilidades. Assim, o gráfico dessa distribuição resulta em uma forma retangular
f  x  = 1/(b−a),  a≤x≤b

P x 1 ≤ X ≤x 2 =x 2 −x 1 ⋅1/(b−a) ,  a≤x1x2≤b

!Distribuição Normal ou de Gauss
 regra 68-95-99.7
 É inteiramente descrita por seus parâmetros de média e desvio padrão, ou seja, conhecendo-se estes valores consegue-se determinar qualquer probabilidade em uma distribuição Normal.
Um interessante uso da Distribuição Normal é que ela serve de aproximação para o cálculo de outras distribuições quando o número de observações fica grande. Essa importante propriedade provém do Teorema do Limite Central que diz que "toda soma de variáveis aleatórias independentes de média finita e variância limitada é aproximadamente Normal, desde que o número de termos da soma seja suficientemente grande

distribuição normal padrão,  Se \(\mu = 0 \ , \sigma = 1\), 
$$f(x)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}}\ e^{\frac{-x^2}{2}}$$
padronizando com 
$$f(x)=\frac{1}{\sigma\sqrt{2\pi}}\ e^{\frac{-(x-\mu)^2}{2\sigma^2}}$$

[[WP distribuição Normal |]]

[[Practical Text Mining with SQL using Relational Databases|]]

[[MADlib |]] Big Data Machine Learning in SQL for Data Scientists

[[Statistcs 1|]] by a psicology prof of Princeton edu
[[Kirkman, T.W. (1996) Statistics to Use |]] compreensive online hands on book

''[[Electronic Statistics Textbook |]] StatSoft''

[[Análise de Dados e Inferência Estatística|]] Duke uni, coursera
[[Videos from Coursera's four week course in R |]]
[[Complete list of Coursera courses using R |]]


[[The Johns Hopkins Data Science Specialization on Coursera|[coursera/]]  r nine new one-month classes to run on the Coursera platform
[[9 free courses at coursera|]]  start here
[[datacamp|]] Learn R and became a Data Analyst

[[Openintro site R-labs|]] and [[package|]]
[[OpenIntro |]] pdf book

[[SWIRL|]] swirl is a software package for the R statistical programming language. Its purpose is to teach users statistics and R simultaneously and interactively.
[[install swirl and start working|]] 
> library("swirl")
> swirl()
Esc and  > bye() to save and exit (user Velez)
>play() on myself until nxt()
>nfo() this menu
> X <- 5+7  assignment <-
> z<- c(1.1, 9, 3.14)  -- c() create a vector c(concatenation)
> c?  help on c function or ?c or ??term_of_interest (faz o search no help)
> c(z,55,z)   -- concatenate vectors too
> z*2+100  -- aplica *2+100 a acada elemento do vetor z
> dividir / * + -  vetor N por vetor N dá vetor N, divide os correspondentes por posição
> if the vectors are of different lengths, R "recycles" the shorter vector until ..
> ex : z * 2 + 100,  is this: z * c(2, 2, 2) + c(100, 100, 100).
> Each column of a data frame contains the data for one variable. In order to access the values for one particular
>> variable in R, we use the syntax '$'. A dollar sign is placed after the data set name and before the variable name with no spaces. For example, say we wanted to access the data for the variable 'fruits' from the data set 'foods'. In R, we would do this by typing 'foods$fruits'.
>>1: Continuous  , peso
>>2: Categorical, tipo de edifício
>>3: Discrete,    nº de passageiros num veículo
Esc bye()
| Leaving swirl now. Type swirl() to resume.
> q()
Save workspace image to ~/.RData? [y/n/c]: y

-- primeiro instalar r-cran e rstudio
[[R-cran readme|]]

Background: #e6e2f3
Foreground: #100b1c
PrimaryPale: #e6e2f3
PrimaryLight: #8874c5
PrimaryMid: #3e2e70
PrimaryDark: #010102
SecondaryPale: #e2f3ec
SecondaryLight: #74c5a5
SecondaryMid: #2e7056
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TertiaryPale: #f3e2e4
TertiaryLight: #c5747c
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TertiaryDark: #020101
Error: #f88
ColorPaletteParameters: HSL([255|81], [0.41528837964870036],[0.006749308900907636|0.311444796078528|0.6161402832561483|0.9208357704337686])
[[Montes de livros sobre Budismo - BOOKSHELF|]]
[[Books & Papers by Antonio Damasio |]]

[[orbital motion |]] @ minute 19

[[software DS9|]] 

The subject of planetary motions has been studied since centuries ago and it is well known that stable orbits are ellipses. Here i show that the subject must be reconsidered.&nbsp;

It is known that the Solar system is in motion through 'space' at \(V = (369 ± 0.9)km\ s^{−1}\) and a direct result of this is that the motion of a planet is NOT an ellipse but rather it travels the tip of an helix.
It is also known that the gravitational tug of the Sun on the planet, as well as the light itself, is delayed by the time of propagation through space at 'c' speed.&nbsp;

One Astronomical Unit must be one of the following two distance definitions:&nbsp;

\(AU_{ep}\) - the distance measured along the ecliptic plane, the plane were we project the helix path,
\(AU_c\) -&nbsp;the electromagnetic/gravitic distance from the Earth at the moment of reception of the gravitational tug to the space point were the Sun was at the moment of emission. &nbsp; 

The distance that must be considered in the universal gravitational law, of Newton, is undoubtedly the larger one \(AU_c\) and this allows to solve one of the Solar System anomalies. &nbsp;

When Le Verrier, and others, studied the anomalous rate of precession of Mercury's perihelion they didn't know all the facts that we know now and the physicists had accepted as good the Einstein's General Relativity argument to explain that famous 43 arc seconds/century of advance.&nbsp;

Being 5600 arc seconds the measured advance and 5557 the Newtonian predicted value after all the corrections due to the influence of the others planets, it holds true that the error/predicted ratio is equal to the ratio \(2\pi V/c\).
&nbsp; \(\frac{43}{5557} = \frac{2\pi\ V}{c}\) &nbsp;

with \(c = 299792.458\ km\ s^{−1}\) &nbsp;we obtain for the solar system velocity \(V = 369.21\ km\ s^{−1}\)

Certainly this is not a coincidence.

In conclusion:&nbsp;
The reported anomaly is a consequence of a bad measure.&nbsp;

I leave a question: 
How is to be measured the value of 1 Astronomical Unit and what is it's value ?&nbsp;

1 - [[Planck 2013 results. XXVII. Doppler boosting of the CMB: Eppur si muove|]] 
2 - [[Anomalous Precessions - MathPages|]]
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with usb debug enabled 

velez@velez-VPCSB1S1E:~$ adb shell busybox ls -l -a
* daemon not running. starting it now on port 5037 *
* daemon started successfully *
error: insufficient permissions for device

[[Natural Language Processing course at COURSERA|]]

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[[Introduction to SELinux|;content]]
[[Practical SELinux for the beginner: Contexts and labels |]]
[WP - Superposition_principle](  

[4.2 Mutual impedance](  Basic theory  
[PSE-question: what-happens-to-the-energy-when-waves-perfectly-cancel-each-other ](

[wave-interference-where-does-the-energy-g](|  excellent. It presents also the:   
>**Nonpropagating excitations** are actually one-dimensional analogues of the radiationless “invisible” objects that I have discussed previously (here and here, for instance). 

[youtube: laser Optics: Destructive interference - Where does the light go](

[youtube:  14. Waves in Fluids](
is part of [25 videos about FLUIDS by MIT ]( )

[youtube: single photon interference ](  

[ Eletromagnetismo - Parte II Capítulo 11  Radiação e Antenas]( Eduardo Fontana, 

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(function() {
var getCSRFToken = function(window) {
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	var regex = /^(?:.*; )?csrf_token=([^(;|$)]*)(?:;|$)/;
	var match = regex.exec(document.cookie);
	var csrf_token = null;
	if (match && (match.length === 2)) {
		csrf_token = match[1];

	return csrf_token;

if (typeof config !== 'undefined' && config.extensions &&
		config.extensions.tiddlyspace &&
		config.extensions.tiddlyspace.getCSRFToken === null) {
	config.extensions.tiddlyspace.getCSRFToken = getCSRFToken;
} else {
	window.getCSRFToken = getCSRFToken;
by [[eureqa |]]

0.50001323 + 0.27156153*cos(0.27156153 - 23.231627*Myr) + 0.097669303/(0.52111566*cos(0.27156153 - 23.231627*Myr) + cos(0.20090732 - 31.305553*Myr)*cos(0.27156153 - 23.231627*Myr)*sin(0.27156153 - 23.231627*Myr) - 0.52111566*cos(0.20090732 - 31.305553*Myr)*sin(0.27156153 - 23.231627*Myr)) + 0.52111566*cos(0.20090732 - 31.305553*Myr)*cos(0.27156153 - 23.231627*Myr)*sin(0.27156153 - 23.231627*Myr) - 0.27156153*cos(0.20090732 - 31.305553*Myr)*sin(0.27156153 - 23.231627*Myr)

better yet
0.47323611 + (2.9703305 + 1.8744842*cos(-2185.9553/Myr)*cos(-6347.8765/(Myr - 0.00030370633)))*(0.1850978*cos(-2185.9553/Myr) + 0.049936414*cos(-2185.9553/Myr)*cos(-2185.9553/Myr)*cos(-6347.8765/(Myr - 0.00030370633)) - 0.059760571*cos(-2185.9553/Myr)*cos(-6347.8765/(Myr - 0.00030370633)) - 0.19930044*cos(-6347.8765/(Myr - 0.00030370633)))

better yet fit 0.001
f(Myr) = 0.49884629 + 0.50117302*sign(1.755794*sin(2190.02/(Myr - 0.001005795)) - 0.40431267)

f(Myr) = 0.5 + 0.5*sign(sin(2189.832/(Myr - 0.0010209561)) - 0.40459234)

data input
MagFld Reversals	Polarity
Myr	N
0.77999997138977051	1
0.89999997615814209	0
1.059999942779541	1
1.7799999713897705	0
2	1
2.5899999141693115	0
3.0499999523162842	1
3.119999885559082	0
3.2200000286102295	1
3.3299999237060547	0
3.5899999141693115	1
4.1700000762939453	0
4.2899999618530273	1
4.4699997901916504	0
4.6399998664855957	1
4.809999942779541	0
4.8899998664855957	1
5.0100002288818359	0
5.25	1

a few points on the folowing list are ommited from the input to Eureqa



[[I'm interested in a more technical description. Can you tell me more?|]] geomag
The source of the magnetic field is the iron-rich liquid outer core of the Earth. This liquid moves in complex ways as a result of the convection of the heat deep within the core and of the rotation of the planet. The motion of the core fluid is continuous and never stops, even during a reversal. It can only stop when the energy source fails. Heat is produced at least partly because of the solidification of the liquid core onto the solid inner core that sits at the centre of the Earth. This process has operated continuously over billions of years. At the top of the liquid core, some 3000 km beneath our feet and below the rocky mantle, the fluid may travel at horizontal speeds of tens of kilometres per year. The motion of this metal fluid across existing magnetic field lines of force produces electrical currents and these, in turn, generate more magnetic field. This is a process known as advection. To balance any growth of the field, and thus stabilise what we call the 'geodynamo', we need diffusion, where field 'leaks' away from the core and is destroyed. Ultimately, the core fluid flow produces a complicated magnetic field pattern at the Earth's surface with a complicated time variation.

Simulations of the geodynamo on supercomputers have demonstrated the complex nature of the field and its behaviour over time. Simulations have also revealed reversals in the polarity, where the magnetic North pole is replaced by a South pole, and vice versa. In such simulations, the strength of the main dipole appears to weaken, perhaps to about 10% of its normal value (but not vanish) and the existing poles may wander across the globe and be joined by other temporary North and South magnetic poles (the 'non-dipole field').

The solid iron inner core of the Earth has been shown in these simulations to be important in controlling the reversal process. Because it is a solid, the inner core can't generate magnetic field by advection, but any field that is generated in the fluid outer core can diffuse, or spread, into the inner core. The field generation process (advection) in the outer core seems to regularly attempt to reverse. But unless the field locked into the inner core first diffuses away, a true reversed field cannot become established throughout the core. Essentially the inner core resists any 'new' field diffusing in and perhaps only one in every ten such reversal attempts is successful.

''It is worth stressing that these results, while fascinating in themselves, are not known to be strictly true of the 'real' Earth''. However, we have mathematical models of the Earth's magnetic field for the last 400 years, with early models based largely on observations made by mariners engaged in merchant and naval shipping. From these models and extrapolating down into the Earth, it is known that regions of reversed flux at the core-mantle boundary have grown over time. In these regions the compass points in the opposite direction, in or out of the core, compared to that of surrounding areas. It is the growth in area of such a reversed flux patch under the south Atlantic that is primarily responsible for the decay in the main dipolar field. This reverse patch is also responsible for the minimum in field strength called the South Atlantic Anomaly, centred over North-east Brazil. In this region energetic particles can approach Earth more closely, causing increased radiation risk to low Earth orbit satellites.
Eureqa ReportGenereted at: 2011-Nov-01 11:57:43

Search for a formula f() that satisfies:N = f(Myr)

Building blocks:operations(9): variables, constants, + , - , *, /, sin, cos, sign

Data:variables(2): Myr, N

training samples: 19

validation samples: 19

Best Solutions:Based on Training Data Complexity(Size) Accuracy(Fitness) Formula 
16 0 f(Myr) = 0.5 + 0.5*sign(sin(2189.83/(Myr - 0.00102096)) - 0.404592) 
10 0.127158 f(Myr) = 0.501685 + 0.562888*cos(-2185.42/Myr) 
9 0.142773 f(Myr) = sin(0.878847 - cos(126.568*Myr)) 
12 0.12325 f(Myr) = 0.456846 + 0.609799*sin(2190.41/(Myr - 0.000668075)) 
1 0.45 f(Myr) = 1 
7 0.250351 f(Myr) = 0.636792 - cos(126.491*Myr) 
5 0.327461 f(Myr) = cos(1813.01*Myr) 
6 0.306847 f(Myr) = sin(407.931/Myr) 

Based on Validation Data Complexity(Size) Accuracy(Fitness) Solution Formula 
16 0 f(Myr) = 0.5 + 0.5*sign(sin(2189.83/(Myr - 0.00102096)) - 0.404592) 
10 0.127158 f(Myr) = 0.501685 + 0.562888*cos(-2185.42/Myr) 
9 0.142773 f(Myr) = sin(0.878847 - cos(126.568*Myr)) 
12 0.12325 f(Myr) = 0.456846 + 0.609799*sin(2190.41/(Myr - 0.000668075)) 
1 0.45 f(Myr) = 1 
7 0.250351 f(Myr) = 0.636792 - cos(126.491*Myr) 
5 0.327461 f(Myr) = cos(1813.01*Myr) 
6 0.306847 f(Myr) = sin(407.931/Myr) 

Search Statistics:Seach Time: 00C82568

Core Hours: 1.62021

Total Function Evaulations: 2.80173e+010

Mean Solution Generations: 1.51549e+006

Mean Predictor Generations: 1.51549e+006

Mean Trainer Generations: 15154.9

Search Population Size: 128

'The influence of these cycles on insolation (INcident SOLar radiATION) at different latitudes has been calculated by Berger (1991), and Laskar (1993). Below is Berger's solution for 65 degrees north latitude from the present to 1 million years ago. In the Northern Hemisphere, peak summer insolation occurred about 9,000 years ago when the last of the large ice sheets melted. Since that time Northern Hemisphere summers have seen less solar radiation.'

[img[paleo insolation till 1My|]]


[[Climate Forcing Data|]]
[[Orbital Variations, 5,000,000 Years, Berger and Loutre 1991|]]
[[Integrated Summer Insolation, 5,000,000 Years, Huybers 2006|]]
[[Orbital Variations, -50 to +20 MYrs, preliminary, Laskar et al.(from IMCCE)|]]     ''CODE and DATA'' 
 of this paper [[La2010: A new orbital solution for the long term motion of the Earth|]] arxiv

read competition :
Peters& Matthews (1963) showed that in general relativity the rateof period decrease is given by formula 1 here:

$$\dot{P}_{b,GR}= A\cdot B$$
$$A=-\frac{192 \pi\ G^{5/3}}{5 c^5} (\frac{P_b}{2 \pi})^{-5/3} (1-e^2)^{-7/2}$$
$$B=(1+73/24 e^2 + 37/96 e^4)m_p m_c (m_p+m_c)^{-1/3}$$


 ̇Pb,GR=−192π G5/35c5Pb2π−5/3(1−e2)−7/2×(1)1 +7324e2+3796e4mpmc(mp+mc)−1/3.

look for their proper motions
[[PSR J0348+0432|]] 
 the observed orbital decay agrees with GR :  
[[A Massive Pulsar in a Compact Relativistic Binary|]] Antoniadis 
2.01 +-0.04 solar mass (M) pulsar in a 2.46-hr orbit with a 0.172 +-0.003 M white dwarf. 
( a lot more data inside )
Right ascension,(J2000)  . . 03h48m43s:639000(4)
Declination,(J2000) . . .+0432011:004580(2)
Proper motion right ascension,(mas yr1). . . +4:04(16)
Proper motion in declination,(mas yr1)  . . . +3:5(6)
Parallax,d(mas)  . . .     0:47*

the same for
[[PSR B1913+16 |]] (1st to be found)  see also [[Pulsar]] 
 Observations have shown that the pulsar’s orbit is gradually contracting, due to the emission of energy in the form of Gravitational Waves, as predicted by Einstein’s theory of general relativity, causing the pulsar to reach periastron slightly early. Also, periastron advances 4° per year in longitude due to the gravitational field (thus the pulsar’s periastron moves as far in a day as Mercury’s moves in a century).
[[Relativistic Binary Pulsar B1913+16: Thirty Years of Observations and Analysis|]]

[[PSR J0737-3039 |]]
 In 2005, it was announced that measurements had shown an excellent agreement between general relativity theory and observation. In particular, the predictions for energy loss due to gravitational waves appear to match the theory.
As a result of energy loss due to gravitational waves, the common orbit shrinks by 7 mm per day. The two components will coalesce in about 85 million years.

''[[Polarizable Vacuum (PV) WP|]]''
''[[Stochastic Electrodynamics (SED) WP|]]''
[[Electron Charge Renormalization and the PV-RN Model|]] Depp (link ~QED-GR via PV)

''[[Polarizable vacuum representation of general relativity|]] by Puthoff, 1999''

''Having shown by specific calculation that the PV approach to the three classical tests of GR reproduces the traditional GR results''
In the Discussion
With regard to the epistemology underlying the polarizable-vacuum (PV) approach as 
compared with the standard GR approach, one rather unconventional viewpoint is that expressed by Atkinson who carried out a study comparing the two.  "It is possible, on the one hand, to postulate that the velocity of light is a universal constant, to define 'natural' clocks and measuring rods as the standards by which space and time are to be judged, and then to discover from measurement that space-time, and space itself, are 'really' non-Euclidean; ''alternatively, one can define space as Euclidean and time as the same everywhere, and discover (from exactly the same measurements) how the velocity of light, and natural clocks, rods, and particle inertias 'really' behave in the neighborhood of large masses.  There is just as much (or as little) content for the word 'really' in the one approach as in the other;'' provided that each is self-consistent, the ultimate appeal is only to convenience and fruitfulness, and even 'convenience' may be largely a matter of 
personal taste..." 

''[[Polarizable vacuum analysis of electromagnetic fields|]] by ~Xing-Hao Ye, 2009''
The electric and magnetic fields are investigated on the basis of quantum vacuum. The analysis of the electromagnetic energy and force ''indicates that an electric field is a polarized distribution of the vacuum virtual dipoles'', and that a magnetic field in vacuum is a rearrangement of the vacuum polarization. ''It means that an electromagnetic wave is a successional changing of the vacuum polarization in space''. Also, it is found that the  average half length of the virtual dipoles around an elementary charge is a = 2.8 × 10
−15m. The result leads to the step distribution of the field energy around an electron, the relation between the fine structure constant and the vacuum polarization distribution, and an extremely high energy density of the electromagnetic field.

''[[Gravity and the quantum vacuum inertia hypothesis|]]'' by Rueda and Haisch, 2005, Ann. Phys. 


In previous work ''it has been shown that the electromagnetic quantum vacuum, or electromagnetic zero-point field, makes a contribution to the inertial reaction force on an accelerated object. We show that the result for inertial mass can be extended to passive gravitational mass. As a consequence the weak equivalence principle, which equates inertial to passive gravitational mass, appears to be explainable. This in turn leads to a straightforward derivation of the classical Newtonian gravitational force.'' We call the inertia and gravitation connection with the vacuum fields the quantum vacuum inertia hypothesis. To date only the electromagnetic field has been considered. It remains to extend the hypothesis to the effects of the vacuum fields of the other interactions. We propose an idealized experiment involving a cavity resonator which, in principle, would test the hypothesis for the simple case in which only electromagnetic interactions are involved. This test also suggests a basis for the free parameter η(ν) which we have previously defined to parametrize the interaction between charge and the lectromagnetic zero-point field contributing to the inertial mass of a particle or object

''[[Quantum Mechanical Ground State of Hydrogen Obtained from Classical Electrodynamics |]]'' Daniel C. Cole & Yi Zou, 2003
''The behavior of a classical charged point particle under the influence of only a Coulombic binding potential and classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, is shown to yield agreement with the probability density distribution of Schrödinger’s wave equation for the ground state of hydrogen. These results, obtained without any fitting parameters'', again raise the possibility that the main tenets of stochastic electrodynamics (SED) are correct, thereby potentially providing a more fundamental basis of quantum mechanics. The present methods should help propel yet deeper investigations into SED

''[[|]]'' research on the ''electromagnetic quantum vacuum''

''[[Meissner_effect WP|]]''  
    is the expulsion of a magnetic field from a superconductor during its transition to the superconducting state
''[[Unruh_effect WP|]]'' Unruh radiation could be linked to this apparent event horizon
[[Electric_dipole_moment WP|]]

[[Constraints on Lorentz Invariance Violation using INTEGRAL/IBIS observations of GRB041219A|arXiv:1106.1068v1 [astro-ph.HE] 6 Jun 2011]] 
[[Lorentz-violating Vacuum Birefringence|]]
Source code at:
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// %/
[[smaCSS|]] book - Learn how to structure your CSS to allow for flexibility and maintainability 

[[|typeface.js]] embed custom fonts in your web pages

[[Google WebFonts|]] grab and use 

[[css-tricks : watch your font weight |]]
''[[Mercury Fact Sheet |]]''
[[Notes on the Fact Sheets|]]

[[Mercury's magnetic field|]]
> Mercury's magnetic field is approximately a magnetic dipole (meaning the field has only two magnetic poles)[7] that is significant, and apparently global,[8] on planet Mercury.[9] Data from Mariner 10 led to its discovery in 1974, and has 1.1% the strength of Earth's magnetic field,
> At the Hermean equator, the relative strength of the magnetic field is around 300 nT Scientists have detected Mercury's magnetic field to be weaker than Jupiter's moon Ganymede's.
> Since its discovery in 1974 by Mariner 10, Mercury's magnetic dipole moment has decayed. Dr. Robert Humphreys had predicted that in 2011, the magnetic moment should be between 4.5 and 4.6 x 1019 joules per tesla (ampere-square meters);[15] but instead, when measured, the magnetic moment had declined from 4.8 to just over 3.8 x 1019 joules per tesla. Such a rapid decline would account for nearly 30 percent of the magnetic moment. Data from Mariner 10 and the MESSENGER spacecraft illustrate that the strength and shape of the magnetic field seems stable.[16]

> ''Dynamo model:'' There are still difficulties with this dynamo theory, including the fact that Mercury has a slow, 59-day-long orbit that could not have made it possible to generate a magnetic field.

> The MESSENGER spacecraft will collect more than 500 million measurements of the planet's magnetic field, using its sensitive 'Magnetometer'.[17]

> Before 1974, it was thought that Mercury could not generate a magnetic field because of its relatively small diameter and lack of an atmosphere.

> Mercury’s ''axial tilt is almost zero'',[75] with the best measured value as low as 0.027 degrees.[7] This is significantly smaller than that of Jupiter, which has the second smallest axial tilt of all planets at 3.1 degrees. This means that to an observer at Mercury’s poles, the center of the Sun never rises more than 2.1 arcminutes above the horizon.[7]

''Mag Field data''
Radius of Mercury	2,439.7 ± 1.0 km
Magnetic moment	2 to 6 × 1012 T•m3
Equatorial field strength	300 nT
''Dipole tilt	4.5º (toward dawn)''
Rotation period	?

''Mercury Data''
Epoch J2000
Aphelion	69,816,900 km
0.466 697 AU
Perihelion	46,001,200 km
0.307 499 AU
Semi-major axis	57,909,100 km
0.387 098 AU
''Eccentricity	0.205 630'' [3]
Orbital period	87.969 1 d
(0.240 846 a)
0.5 Mercury solar day
Synodic period	115.88 d[3]
Average orbital speed	47.87 km/s[3]
Mean anomaly	174.796°
Inclination	7.005° to Ecliptic
''3.38° to Sun’s equator''
6.34° to Invariable plane[4]
Longitude of ascending node	48.331°
Argument of perihelion	29.124°
Satellites	None

[[Messenger Data from Mercury Orbit Confirms Theories, Offers Surprises|]]
> The geometry of Mercury’s internal magnetic field can potentially discriminate among theories for how the field is generated. ''An important finding is that Mercury’s magnetic equator, determined on successive orbits as the point where the direction of the internal magnetic field is parallel to the spin axis of the planet'', is well north of the planet’s geographic equator. The best-fitting internal dipole magnetic field is located about 0.2 Mercury radii, or 480 km, northward of the planet’s center. The dynamo mechanism in Mercury’s molten, metallic outer core responsible for generating the planet’s magnetic field therefore has a ''strong north-south asymmetry''.

As a result of this north-south asymmetry, the geometry of magnetic field lines is different in Mercury’s north and south polar regions. In particular, the magnetic “polar cap” where field lines are open to the interplanetary medium is much larger near the south pole. This geometry implies that the south polar region is much more exposed than in the north to charged particles heated and accelerated by solar wind–magnetosphere interactions. The impact of those charged particles onto Mercury’s surface contributes both to the generation of the planet’s tenuous atmosphere and to the “space weathering” of surface materials, both of which should have a north-south asymmetry given the different magnetic field configurations at the two poles.

[[Fluctuations in the rate of spin |]]
>Fluctuations in a planet's rate of spin can reveal the nature of its core. Mercury rotates on its axis once every 59 days, but the sun's uneven gravitational pull makes the planet's spin rate fluctuate slightly over the course of its orbit. The size of these fluctuations hinge on whether Mercury's core is solid or liquid.
[[Dimensional Analysis, Scaling and Fractals |]]

[[Digest of literature on Dielectrics 1974|]] nomadic polarization, superdielectrics

[[Introduction to measurement uncertainty|]] ppt

''[[Cosmology today–A brief review |]]''

''[[The Transformation of Rigid Objects|]]''  By Jesse Johnson

''[[Relativistic Angular Momentum |]]'' by Nick Menicucci, 2001 
"Its relation to its 3-vector .. resulting consequence of uniform motion of the centroid. .. the most striking being the ''inability to compress a system of particles to infinitesimal size, requiring new thoughts on just what “a point-particle with spin” really is''. The spin vector and Pauli-Lubanski vector were discussed, The Thomas precession was explained and calculated, and two “paradoxes” involving torque and angular momentum were explored"

[[Other Theories]]

[[SM How Many Fundamental Constants Are There?|]] We have 26. (Joan Baez 2011)

[[Planck units and the invariant scaling of nature |]] WP discussion

Canuto (varying G)
here  opposes Canuto
here (arxiv 0606057) revives Canuto :
The new cosmological model founded on the Scale Covariant Theory of
Gravitation and on the Dirac’s Large-Number Hypothesis.
(Part 1)
Alexander. V. Rogachev.

[[QM  - Scattering Theory |]] 221B Lecture Notes at berkeley ([[and part II|]]), Yukava potential

[[The-Case-Against-the-Photon|]]  find Marty Green and Pea-Shooters in this site
references including numerous articles by men who I considered giants in the campaign against the photon, including people like Scully, Jaynes, and Willis Lamb. (I learned that even Schroedinger never accepted the photon until the day he died.
This is what it comes down to. There are a handful of key experimental
phenomenon, which according to conventional wisdom, defy explanation by the wave
theory of light.
They can only be explained if you assume light is a particle. The two
most important are the photo-electric effect and the Compton effect. Other significant
phenomena include such "two-photon" processes as the 2s-1s transition in
Hydrogen, and the second-order correlations found e.g. in the ~Hanbury-Brown-Twiss
experiments. (Glauber places great importance on this, but I'm baffled as to what exactly is his point.)

[[Compton_scattering|]] WP
Light must behave as if it consists of particles to explain the low-intensity Compton scattering. Compton's experiment convinced physicists that light can behave as a stream of particle-like objects (quanta) whose energy is proportional to the frequency.

[[The Pioneer Anomaly|]] see model pag 107  (6.4.2 Clock acceleration)

''The Bell Theorem''
[[Disproof of Bell’s Theorem|]] Joy Christian, 2011, see more refs inside
[[Failure of Bell’s Theorem and the Local Causality of the Entangled Photons|arXiv:1005.4932]] J. Christian, 2010
[[Disproofs of Bell, GHZ, and Hardy Type Theorems and the Illusion of Entanglement| arXiv:0904.4259]] J. Christian, 2009


[[''The Review of Particle Physics''|]]] Particle Kinematics 

[[What is the geometric interpretation behind the method of exact differential equations?|]]

[[Understanding Electromagnetic Radiation from an Accelerated Charge|$FILE/emrad.pdf]]  The Virtual-Photon method (pag 7,8,9, 15) (in Maple)
> restart; t:=10: N:=6: v:=0.8: points:=NULL:
> for n from 1 to N-1 do
> cs:=cos(Pi*n/N): sn:=sin(Pi*n/N):
> for tr from 0  to t-1 do
> x:=v*tr+(t - tr)*(v+cs)/(1+v*cs):
> y:=(t - tr)*sqrt(1 - v^2)*sn/(1+v*cs):
>  points:=points,[x,y],[x,-y]
>  od:
>  od:
>  plot([points],style=point,scaling=constrained);

to read

!gravitational waves
[[Einstein’s Equivalence Principle, the Principle of Causality, and Plane-Wave Solutions |]] C. Y. Lo

[[ Mach’s Principle |]] Øyvind Grøn and Kjell Vøyenli, On the Foundation of the Principle of Relativity, Found. 
Phys. 29(11) 1695-1733 (1999)

[[LIGO is for the birds |]] Do not ever say you knew nothing about it
LSC need some ―absolute spac and ―absolute wristwatc to enable the dynamics of GWs


[[A physicist’s view of the universe: a philosophical approach|]]  Israel Pérez 
[[ANU-ASTRO1x|]] Why do electrons have charge?
And this prompted me to think about electrons. What gives them the fundamental property of charge?
This is a personal oppinion, not available in textbooks. AFAIK there is no answer to that question.
An electron collides with a positron, both have charges and the resulting gamma rays (light) do not have charge. 
Your question can be upgraded to the one: Light is charged ? 
I'm tempted to say yes. Light has both charges at the same time.
The inverse process is also valid : two gamma rays collide giving an electron and a positron.
As seen, charge is present before light was created and also after it was destroyed. In between, in the light phase, both charges should be there.
If the question is: what is charge? I dont know, yet. But one operational answer can be : charge creates the electromagnetic field.

!mais lixo
[[google|]] mais texto

Eclipse Xtext

Building your own domain-specific languages has never been so easy. Just put your grammar in place and you not only get the working parser and linker but also first class Eclipse support.

[[The solar dynamo|]] By S. M. Tobias
> review the fundamentals of solar-dynamo theory
[[Philosophy|]] content
[[math |]]
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Responsive Design Tool for [[Brackets|]]
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[[html editor blueGriffon]] very nice
it uses by default the [[Crash Course: YUI Grids CSS|]]
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[[HTML5  PLEASE - Look up HTML5, CSS3, etc features, know if they are ready for use|]]
[[Complete List of HTML/xHTML Tags|]]

[[w3 - HTML syntax |]]
[[W3C cheatsheet|]]
[[Wall of Awesome|]]  digg here

[[WHATWG documentation|]] HTML: The Living Standard

[[w3 intro|]]   complete
[[w3 js ref |]] try it and ~JavaScript and HTML DOM Reference 

[[HTML5 - Web SQL Database|]]
[[HTML5 - Web SQL Database|]]
[[enabling script on IE|]] html-shiv
[[code prettify|]] nice 
[[content editable|]]
[[web databasedemo|]] 
[[html5 demos|]]

[[Mozilla Developer Network|]] tutorials for net developers

[[infografia no Público sobre a Tecnoforma|]] é um bom modelo de vizualização gráfica. 

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
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	<title>TiddlySpace Apps</title>
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					<h1 class="spaceaddress">
						<span class="spaceName"></span><span class="hostName"></span>
					<p class="tagline"><span class="subTitle"></span><a class="managespaces" href="/_space">manage space</a></p>
			<div id="holder">
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						<h2>Your Apps</h2>
						<ul id="app-list">
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									<img src="/bags/common/tiddlers/browse_read_blue.png" alt="Icon for the HTML Serialisation" class="app-img" />
							<li class="tiddlywiki">
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									<img src="/bags/common/tiddlers/tiddlywiki2_blue.png" alt="Icon for TiddlyWiki" class="app-img" />
						<div id="addapp">
							<button class="inactive">Add More!</button>
					<div id="app-desc">
							<li class="htmlserialisationdesc"><p>an easy to understand HTML representation of your content.</p></li>
							<li class="tiddlywikidesc"><p>use TiddlyWiki to create, edit and organise your content.</p></li>
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				<p>TiddlySpace 2011, created by <a href="">Osmosoft</a></p>
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[[Resources on OpenCL|]] - OpenCL Libraries and Toolkits

[[Particles in OpenGL e OpenCL|]] Adventures in OpenCL
[[enja|]] and [[real time particle system  EnjaParticles|]] 

[[Swan: A simple tool for porting CUDA to OpenCL|]] cuda2openCL
[[Difference between CUDA and OpenCL 2010 - 2010-04-22|]]
[[GPSMET  C to OpenCL|]]
[[aparapi - Java to OpenCL|]]

«Structure of Array versus Array of Structure»
[[to understand memory coalesce access importance see  doc and sample|/opt/AMDAPPSDK-2.9-1/samples/opencl/cpp_cl/SoAversusAoS/docs/SoAversusAoS.pdf]]


no desktop com ATI RADEON ~HD6670  [[Cayman R9xx|]] 

[[o autor  de PYopenCL no github|]] Andreas Klöckner 

[[course High-Performance Scientifc Computing|]] and [[here|]] also ~PyopenCL instructions

look for [[ Yapocis|]] best than ~PyOPenCL ?  (much simpler)

look for [[Theano|]] as alternative to PyOpenCL 
Theano is a software package which allows you to write symbolic code and compile it onto different architectures (in particular, CPU and GPU). It was developed by machine learning researchers at the University of Montreal. Its use is not limited to machine learning applications, but it was designed with machine learning in mind. It's especially good for machine learning techniques which are CPU-intensive and benefit from parallelization (e.g. large neural networks).

[[Bolt C++ Template Library|]]
an [[STL|]] 
 compatible library of high level constructs
With Bolt, kernel code to be accelerated is written in-line in the C++ source file.  No OpenCL™ or C++ AMP API calls are required 

[[SDK Sample Browser|]]

[[Install the AMD Accelerated Parallel Processing SDK in Ubuntu|]]

![[LER ISTO|]] e 
[[configuring com aticonfig|]]

Graphics driver being reported as Gallium 0.4 on llvmpipe
and Vendor VMware

[[Welcome to the Unofficial Wiki for the AMD Linux Driver|]]

save Xwindow configuration 
run aticonfig --initial
  or aticonfig
  or AMD-CCC:LE from the Desktop Manager Menu

[[instalei o configurador de compiz|sudo apt-get install compizconfig-settings-manager]] /usr/bin/ccsm  e andei a mexer

installed files on  /opt/AMDAPP

[[install catalyst with GUI|]]


[[instruções Catalyst install|]]

[[instruções AMD-APP-SDK|]]
[[downloads TI|]]

depois instalar PyOpenCL

etiqueta: ~HD6670 1G 

800 MHz engine clock
512MB-1GB GDDR5 memory
1000 MHz memory clock (4.0 Gbps GDDR5)
64 GB/s memory bandwidth
768 GFLOPS Single Precision compute power
TeraScale 2 Unified Processing Architecture
480 Stream Processing Units
24 Texture Units
32 Z/Stencil ROP Units
8 Color ROP Units
128-bit GDDR5 memory interface
PCI Express 2.1 x16 bus interface
DirectX® 11 support
Shader Model 5.0
DirectCompute 11
Programmable hardware tessellation unit
Accelerated multi-threading
HDR texture compression
Order-independent transparency
OpenGL 4.1 support
Image quality enhancement technology
Up to 24x multi-sample and super-sample anti-aliasing modes
Adaptive anti-aliasing
Morphological anti-aliasing (MLAA)
16x angle independent anisotropic texture filtering
128-bit floating point HDR rendering
AMD Eyefinity multi-display technology1
Native support for up to 4 simultaneous displays
Up to 6 displays supported with DisplayPort 1.2 Multi-Stream Transport
Independent resolutions, refresh rates, color controls, and video overlays
Display grouping
Combine multiple displays to behave like a single large display
AMD App Acceleration2
OpenCL 1.1
DirectCompute 11
Accelerated video encoding, transcoding, and upscaling2,6
UVD 3 dedicated video playback accelerator
MPEG-4 AVC/H.264
MPEG-2 (SD & HD)
Multi-View Codec (MVC)
MPEG-4 part 2 (DivX, xVid)
Adobe Flash
Enhanced video quality features
Advanced post-processing and scaling
Dynamic contrast enhancement and color correction
Brighter whites processing (blue stretch)
Independent video gamma control
Dynamic video range control
Dual-stream HD (1080p) playback support
DXVA 1.0 & 2.0 support
AMD HD3D technology4
Stereoscopic 3D display/glasses support
Blu-ray 3D support
Stereoscopic 3D gaming
3rd party Stereoscopic 3D middleware software support
AMD CrossFireX™ multi-GPU technology5
Dual GPU scaling
Cutting-edge integrated display support
DisplayPort 1.2
Max resolution: 2560x1600 per display
Multi-Stream Transport
21.6 Gbps bandwidth
High bit-rate audio
HDMI 1.4a with Stereoscopic 3D Frame Packing Format, Deep Color, xvYCC wide gamut support, and high bit-rate audio
Max resolution: 1920x1200
Dual-link DVI with HDCP
Max resolution: 2560x1600
Max resolution: 2048x1536
Integrated HD audio controller
Output protected high bit rate 7.1 channel surround sound over HDMI or DisplayPort with no additional cables required
Supports AC-3, AAC, Dolby TrueHD and DTS Master Audio formats
AMD PowerPlay™ power management technology3
Dynamic power management with low power idle state
Ultra-low power state support for multi-GPU configurations
AMD Catalyst™ software and HD video configuration software
Unified graphics display drivers
Certified for Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP
AMD Catalyst™ Control Center
Software application and user interface for setup, configuration, and accessing special features of AMD Radeon products

[[The Real Starry Sky|;data_type=PDF_HIGH&amp;whole_paper=YES&amp;type=PRINTER&amp;filetype=.pdf]] star counts (Number density in the solar neighbourhood brighter than absolute magnitude +16 by spectral type and class, per 10,000 $pc^3$)
[[The Classification of Stars|]]

[[exoplanets database|]]  with host stars properties
[[exoplanets database|]] 

[[The Chemical Composition of Stellar Systems|]]

[[Data Columns in the Kepler Stellar Table|]]


The large range of metallicities present for all ages suggests that chemical enrichment up to solar metallicity can occur on rapid time scales (~ 1 × 10^9 years) 
..They concluded that the large observed dispersion for both O and Fe implicates another source of inhomogeneity
..There are some problems, however, such as a very high frequency of low metallicity stars
<svg xmlns="" xmlns:xl="" version="1.1" viewBox="301 225 48 52"
width="30" height="30">
<g stroke="none" stroke-opacity="1" stroke-dasharray="none" fill="none" fill-opacity="1">
		<path d="M 333.00003 234 L 306 258.75003 L 301.5 270 L 312.75 265.50003 L 339.75 240.74998 Z M 337.5 229.50002 
		L 335.24988 231.75008 L 341.99997 238.50003 L 344.24997 236.24995 Z M 342 225.00003 L 339.74988 227.25009 
		L 346.5 234.00005 L 348.75 231.75003 Z M 301.5 273.9719 C 301.5 273.9719 309.59888 277.99927 317.70013 273.97183 
		C 325.80066 269.94437 341.99997 276.65686 341.99997 276.65686 L 341.99997 273.97195 
		C 341.99997 273.97195 325.80014 267.2594 317.70013 271.28687 C 309.6 275.31451 301.5 271.28683 301.5 271.28683 Z" 
		fill="#101010" class="glyph"/>
[[host opencart at |]]
Crystal structures can be divided into 32 classes, or point groups, according to the number of rotational axes and reflection planes they exhibit that leave the crystal structure unchanged. Twenty-one of the 32 crystal classes lack a center of symmetry, and of these, 20 are piezoelectric. Of these 20 piezoelectric crystal classes, 10 of them are pyroelectric (polar). Any material develops a dielectric polarization when an electric field is applied, but a substance which has such a natural charge separation even in the absence of a field is called a polar material. Whether or not a material is polar is determined solely by its crystal structure. Only 10 of the 32 point groups are polar.

Under normal circumstances, even polar materials do not display a net dipole moment. As a consequence there are no electric dipole equivalents of bar magnets because the intrinsic dipole moment is neutralized by "free" electric charge that builds up on the surface by internal conduction or from the ambient atmosphere. Polar crystals only reveal their nature when perturbed in some fashion that momentarily upsets the balance with the compensating surface charge.

Electret is the electrical equivalent of a permanent magnet.


The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice-versa. 

 The Peltier–Seebeck and Thomson effects are thermodynamically reversible

The voltage created by this effect is on the order of several microvolts per kelvin difference. One such combination, copper-constantan, has a Seebeck coefficient of ''41 microvolts per kelvin at room temperature''.[2]
Math and Physics sites with problems
[[OPERA paper |]]  2011 - Measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA detector

ÓPERA exp	avg=1048,5	ns	Date ?	angle ecliptic	angle CMB				
2009	       1026,9	-21,6			
2009	       1082,4	33,9			
2010	       1036,0	-12,5			
2010	       1034,2	-14,3			
2011	       1065,0	16,5			
2011	       1057,0	8,5			

[[Measurement of the neutrino velocity with the OPERA detector |]]    (v-c)/c = δt /(TOF’c - δt) = (2.48 ± 0.28 (stat.) ± 0.30 (sys.)) ×10^-5
an early neutrino arrival time  δt = (60.7 ± 6.9 (stat.) ± 7.4 (sys.)) ns  
fig. 10 :  maximum likelihood analysis for δt corresponding to the two SPS extractions  for the 2009, 
2010 and 2011 data samples.
 |v-c|/c < 4×10^-5    [5]
(v-c)/c = 5.1 ± 2.9×10^-5  [6]

[[advanced-nuclear-physics|]] vera carven (slideshare)
[[Nuclear Energy calculator , check vality with|]] (The Weizsaecker Formula)

# binding energy, Rohlf base parameter values

[[NuclearProperties Forest NucPhys I |]] good ref

[[stored in sage |]]
#  ######################
# input parameters integers A,Z, real t , «alf scaling model of the universe» 
#  ######################


def isodd(num):
        return num & 1 and True or False     
def pairing(A,N):
    if isodd(A): return 0
    if isodd(A-N) and isodd(N): return -11.18
    return 11.18
def E_b(A,Z,t): 
    return (a_V*A - a_S * A**(2.0/3)   - a_C  * Z*(Z-1.0)/A**(1.0/3.0) - a_A * ((A-2*Z)**2.0)/A + pairing(A,Z))*exp(-t/H0)
#x=a_V*A - a_S * A**(2.0/3)   - a_C  * Z*(Z-1.0)/A**(1.0/3.0) - a_A * ((A-2*Z)**2.0)/A + pairing(A,Z)
x,  pairing(A,Z)

I do not like the notion: 'agitate a salt or pepper container to spill it out' (I'm writing the answer after Mr Pisanty answer) to get energy from a particle.  

We are not able to measure a continuous source of energy.  An image: In the interior of a boat at the sea one can not notice the greatness of the sea but the more or less violence of the waves.  

First download and play with the radiation2.exe program (used to simulate EM field generated in particle accelerators)

Analyse Mr Shintake new method from

You can investigate how the programmers simulate waves (water, light, sound, ..)  
My own interpretation, take it with care:   
The energy, Electrostatic and Gravitostatic, is always flowing out of the particles at a constant rate (proportional to the inner total energy), irrespective of it's state of motion.  
When the particle is agitated, the wrinkles in the field are changing the configuration in what we call photons with a higher energy (frequency).  The particle itself is not sensing the motion nor reacting to the motion.    

IMO, this is the most simple interpretation consistent with the observations.  
(Note: and it is consistent with a shrinking atom interpretation of the space expansion (see my profile, if you wish).  

[[DYNAMO THEORY|]] book 90 pags

[[reversal dyn model|]] When North Goes South
[[completely uninstall a package| ]]

To remove mysql completely from your system Just type in terminal:
sudo apt-get remove --purge mysql-server mysql-client mysql-common
sudo apt-get autoremove
sudo apt-get autoclean

apt-get install deborphan debfoster

GTK+3 with the Broadway (HTML5) backend

!run any application in the browser

This is a rebuild of the GTK+3 Ubuntu 12.04, 12.10, 13.04 and 13.10 packages with an enabled Broadway backend.


Run these commands in a terminal:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:malizor/gtk-broadway
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
sudo apt-get install broadwayd # For saucy

HOWTO SINCE SAUCY (gtk+ >= 3.8)

As an example, here is how to run gedit in your browser.

In a terminal, run:

In another terminal, run:

Finally, open you Web browser and go to http://localhost:8080/

Your question is: why is said that the space  is expanding ?  
The answer that everyone are aware, by consensus :      
We see a reddening of the light received from distant stars and galaxies for the same stellar processes we see in the sun and nearby stars. One way to interpret it, the official way, the only one that your teacher and scientists do know, is: the galaxies are moving away from us in every direction.  The space expansion and the BB theory began. 

But I've a different description for the same observations, not requiring space expansion:  
**We measure with atoms** and, in all the building of physics, there are not a single word about the '**absolute**' size of the atom (I welcome anyone able to provide a link to a paper or textbook that contradicts my sentence):     

Below are three images of measuring tapes:  
With a larger unit length, a greater atom, we measure less 'space': it is the past.  
With a smaller unit length, a smaller atom, we measure more space: it is the present.   
Thus, quite naturally, the measure of the space expansion can point to a shrinking atom instead of the space expansion. Obviously this phenomenon can not be measure in the lab, and there is not a simple way to distinguish between the two descriptions.  

To those that mention the metric (GR) as a cause I can ask: is it a cause or a description?  GR was 'invented'  by Einstein  well before the space expansion hypotheses and he did not predicted any space expansion.     

My description is appealing to your intuition, just 'wording', such that anyone without formal training can interpret correctly what I'm saying.  

To those that have the skill and will to read a formal document, can certainly find it. 
larger unit length in the past  

![enter image description here][4]  

![enter image description here][2]                             

![enter image description here][1]  
smaller unit length in the present  

|~ViewToolbar|+editTiddler +cloneTiddler > fields refreshTiddler changeToPublic changeToPrivate revisions syncing permalink references jump closeOthers < closeTiddler|
|~EditToolbar|+saveTiddler saveDraft -cancelTiddler deleteTiddler|
|~RevisionToolbar|> fields revert|
[[Sufficient reason and reason enough|]] Gustavo Romero
Quantum theory says these particles arise out of the Quantum Vacuum, which is a sea of negative energy. they have a cause then. I know that people like Lawrence Krauss and others can on the one hand talk about particles arising from the Quantum vacuum and in the next breath talk about the universe coming from nothing but to me this is just incoherent.

Another issue is the claim that Quantum theory shows that events happen at random and thus violate causality. 
Firstly no one has shown this. The only person who tried to show such a thing I know of was John Von Newman with his mathematical proof against hidden variable theories in QM. This proof was shown to be a mistake long ago by John Bell.

The so called Copenhagan interpretation holds that events occur at random however this is one interpretation amongst many.
The Copenhagan interpretation is an incoherent mishmash of contradictory notions conflated anyway. Neither people like Heisenberg nor Bohr believed in anything resembling the C I and neither did Heisenberg or Bohr Believe quantum events were acausal or random.

QM doesn't say particles can behave without a cause. It just says we can never know the cause, because the particle is always indetermined.

The Free Will Theorem is a theorem of quantum mechanics based on the Kochen-Specker proof of no hidden variables. It proves that particles may behave "freely" i.e. that there is no possibility of anything in the past light-cone of the particle that could affect its choice. It also refutes the principle of sufficient reason.
''[[Douglas Pinnow book  'Our Resonant Universe'|]]''
It is a monography of his model of particles, based only on ''Electromagnetism (EM)'', that has only one parameter (electron mass) and derives the particle properties to within 1% of their values (''barion masses bellow 0.1%) and does not suffer of the barionic //spin crisis//''.
''The model uses three building blocks: Electron, Pion and Muon.  ''

''The concepts of Mass, Charge and Gravitational Force became crystal clear.''



[[ANU-ASTRO1x|]] Planet simulation in comoving coordinates

Q With a simulation we mimic the physic's laws of the universe .  
In the planetary simulation code I applyed a scale factor to all distances, masses and times varying the scale by  0.1, 1, 10, 100, 1000, ... as shown in the image.   
I'm using **comoving coordinates**  irt all the atomic properties.  

    # changes in the program, scale is whatever value you wish 
    Msun = 2E30*scale  
    Rsun = 2E9*scale  
    Rtrail = 1e8*scale  
    L = 4e10*scale  
    dt = 300.0*scale  

as seen in the image all the planetary systems look alike and represent a viable system.   
![enter image description here][1]

I'm certain that in the simulations of electromagnetism, relativity or any other physics field we can do the same: scale the masses, lengths, time and charge by the same factor, keeping the $G,\varepsilon,c$ constants, we mimic an universe similar to the one we observe.  
The universe evolved and it exists a function **$scale(time)$** that mimics it's evolution.  

The use of comoving coordinates in relation to the atom allow us to keep the physic's laws unchanged. This is a surprise and unexpected.   

I'm allowed to make the statment: Larger atoms in the past emmited larger wavelength radiation that we are erroneously interpreting as a trace of space expansion.  

What king of arguments can invalidate my bold statment ?
The study of this viewpoint was done in the paper :   
[A self-similar model of the Universe unveils the nature of dark energy][2] 

[[O melhor do mundo|]]
!Selected Images

''This is an inline equation'' $$P(X)   = {n \choose k} p^k (1-p)^{ n-k}$$ and this is a displayed equation:
\[J_\alpha(y) = \sum_{m=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^m}{m! \, \Gamma(m + \alpha + 1)}{\left({\frac{y}{2}}\right)}^{2 m + \alpha}\]
!''[[A Model of Past Earth’s Climate from Isotopic and Biologic Data and Its Relationship with Orbits’ Expansion|]]'' 
The first model of the past hot Earth’s climate consistently indicated by isotopic and biologic data is here established. This model, here named Evolving Climate Model (ECM), accurately matches a 3 Gy long compilation of isotope 18O data. An important consequence of the model is the fast increase of oxygen atmospheric level between 2 and 1 Ga (Gy ago); this is a well-known but until now mysterious occurrence, the Great Oxygenation Event. A solution is presented for the two centuries old “dolomite problem” and new explanations arise for a number of long lasting problems, such as the origin of petroleum or of proto-continents. Differently from the usual climate scenarios, the ECM presents ideal conditions for the massive production of long organic molecules. Critical occurrences of life evolution, such as the Cambrian explosion, are explained and fitted by the ECM, exposing a previously unknown connection between the evolution of life and climate. The most likely cause for this hot past is the expansion of orbits; it is verified that this phenomenon can explain the ECM, the receding of the Moon and the water on early Mars for the same value of H0 = 48 km s-1 Mpc-1, which, if not a coincidence, is a non-negligible result. 

!''[[A self-similar model of the Universe unveils the nature of dark energy|]]'' 
''//This work presents a critical yet previously unnoticed property of the units of some constants, able of supporting a new, self-similar, model of the universe. This model displays a variation of scale with invariance of dimensionless parameters, a characteristic of self-similar phenomena displayed by cosmic data. The model is deducted from two observational results (expansion of space and invariance of constants) and has just one parameter, the Hubble parameter. Somewhat surprisingly, classic physical laws hold both in standard and comoving units, except for a small new term in the angular momentum law that is beyond present possibilities of direct measurement. In spite of having just one parameter, the model is as successful as the ΛCDM model in the classic cosmic tests, and a value of H0 = 64 km s−1 Mpc−1 is obtained from the fitting with supernovae Ia data from Union compilation. It is shown that in standard units the model corresponds to Big Bang cosmologies, namely to the ΛCDM model, unveiling what dark energy stands for. This scaling (dilation) model is a
one-parameter model that seems able of fitting cosmic data, that does not conflict with fundamental physical laws and that is not dependent on hypotheses, being straightforwardly deducted from the two observational results above mentioned.//''
for the record:
(submited to PRX, July 1, 2011 ; July 6 - not suitable for the journal.)

!''[[A relativistic time variation of matter/space fits both local and cosmic data|]]''  (arxiv)

''//Cosmic observations strongly support a time varying scenario for matter/space. On the other hand, so far, observations at solar system scale failed to identify any time variation on matter/space characteristics. To explain both results it is enough to consider a time variation of physical parameters liable to account for cosmic observations but satisfying Relativity Principle at least at local scale (we called it Local Relativity Property). Here, for the first time, a relativistic time varying scenario is defined from redshift and Cosmic Microwave Background characteristics. It is showed that it can match both cosmic and local data. Although undetectable in each local measure, such relativistic scenario has detectable time dependent consequences at Solar System scale, namely a receding component in the motion of the Moon, a past warmer climate and, this being new, an accelerating component in Earth rotation. A new class of cosmological models can now be explored, without concepts like dark matter, valid at both local and cosmic scale, and such that fundamental physical laws and Relativity Principle hold in any point of time and space.//''

!''[[Cosmological Principle and Relativity - Part I|]]'' (arxiv)

''//The absence of an identified consequence at solar system scale of the cosmological space expansion is usually explained considering that space expansion does not affect local anysotropies in matter distribution. This can also be explained considering a time dependent scenario compatible with Relativity Principle, therefore supporting physical laws independent of the time position of the observer. A theory considering such relativist scenario, i.e., generalizing Relativity Principle to position, embodies Cosmological Principle and can be intrinsically able to fit directly both local and cosmic data. In part I it is presented the general framework of such a theory, called Local Relativity (LR), and analysed the space-time structure. Special Relativity space-time is obtained, with no formal conflict with Einstein analysis, but fully solving apparent paradoxes and conceptual difficulties, including the simultaneity concept and the long discussed Sagnac effect. In part II, LR is applied to positional analysis. It is verified the accordance with solar system measurements and with classic cosmic tests, without dark matter or dark energy. Two of the new features obtained in part II are the possibility of a planetary orbital evolution compatible with a null determination for G variation, supporting a warmer scenario for earth (and Mars) past climate, and the possibility of an accelerating component in earth rotation, compatible with the most recent measurements.//''
BPM - Business Process Modeling

ARIS express
[[TIBCO Studio|]] video
[[TIBCO download|]]
[[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  

[[The Saha Equation|]] and  [[Astronomical "color"|]]  
are part of [[Physics 440, "Astrophysics I"|]]

is part of [[AST403/PHY402 Stars and Star Formation |]]

[[Classification of Spectra Boltzmann and Saha Equations|]] Astrophysics II:  Lecture #5  
[[Ionization of Hydrogen|]] astro  310 townsend is [[part of|]]   
[[Gauge Theories of the Strong and Electroweak Interactions |]] pdf 130 pages
I present a way to end with the SnowBall Earth Paradox

I will present a very recent document with a novel theory of the past Earth Climate compatible with the Life origin and evolution. 
A Model of Past Earth’s Climate from Isotopic and Biologic Data and Its Relationship with Orbits’ Expansion

25 pages, 10 figures and +85 references, with my modest contribution. 

The existence and antiquity of the life on Earth should be enough to end SnowBall Earth Theory. That's why it is called a Paradox. 

Importing the life from mars is just against the scientif method: 
  on Earth : Information= XXXXXXX ; LIFE = 100% probable
  on Mars  : Information= x              ; LIFE = 0 (no life on mars now)
The temperature of my body is 37ºC is a proof that the past the ambient temperature was much higher then now.  

The BB and the space expansion do not allow the expansion of the orbits. 
Because the ancient past temperature of Earth was higher (delta O18 marker, the reconstruction of the ancient proteins, etc)  we will have to choose between:
the Sun's model is wrong and the Sun was not fainter in the past,
OR the Earth and Mars were nearer to the Sun in the past.

The first model of the past hot Earth’s climate consistently indicated by isotopic and biologic data is here established. This model, here named Evolving Climate Model (ECM), accurately matches a 3 Gy long compilation of isotope 18O data. An important consequence of the model is the fast increase of oxygen atmospheric level between 2 and 1 Ga (Gy ago); this is a well-known but until now mysterious occurrence, the Great Oxygenation Event. A solution is presented for the two centuries old “dolomite problem” and new explanations arise for a number of long lasting problems, such as the origin of petroleum or of proto-continents. Differently from the usual climate scenarios, the ECM presents ideal conditions for the massive production of long organic molecules. Critical occurrences of life evolution, such as the Cambrian explosion, are explained and fitted by the ECM, exposing a previously unknown connection between the evolution of life and climate. The most likely cause for this hot past is the expansion of orbits; it is verified that this phenomenon can explain the ECM, the receding of the Moon and the water on early Mars for the same value of H0 = 48 km s-1 Mpc-1, which, if not a coincidence, is a non-negligible result.
Click the "new tiddler" button towards the top right of the screen to write something in your space. You'll need to give it a title, some content and, optionally, some tags that will help you identify it later.

!Stuck for ideas?
Not sure what to write about? Not sure what to keep in your space? Other people use ~TiddlySpace for almost anything. How about some of the following:

* [[Save interesting sites|]], images or articles from around the web so that you can refer back to them.
* [[Record your family tree|]], store notes on long lost relatives or ancestors and map their relationship to you.
* [[Make up a pocketbook|]] to store some useful information in, then print it out, [[fold it up|]], and take it with you.
* [[Plan your holiday|]], record where you're planning to go, note down places of interest and refer back to it later.
* [[Create a mindmap|]] to visualise your inner thoughts and see how they relate to each other.
* [[Set up a questionnaire|]] and get all your friends to answer it.

If you don't like any of those ideas, you can still use this space directly to keep notes and link them together, make a todo list and keep track of everything you're doing, or any one of a hundred million other things.

Still stuck? Check out the @featured space for more suggestions.

You can also [[socialise with others|How to socialise]].
|''Description''|Provides TiddlySpace specific view types|
|''Author''|Jon Robson|
|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig TiddlySpaceTiddlerIconsPlugin|
Provides replyLink, spaceLink and SiteIcon view types.
!!SiteIcon view parameters
* labelPrefix / labelSuffix : prefix or suffix the label with additional text. eg. labelPrefix:'modified by '
* spaceLink: if set to "yes" will make any avatars link to the corresponding space. {{{<<originMacro spaceLink:yes>>}}}

(function($) {

var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;
var originMacro = config.macros.tiddlerOrigin;
var tweb = config.extensions.tiddlyweb;

config.macros.view.replyLink = {
	locale: {
		label: "Reply to this tiddler"

var _replyButtons = [];
var _replyInitialised, _replyScriptLoaded;
config.macros.view.views.replyLink = function(value, place, params, wikifier,
		paramString, tiddler) {
	var valueField = params[0];
	var imported;
	if(valueField == "title") { // special casing for imported tiddlers
		var localTitle = tiddler.title;
		var serverTitle = tiddler.fields["server.title"];
		if(serverTitle && localTitle != serverTitle) {
			value = serverTitle ? serverTitle : localTitle;
			imported = true;
	} else {
		title = tiddler[valueField] ? tiddler[valueField] : tiddler.fields[valueField];
	var args = paramString.parseParams("anon")[0];
	var label = (args.label) ? args.label : config.macros.view.replyLink.locale.label;
	var space;
	if(tiddler) {
		var bag = tiddler.fields["server.bag"];
		space = tiddlyspace.resolveSpaceName(bag);
	var container = $('<span class="replyLink" />').appendTo(place)[0];

	tweb.getUserInfo(function(user) {
		if ((!user.anon) && ((space && != space && != || imported)) {
			var link = $("<a />")

			if(typeof(createReplyButton) === "undefined") {
			if(_replyInitialised) {
			} else if(!_replyScriptLoaded) {
				_replyScriptLoaded = true;
					function() {
						_replyInitialised = true;
						for(var i = 0; i < _replyButtons.length; i++) {
						_replyButtons = [];


config.macros.view.views.spaceLink = function(value, place, params, wikifier,
		paramString, tiddler) {
		var spaceName = tiddlyspace.resolveSpaceName(value);
		var isBag = params[0] == "server.bag" && value === spaceName ? true : false;
		var args = paramString.parseParams("anon")[0];
		var titleField = args.anon[2];
		var labelField = args.labelField ? args.labelField[0] : false;
		var label;
		if(labelField) {
			label = tiddler[labelField] ? tiddler[labelField] : tiddler.fields[labelField];
		} else {
			label = args.label ? args.label[0] : false;
		var title = tiddler[titleField] ? tiddler[titleField] : tiddler.fields[titleField];

		var link = createSpaceLink(place, spaceName, title, label, isBag);
		if(args.external && args.external[0] == "no") {
			$(link).click(function(ev) {
				var el = $(;
				var title = el.attr("tiddler");
				var bag = el.attr("bag");
				var space = el.attr("tiddlyspace");
				bag = space ? space + "_public" : bag;
				if(title && bag) {
					tiddlyspace.displayServerTiddler(el[0], title,
						"bags/" + bag);
				return false;

config.macros.view.views.SiteIcon = function(value, place, params, wikifier,
		paramString, tiddler) {
	var options = originMacro.getOptions(paramString);
	if(!tiddler || value == "None") { // some core tiddlers lack modifier
		value = false;
	var field = params[0];
	if(field == "server.bag") {
		options.notSpace = !originMacro._isSpace(value);
	tiddlyspace.renderAvatar(place, value, options);

<svg xmlns="" xmlns:xl="" version="1.1" viewBox="78 222 60 60" 
width="30" height="30">
<g stroke="none" stroke-opacity="1" stroke-dasharray="none" fill="none" fill-opacity="1">
		<path d="M 107.92718 244.14815 L 86.651474 222.89253 L 78.85206 230.69925 L 100.120415 251.9476 L 78.774 273.27396 
		L 86.57342 281.08075 L 107.927216 259.74707 L 129.39981 281.19946 L 137.19922 273.39267 L 115.73397 251.94763 
		L 137.121155 230.58054 L 129.32175 222.77374 Z" fill="black" class="glyph"/>
|''Description''|Allows you to set the privacy of new tiddlers and external tiddlers within an EditTemplate, and allows you to set a default privacy setting|
When used in conjunction with TiddlySpaceTiddlerIconsPlugin changing the privacy setting will also interact with any privacy icons.

Currently use of
{{{<<setPrivacy defaultValue:public>>}}} is in conflict with {{{<<newTiddler fields:"server.workspace:x_private">>}}}

There is an option, found in the tweak tab of the backstage, called txtPrivacyMode. Set this to either ''public'' or ''private'' depending on your security preference. If you choose not to set it then it will default to ''public''.
Allows you to set the default privacy value (Default is private)

(function($) {

	var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace,
	macro = config.macros.setPrivacy = {
		handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
			if(readOnly) {
			var el = $(story.findContainingTiddler(place)),
				args = paramString.parseParams("name",
					null, true, false, true)[0],
				container = $("<div />").
				currentSpace =,
				currentBag = tiddler ? tiddler.fields["server.bag"] : false,
				// XXX: is the following reliable?
				isNewTiddler = el.hasClass("missing") || !currentBag,
				tiddlerStatus = tiddlyspace.getTiddlerStatusType(tiddler),
				customFields = el.attr("tiddlyfields"),
				defaultValue = "public",
				options = config.macros.tiddlerOrigin ?
						config.macros.tiddlerOrigin.getOptions(paramString) :
			customFields = customFields ? customFields.decodeHashMap() : {};
			if(isNewTiddler || !["public", "private", "unsyncedPrivate",
					"unsyncedPublic"].contains(tiddlerStatus)) {
				if(args.defaultValue) {
					defaultValue = args.defaultValue[0].toLowerCase();
				} else {
					defaultValue = config.options.chkPrivateMode ?
							"private" : "public";
				defaultValue = defaultValue ?
						"%0_%1".format(currentSpace, defaultValue) :
				this.createRoundel(container, tiddler, currentSpace,
						defaultValue, options);
		updateEditFields: function(tiddlerEl, bag) {
			var saveBagField = $('[edit="server.bag"]', tiddlerEl),
				saveWorkspaceField = $('[edit="server.workspace"]', tiddlerEl),
				input = $("<input />").attr("type", "hidden"),
				workspace = "bags/" + bag;
			if(saveBagField.length === 0) {
				input.clone().attr("edit", "server.bag").val(bag).
			} else {
			// reset to prevent side effects
			$(tiddlerEl).attr("tiddlyFields", "");
			if(saveWorkspaceField.length === 0) {
				input.clone().attr("edit", "server.workspace").
			} else {
		setBag: function(tiddlerEl, newBag, options) {
			var bagStatus,
				title = $(tiddlerEl).attr("tiddler"),
				tiddler = store.getTiddler(title),
				originButton = $(".originButton", tiddlerEl)[0],
				newWorkspace = "bags/" + newBag,
				rPrivate = $("input[type=radio].isPrivate", tiddlerEl),
				rPublic = $("input[type=radio].isPublic", tiddlerEl);
			refreshIcon = function(type) {
				var originMacro = config.macros.tiddlerOrigin;
				if(originButton && originMacro) {
					options.noclick = true;
					originMacro.showPrivacyRoundel(tiddler, type,
							originButton, options);
			macro.updateEditFields(tiddlerEl, newBag);
			if(tiddler) {
				tiddler.fields["server.bag"] = newBag;
				// for external tiddlers
				tiddler.fields["server.workspace"] = newWorkspace;
			if(newBag.indexOf("_public") > -1) {
				rPrivate.attr("checked", false);
				rPublic.attr("checked", true);
				bagStatus = "public";
			} else {
				rPublic.attr("checked", false); // explicitly do this for ie
				rPrivate.attr("checked", true);
				bagStatus = "private";
		createRoundel: function(container, tiddler, currentSpace,
							   defaultValue, options) {
			var privateBag = "%0_private".format(currentSpace),
				publicBag = "%0_public".format(currentSpace),
				rbtn = $("<input />").attr("type", "radio").
					attr("name", tiddler.title),
				el = story.findContainingTiddler(container);
			$("<label />").text("private").appendTo(container); // TODO: i18n
			$("<label />").text("public").appendTo(container); // TODO: i18n
			$("[type=radio]", container).click(function(ev) {
				var btn = $(;
				tiddler.fields[""] = "false";
				if(btn.hasClass("isPrivate")) { // private button clicked.
					macro.setBag(el, privateBag, options);
				} else {
					macro.setBag(el, publicBag, options);
			window.setTimeout(function() {
				macro.setBag(el, defaultValue, options);
			}, 100);
			// annoyingly this is needed as customFields are added to end of EditTemplate so are not present yet
			// and don't seem to respect any existing customFields.

[[NASA Venus factsheet|]]

>The new upper limit on the dipole moment obtained from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter wake measurements placed the Venus intrinsic magnetic field at ~ 10-5 times that of Earth.

>It is important to note that, contrary to popular belief, dynamo theory does not credit the smallness of the magnetic moment to the slow rotation of Venus (a Venus day of ~ 243 Earth days is almost equal to the length of its year of ~ 224 days, and its sense of rotation is retrograde). It is also notable that Venus would not have maintained any remanent crustal magnetic fields from its proposed early period of dynamo activity because the temperatures in the crust are expected to be above the Curie point (below which such fields could persist in rocky materials).

[[Why does Venus lack a magnetic field? |]]
>The attraction of the hypothesis presented here is that one anomalous feature of Venus (its lack of plate tectonics) may help to explain another (the absence of a magnetic 

[[|]] Gravitational and Atmspheric ''Tidal effects'' .. (spin axis, atmsphere)
>Tides becomes infnite for tidal frequencies equal to zero. We have presented a new dissipation model for atmospheric tides that takes into account the constraints imposed by the present observed spin of Venus, and has the particularity of being more realistic near a steady state

Fortunately there is a very easy way of managing your node version, using the Node binary manager module ‘n’.

1: Check your current version of Node.

$node -v
2: Clear your npm cache

sudo npm cache clean -f
3: Install ‘n’

sudo npm install -g n
4: Upgrade to a later version (this step can take a while) You can specify a particular version like so:

sudo n 0.8.11
Or you can just tell the manager to install the latest stable version like so:

sudo n stable
5: Check the running version of Node to verify that it has worked:

$node -v
[[introducing qt5 controls video|]] 
[[gimp-qmlexporter scene exporter|]] gimp plugin

[[debug in QT bub|]] see
Temporary workaround (note that this introduces security risk to your system, see Ubuntu wiki page linked above for details):
In ''/etc/sysctl.d/10-ptrace.conf'' change value of kernel.yama.ptrace_scope to 0. This file is read at startup time so you will need to reboot to apply change.
You can also set ptrace_scope to 0 for current session only (it will revert back to 1 after rebooting) like this:

 echo 0 | sudo tee /proc/sys/kernel/yama/ptrace_scope 
Great Oxigenation Event

I will explore the answer admitting that the Earth's temperature in the ancient past was much higher than we now assume as possible. The current standard model is the 'Snowball Earth' which leaves many unsolved problems - see 'Faint Young Sun Paradox'.  

I will assume that the total amount of $\ce{H_2O}$, $\ce{CO_2}$, $\ce{O_2}$ is substantially constant throughout the entire history of the earth.

All the water of the oceans would stay in the atmosphere layer   provided the temperature was high enough. The percentage of oxygen would be $\approx 0$ because it would be masked by the massive presence of $\ce{H_2O}$.  

Later, when the temperature dropped, the water has migrated to the ocean floor and the percentage of $\ce{O}$ exploded to current levels. This fact is called the 'Great Oxygenation Event' and it is not very well understood under the standard model. 

About the **free Oxygen origin**: (Copy / Paste)  

> "There are two known natural ways of producing oxygen: by UV
> dissociation of H2O and by photosynthesis. In the ECM, the former
> process was initially much more efficient than at present because of
> the huge amount of water vapour and of the greater intensity of UV
> radiation occurring then. The biological production of oxygen would
> have been important during the Archean, which ended at
> 2.5 Ga, therefore earlier than the GOE. The usual approach is to consider that the biologically produced oxygen was first combined with
> dissolved iron in oceans and only significantly released to the
> atmosphere later – a way to explain the delay between the presumed
> time of the biological production of oxygen and the rise of its
> atmospheric level. Here, there is no need to consider a delay – the
> biologically produced oxygen was dissolved in water and absorbed by
> the huge atmosphere without significantly changing its composition;
> the oxygen level increased only when the atmosphere significantly
> decreased due to the condensation of water vapour. One can now
> consider that oxygen was produced in large amounts since the
> beginning, first from UV dissociation, at a rate that decreased over
> time, and very soon followed by biological production. In this case,
> there was an important amount of free oxygen in the atmosphere long
> before its atmospheric level started to increase significantly; and
> some potential evidences of it can be identified (for a review see
> Yamaguchi, 2005)."

**ECM** stands for **Evolving Climate Model** where this new concept was brought to life in a formal document (if you wish to explore further you can follow the 2nd link in my profile, not peer-reviewed)  

I will present a very recent document with a novel theory of the past Earth Climate compatible with the Life origin and evolution. 
A Model of Past Earth’s Climate from Isotopic and Biologic Data and Its Relationship with Orbits’ Expansion 
25 pages, 10 figures and +85 references, with my modest contribution. 

The existence and antiquity of the life on Earth should be enough to end SnowBall Earth Theory. That's why they called it a Paradox. 

Importing the life from mars is just against the scientif method: 
  on Earth : Information= XXXXXXX ; LIFE = 100% probable
  on Mars  : Information= x              ; LIFE = 0 (no life on mars now)
The temperature of my body is 37ºC is a proof that the past the ambient temperature was much higher then now.  

The BB and the space expantion do not allow the expantion of the orbits. 
Because the ancient past temperature of Earth was higher (delta O18 marker, the reconstruction of the ancient proteins)  we will have to choose:
the Sun's model is wrong and the Sun was not fainter in the past.
OR the Earth was nearer the Sun in the past.

[[Does Life’s Rapid Appearance Imply a Martian Origin? |]] by P.C.W.Davies, 2004

 ...the relative probabilities for a non-indigenous versus indigenous origin, on the assumption that biogenesis involves one or more highly improbable steps, using a generalization of
Carter’s well-known observer-selection argument. The analysis is specifically
applied to a Martian origin of life, with subsequent transfer to Earth within impact
ejecta. My main result is that the relatively greater probability of a Martian origin
rises sharply as a function of the number of difficult steps involved in biogenesis.
Revisiting some notions available by 2004, at a time it was not known that millions and milions of planets do exist in the Milky Way.
The entire reasoning is logically incorrect because in the present of a problematic statistical definition of the 'on Earth origin' problem it was substituted, 'wrongly', by a greater probability of a 'Mars origin'+meteo transfer. 
IMO this is wrong, it is against the logic and the probabilities, because as we know nothing about the difficulties of the onset of Life on the Martian environment we have noting to compare.  

 Another point that is wrong is :
"Let me start by making a general point about the a priori probability of
biogenesis. There is no known reason why the physical factors that determine the
probability pL of life originating on a given earth-like planet after, say, several billion
years, should be correlated with the number of such planets within the galaxy, N

video: 2.2 Origins of Life: Location
All the locations and early environments relative to the Life beginnings, as endorsed in the video, are of pico duration and almost null extension. 

This is my original Question on experiment not read elsewhere, in an attempt to support or deny [[Marty Green's Quantum Siphoning theory|]]
[[single photon/electron double slit experiment, resetting the detector material after each impact|]] at PSE

[[at physicsoverflow|]] physicsoverflow  

[[at PF|]] at PF

What is the experimental outcome of a single photon/electron double slit experiment under the constraint that after each detection the detector material is reset to the original state ie, in the limit it is substituted by another detector sheet, or photographic plate.

Of course that the impact positions should be recorded in a computer to construct the accumulated final image.

edit ADD:
I'm not questioning QM, nor theory, nor opinions.
As a reference the single electron double slit configuration is described at [[Hitachi Lab|]] and here are more details on the setup and the [[Hamamatsu Photonics (PIAS) detector|]]

From the reactions on other Q/A sites I suspect that this experiment was never done in the conditions I want.
Pro dubio I'm asking.
|''Author''|Jon Robson|
|''Description''|Localised tiddler save errors including edit conflict resolution.|
(function($) {

var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;
var currentSpace =;
tiddlyspace.getLocalTitle = function(title, workspace, suffix) {
	var endsWith = config.extensions.BinaryTiddlersPlugin.endsWith;
	if(!suffix) {
		var isPublic = endsWith(workspace, "_public");
		suffix = tiddlyspace.resolveSpaceName(workspace);
		if(currentSpace == suffix) {
			suffix = isPublic ? "public" : "private";
		} else {
			suffix = "@%0".format(suffix);
	return "%0 *(%1)*".format(title, suffix);

var sssp = config.extensions.ServerSideSavingPlugin;

var msgs = config.messages.editConflict = {
	loading: "Loading..",
	resolve: "[[Edit Conflict]]@glossary: this tiddler may have been changed by someone else.",
	reviewDiff: "review (recommended)",
	reviewDiffTooltip: "review changes made to this tiddler",
	reviewDiffError: "error retrieving revision.",
	save: "overwrite",
	saveTooltip: "make this revision the top revision of this tiddler",
	discard: "cancel",
	discardTooltip: "undo changes to this tiddler and get most recent version",
	diffTitle: "%0",
	diffFieldTitle: "%0 - fields",
	diffTextTitle: "%0 - text",
	updating: "updating your version...",
	diffHeader: ["Review the changes that have been made whilst you were editing this tiddler. ",
		"Fold relevant changes back into your version.\n",
		"{{removed{Red}}} highlight shows content removed. ",
		"{{added{Green}}} highlight shows content added.\n"].join(""),
	diffTextHeader: "View changes in text",
	diffFieldsHeader: "View changes in fields"

var plugin = config.extensions.errorHandler = {
	diffTags: ["excludeLists", "excludeMissing", "excludeSearch"],
	displayMessage: function(message, tiddler, context) {
		var desc = context && context.httpStatus ? context.statusText :
		var reportArea = plugin.reportError(tiddler.title);
		var msg = $("<div />").appendTo(reportArea);
		if(message == "saveConflict") {
			wikify(msgs.resolve, msg[0]);
			var choiceArea = $("<div />").appendTo(reportArea)[0];
			plugin.editConflictHandler(choiceArea, tiddler);
		} else {
			msg.text(sssp.locale[message].format(tiddler.title, desc));
	editConflictHandler: function(container, tiddler) {
		var title = tiddler.title;
		var myrev = tiddler.fields[""];
		// note user now needs to edit, fix problem and save. 
		// TODO: make sure this gets reset in save callback
		store.getTiddler(title).fields[""] = "false";

		var diffBtn = createTiddlyButton(container, msgs.reviewDiff, msgs.reviewDiffTooltip, function(ev) {
			var title = $("title");
			plugin.displayDiff(, store.getTiddler(title), myrev);
		var saveBtn = createTiddlyButton(container,, msgs.saveTooltip, function(ev) {
				var title = $("title");
				var tid = store.saveTiddler(store.getTiddler(title));
				autoSaveChanges(null, [tid]);
		var ignoreBtn = createTiddlyButton(container, msgs.discard, msgs.discardTooltip, function(ev) {
			var title = $("title");
		$([diffBtn, ignoreBtn, saveBtn]).data("title", title);
	getDiffTiddlerTexts: function(diffText) {
		var chunks = diffText.split("\n  \n");
		if(chunks.length < 2) {
			return [chunks[0], ""];
		} else {
			var diffFieldsText = "{{diff{\n%0\n}}}".format(chunks[0]);
			diffText = '{{diff{\n%0\n}}}'.format(chunks.splice(1, chunks.length).join("\n"));
			return [diffText, diffFieldsText];
	makeDiffTiddler: function(title, diff) {
		var newTiddler = new Tiddler(title);
		var tags = plugin.diffTags;
		newTiddler.text = msgs.loading;
		newTiddler.fields.doNotSave = true;
		newTiddler.tags = diff ? tags.concat(["diff"]) : tags;
		newTiddler = store.saveTiddler(newTiddler);
			config.defaultCustomFields); // allow option to save it
		return newTiddler;
	displayDiff: function(src, tiddler, latestRevision) {
		var adaptor = tiddler.getAdaptor();
		var title = tiddler.title;
		var ts = new Date().formatString("0hh:0mm:0ss");
		var suffix = "edit conflict %0".format(ts);
		var diffTitle = tiddlyspace.getLocalTitle(msgs.diffTitle.format(title), "", suffix);
		var diffTextTitle = tiddlyspace.getLocalTitle(msgs.diffTextTitle.format(title), "", suffix);
		var diffFieldsTitle = tiddlyspace.getLocalTitle(msgs.diffFieldTitle.format(title), "", suffix);
		plugin.makeDiffTiddler(diffTextTitle, true);
		plugin.makeDiffTiddler(diffFieldsTitle, true);
		var newTiddler = plugin.makeDiffTiddler(diffTitle, false);
		newTiddler.text = ['%0\n<<slider chkViewDiffText "%1" "%2">>\n',
			'<<slider chkViewDiffField "%3" "%4">>'].join("").
			format(msgs.diffHeader, diffTextTitle, msgs.diffTextHeader,
				diffFieldsTitle, msgs.diffFieldsHeader);

		var callback = function(r) {
			var text = plugin.getDiffTiddlerTexts(r);
			store.getTiddler(diffTextTitle).text = text[0];
			store.getTiddler(diffFieldsTitle).text = text[1];
			story.refreshTiddler(diffTitle, null, true);
		var workspace = "bags/%0".format(tiddler.fields["server.bag"]);
			type: "get",
			dataType: "text",
			url: "/diff?format=unified&rev1=%0/%1/%2&rev2=%0/%1".format(workspace, title, latestRevision),
			success: callback,
			error: function() {
		story.displayTiddler(src, diffTitle);
	resetToServerVersion: function(tiddler) {
		var adaptor = tiddler.getAdaptor();
		var ctx = { 
			host: tiddler.fields[""],
			workspace: "bags/" + tiddler.fields["server.bag"]
		adaptor.getTiddler(tiddler.title, ctx, null, function(context) {
	reportError: function(title) {
		var el = story.getTiddler(title);
		if(!el) {
			el = story.displayTiddler(null, title);
		return $("<div />").addClass("error annotation").prependTo(el)[0];

sssp.reportFailure = function(message, tiddler, context) {
	config.options.chkViewDiffText = config.options.chkViewDiffText === undefined ?
		true : config.options.chkViewDiffText;
	config.options.chkViewDiffFields = config.options.chkViewDiffFields || false;
	plugin.displayMessage(message, tiddler, context);

[[Sphinx|]] Open Source Search Server

[[Search oDesk jobs|]]
[[oDesk|]] open-sourced [[here|]]
oDesk is the largest site for remote work:
oDesk ranks #1 in annual contractor earnings, almost double that of the next largest online workplace.
Nearly three-quarters of oDesk contractors agree that “oDesk has improved my quality of life.”
85% of our contractors say they LOVE oDesk!
|''Author''|Jon Robson|
|''Description''|Provides ability to render SiteIcons and icons that correspond to the home location of given tiddlers|
|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig BinaryTiddlersPlugin ImageMacroPlugin TiddlySpacePublishingCommands|
{{{<<tiddlerOrigin>>}}} shows the origin of the tiddler it is being run on.
In TiddlySpace terms this means it will determine whether the tiddler is external, public or private.
Where private it will analyse whether a public version exists and distinguish between the different scenarios.
If a tiddler is external, the SiteIcon of that external space will be shown

width / height : define a width or height of the outputted icon
label: if label parameter is set to yes, a label will accompany the icon.
(function($) {

if(!config.macros.image) {
	throw "Missing dependency: ImageMacroPlugin";

var imageMacro = config.macros.image;
var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;
var tweb = config.extensions.tiddlyweb;
var cmds = config.commands;
var cmd = cmds.publishTiddler;
tiddlyspace.resolveSpaceName = function(value) {
	var endsWith = config.extensions.BinaryTiddlersPlugin.endsWith;
	if(value) {
		value = value.indexOf("bags/") === 0 ? value.substr(5) : value;
		value = value.indexOf("recipes/") === 0 ? value.substr(8) : value;
		if(value.indexOf("@") === 0) {
			value = value.substr(1);
		if(endsWith(value, "_public")) {
			value = value.substr(0, value.length - 7);
		} else if(endsWith(value, "_private")) {
			value = value.substr(0, value.length - 8);
		value = value.toLowerCase();
	return value;

tiddlyspace.renderAvatar = function(place, value, options) {
	options = options ? options : {};
	options.labelOptions = options.labelOptions ? options.labelOptions : { include: false, height: 48, width: 48 };
	options.imageOptions = options.imageOptions ? options.imageOptions : {};
	options.imageOptions.altImage = "/bags/common/tiddlers/defaultUserIcon";
	var container = $('<div class="siteIcon" />').appendTo(place);
	value = tiddlyspace.resolveSpaceName(value);

	tweb.getStatus(function(status) {
		var link, noLabel;
		if(!value || value == config.views.wikified.defaultModifier ||
			value == config.views.wikified.shadowModifier) {
			var icon = config.views.wikified.shadowModifier == value ? "shadowIcon" : "missingIcon";
			if(store.tiddlerExists(icon)) {
				imageMacro.renderImage(container, icon, options.imageOptions);
			} else {
				noLabel = true;
		} else {
			var spaceURI;
			if(value != {
				spaceURI = options.notSpace ? tiddlyspace.getHost(status.server_host) :
					tiddlyspace.getHost(status.server_host, value);
			link = spaceURI ? $("<a />").attr("href", spaceURI) : $("<span />");

			var imageOptions = options.imageOptions;
			if(options.spaceLink && ! { = spaceURI;
			var avatar = options.notSpace ? false : value;
			var uri = tiddlyspace.getAvatar(status.server_host, avatar);
			imageMacro.renderImage(container, uri, options.imageOptions);
			if(!value) {
				value = "tiddlyspace";
		if(!noLabel && options.labelOptions.include) {
			var prefix = $("<span />").text(options.labelOptions.prefix || "")[0];
			var suffix = $("<span />").text(options.labelOptions.suffix || "")[0];
			$('<div class="label" />').append(prefix).append(link).
	if(value) {
		var prefix = options.labelOptions.prefix || "";
		var suffix = options.labelOptions.suffix || "";
		var label = "%0%1%2".format(prefix, value, suffix);
		$(container).attr("title", label);

var originMacro = config.macros.tiddlerOrigin = {
	locale: {
		"shadow": "shadow tiddler",
		"missing": "missing tiddler",
		"private": "private",
		"unknown": "unknown state",
		"public": "public",
		"unsyncedPrivate": "unsynced and private",
		"unsyncedPublic": "unsynced and public",
		externalPrefix: "from ",
		externalBagSuffix: " bag",
		externalSuffix: " space",
		publishPrivateDeletePrivate: "Are you sure you want to make this tiddler public?",
		moveToPrivate: "Are you sure you want to make this tiddler private? Only members will be able to see it.",
		pleaseWait: "please wait..",
		keepPublic: "keep public",
		cannotPublishDirtyTiddler: "The current tiddler is unsaved so cannot be published. Please save the tiddler first.",
		keepPrivate: "keep private",
		makePublic: "make public",
		makePrivate: "make private"
	handler: function(place, macroName, params,wikifier, paramString, tiddler){
		var adaptor = tiddler.getAdaptor();
		var btn = $("<div />").addClass("originButton").attr("params", paramString).
			attr("refresh", "macro").attr("macroName", macroName).appendTo(place)[0];
		$(btn).data("tiddler", tiddler);
	refresh: function(btn) {
		var paramString = $(btn).attr("params");
		var tiddler = $(btn).data("tiddler");
		var options = originMacro.getOptions(paramString);
		var type = tiddlyspace.getTiddlerStatusType(tiddler);
		originMacro.renderIcon(tiddler, type, btn, options);
	getOptions: function(paramString) {
		paramString = "%0 label:no width:48 height:48 spaceLink:yes preserveAspectRatio:yes".format(paramString);
		var parsedParams = paramString.parseParams("name");
		var params = parsedParams[0].name;
		var options = {
			labelOptions: originMacro._getLabelOptions(parsedParams),
			imageOptions: imageMacro.getArguments(paramString, []),
			noclick: parsedParams[0].interactive &&
				parsedParams[0].interactive[0] == "no" ? true : false
		if(!options.noclick) {
			var spaceLink = parsedParams[0].spaceLink;
			options.spaceLink = spaceLink && spaceLink[0] == "no" ? false : true;
		} else {
			options.spaceLink = false;
		return options;
	_getLabelOptions: function(parsedParams) {
		parsedParams = parsedParams[0];
		var includeLabel = !parsedParams.label || ( parsedParams.label && parsedParams.label[0] == "yes" );
		var prefix = parsedParams.labelPrefix ? parsedParams.labelPrefix[0] : false;
		var suffix = parsedParams.labelSuffix ? parsedParams.labelSuffix[0] : false;
		return { include: includeLabel, suffix: suffix, prefix: prefix };
	_isSpace: function(value) {
		value = value ? value : "";
		var endsWith = config.extensions.BinaryTiddlersPlugin.endsWith;
		if(endsWith(value, "_private") || endsWith(value, "_public")) {
			return true;
		} else {
			return false;
	renderIcon: function(tiddler, type, button, options) {
		var locale = originMacro.locale;
		originMacro.annotateTiddler(button, type);
		if(type != "external") {
			originMacro.showPrivacyRoundel(tiddler, type, button,
		} else {
			var prefix = options.labelOptions.prefix, suffix = options.labelOptions.suffix;
			var space = tiddler.fields["server.bag"];
			options.notSpace = !originMacro._isSpace(space);
			options.labelOptions.prefix = prefix ? prefix : locale.externalPrefix;
			options.labelOptions.suffix = suffix ? suffix : (options.notSpace ? locale.externalBagSuffix : locale.externalSuffix);

			tiddlyspace.renderAvatar(button, space, options);
	showPrivacyRoundel: function(thisTiddler, privacyType, button, options) {
		// there is a public tiddler as well as the current tiddler!
		// TODO: not this is not enough.. we also need to check if the public tiddler is the same as..
		// .. the private tiddler to determine whether this is a draft
		// use of hashes would be useful here.
		var icon = "%0Icon".format(privacyType);
		if(privacyType.indexOf("unsynced") === 0 && !store.tiddlerExists(icon)) {
			icon = "unsyncedIcon";
		if(privacyType == "shadow") {
			if(!store.tiddlerExists(icon)) {
				icon = "bags/tiddlyspace/tiddlers/SiteIcon";
		if(privacyType == "missing" && !store.tiddlerExists(icon)) {
			return; // the user is not making use of the missingIcon
		} else {
			imageMacro.renderImage(button, icon, options.imageOptions);
			originMacro.showLabel(button, privacyType, options.labelOptions);
			var cmd = originMacro.iconCommands[privacyType];
			if(cmd && thisTiddler && !options.noclick) {
				$(button).click(function(ev) {
					cmd(ev, thisTiddler);
	annotateTiddler: function(place, type) {
		var tidEl = $(story.findContainingTiddler(place));
			removeClass("private public external privateAndPublic privateNotPublic shadow").
	showLabel: function(button, type, options) {
		var locale = originMacro.locale;
		var label = options.label ? options.label : locale[type];
		label = label ? label : locale.unknown;
		if(options && options.include) {
			$('<div class="roundelLabel" />').html(label).appendTo(button);
		$(button).attr("title", label);
	confirm: function(ev, msg, onYes, options) {
		options = options ? options : {};
		onYes = onYes ? onYes : function(ev) {};
		var btn = $(".originButton", $([0];
		var popup = Popup.create(btn);
		$("<div />").addClass("message").text(msg).appendTo(popup);
		$("<button />").addClass("button").text(options.yesLabel || "yes").appendTo(popup).click(onYes);
		$("<button />").addClass("button").text(options.noLabel || "no").click(function(ev) {
		return false;
	alert: function(ev, msg) {
		var popup = Popup.create(;
		$(popup).addClass("confirmationPopup alert");
		$("<div />").addClass("message").text(msg).appendTo(popup);;
	reportDirty: function(el) {
		originMacro.alert(el, originMacro.locale.cannotPublishDirtyTiddler);
	iconCommands: {
		"public": function(ev, tiddler) {
			if(!readOnly) {
				var locale = originMacro.locale;
				var msg = locale.moveToPrivate;
				if(story.isDirty(tiddler.title)) {
				} else {
					originMacro.confirm(ev, msg, function(ev) {
						var target = $(;
						var onComplete = function(info) {};
						var privateBag = cmd.toggleBag(tiddler, "private");
						cmd.moveTiddler(tiddler, {
							title: tiddler.title,
							fields: { "server.bag": privateBag }
						}, onComplete);
					}, { yesLabel: locale.makePrivate, noLabel: locale.keepPublic });
		"private": function(ev, tiddler) {
			if(!readOnly) {
				var locale = originMacro.locale;
				var adaptor = tiddler.getAdaptor();
				var publishTo = tiddler.fields[""] || tiddler.title;
				var workspace = "bags/%0".format(tiddler.fields["server.bag"]);
				tiddler.fields["server.workspace"] = workspace;
				var publicBag = cmd.toggleBag(tiddler, "public");
				var msg;
				msg = locale.publishPrivateDeletePrivate;
				var title = tiddler.title;
				var newTitle = publishTo || tiddler.title;
				tiddler.fields[""] = "false";
				if(story.isDirty(tiddler.title)) {
				} else {
					originMacro.confirm(ev, msg, function(ev) {
						var onComplete = function(info) {};
						cmd.moveTiddler(tiddler, {
							title: newTitle,
							fields: { "server.bag": publicBag }
						}, onComplete);
					}, { yesLabel: locale.makePublic, noLabel: locale.keepPrivate });

alternativa ao Documentum ?
software [[DSPACE |]] 
DSpace open source software is a turnkey repository application used by more than 1000+ organizations and institutions worldwide to provide durable access to digital resources.

|''Description''|server-side saving|
This plugin relies on a dedicated adaptor to be present.
The specific nature of this plugin depends on the respective server.
!Revision History
!!v0.1 (2008-11-24)
* initial release
!!v0.2 (2008-12-01)
* added support for local saving
!!v0.3 (2008-12-03)
* added Save to Web macro for manual synchronization
!!v0.4 (2009-01-15)
* removed ServerConfig dependency by detecting server type from the respective tiddlers
!!v0.5 (2009-08-25)
* raised CoreVersion to 2.5.3 to take advantage of core fixes
!!v0.6 (2010-04-21)
* added notification about cross-domain restrictions to ImportTiddlers
!To Do
* conflict detection/resolution
* rename to ServerLinkPlugin?
* document deletion/renaming convention
(function($) {

readOnly = false; //# enable editing over HTTP

var plugin = config.extensions.ServerSideSavingPlugin = {};

plugin.locale = {
	saved: "%0 saved successfully",
	saveError: "Error saving %0: %1",
	saveConflict: "Error saving %0: edit conflict",
	deleted: "Removed %0",
	deleteError: "Error removing %0: %1",
	deleteLocalError: "Error removing %0 locally",
	removedNotice: "This tiddler has been deleted.",
	connectionError: "connection could not be established",
	hostError: "Unable to import from this location due to cross-domain restrictions."

plugin.sync = function(tiddlers) {
	tiddlers = tiddlers && tiddlers[0] ? tiddlers : store.getTiddlers();
	$.each(tiddlers, function(i, tiddler) {
		var changecount = parseInt(tiddler.fields.changecount, 10);
		if(tiddler.fields.deleted === "true" && changecount === 1) {
		} else if(tiddler.isTouched() && !tiddler.doNotSave() &&
				tiddler.getServerType() && tiddler.fields[""]) { // XXX: could be empty string
			delete tiddler.fields.deleted;

plugin.saveTiddler = function(tiddler) {
	try {
		var adaptor = this.getTiddlerServerAdaptor(tiddler);
	} catch(ex) {
		return false;
	var context = {
		tiddler: tiddler,
		changecount: tiddler.fields.changecount,
		workspace: tiddler.fields["server.workspace"]
	var serverTitle = tiddler.fields["server.title"]; // indicates renames
	if(!serverTitle) {
		tiddler.fields["server.title"] = tiddler.title;
	} else if(tiddler.title != serverTitle) {
		return adaptor.moveTiddler({ title: serverTitle },
			{ title: tiddler.title }, context, null, this.saveTiddlerCallback);
	var req = adaptor.putTiddler(tiddler, context, {}, this.saveTiddlerCallback);
	return req ? tiddler : false;

plugin.saveTiddlerCallback = function(context, userParams) {
	var tiddler = context.tiddler;
	if(context.status) {
		if(tiddler.fields.changecount == context.changecount) { //# check for changes since save was triggered
		} else if(tiddler.fields.changecount > 0) {
			tiddler.fields.changecount -= context.changecount;
		plugin.reportSuccess("saved", tiddler);
	} else {
		if(context.httpStatus == 412) {
			plugin.reportFailure("saveConflict", tiddler);
		} else {
			plugin.reportFailure("saveError", tiddler, context);

plugin.removeTiddler = function(tiddler) {
	try {
		var adaptor = this.getTiddlerServerAdaptor(tiddler);
	} catch(ex) {
		return false;
	var context = {
		host: tiddler.fields[""],
		workspace: tiddler.fields["server.workspace"],
		tiddler: tiddler
	var req = adaptor.deleteTiddler(tiddler, context, {}, this.removeTiddlerCallback);
	return req ? tiddler : false;

plugin.removeTiddlerCallback = function(context, userParams) {
	var tiddler = context.tiddler;
	if(context.status) {
		if(tiddler.fields.deleted === "true") {
		} else {
			plugin.reportFailure("deleteLocalError", tiddler);
		plugin.reportSuccess("deleted", tiddler);
	} else {
		plugin.reportFailure("deleteError", tiddler, context);

plugin.getTiddlerServerAdaptor = function(tiddler) { // XXX: rename?
	var type = tiddler.fields["server.type"] || config.defaultCustomFields["server.type"];
	return new config.adaptors[type]();

plugin.reportSuccess = function(msg, tiddler) {

plugin.reportFailure = function(msg, tiddler, context) {
	var desc = (context && context.httpStatus) ? context.statusText :
	displayMessage(plugin.locale[msg].format([tiddler.title, desc]));

config.macros.saveToWeb = { // XXX: hijack existing sync macro?
	locale: { // TODO: merge with plugin.locale?
		btnLabel: "save to web",
		btnTooltip: "synchronize changes",
		btnAccessKey: null

	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		createTiddlyButton(place, this.locale.btnLabel, this.locale.btnTooltip,
			plugin.sync, null, null, this.locale.btnAccessKey);

// hijack saveChanges to trigger remote saving
var _saveChanges = saveChanges;
saveChanges = function(onlyIfDirty, tiddlers) {
	if(window.location.protocol == "file:") {
		_saveChanges.apply(this, arguments);
	} else {

// override removeTiddler to flag tiddler as deleted -- XXX: use hijack to preserve compatibility?
TiddlyWiki.prototype.removeTiddler = function(title) { // XXX: should override deleteTiddler instance method?
	var tiddler = this.fetchTiddler(title);
	if(tiddler) {
		tiddler.tags = ["excludeLists", "excludeSearch", "excludeMissing"];
		tiddler.text = plugin.locale.removedNotice;
		tiddler.fields.deleted = "true"; // XXX: rename to removed/tiddlerRemoved?
		tiddler.fields.changecount = "1";
		this.notify(title, true);

// hijack ImportTiddlers wizard to handle cross-domain restrictions
var _onOpen = config.macros.importTiddlers.onOpen;
config.macros.importTiddlers.onOpen = function(ev) {
	var btn = $(resolveTarget(ev));
	var url = btn.closest(".wizard").find("input[name=txtPath]").val();
	if(window.location.protocol != "file:" && url.indexOf("://") != -1) {
		var host = url.split("/")[2];
		var macro = config.macros.importTiddlers;
		if(host != {
			btn.text(macro.cancelLabel).attr("title", macro.cancelPrompt);
			btn[0].onclick = macro.onCancel;
			$('<span class="status" />').text(plugin.locale.hostError).insertAfter(btn);
			return false;
	return _onOpen.apply(this, arguments);

|''Description''|Mimics allTags macro to provide ways of creating lists grouping tiddlers by any field|
|''Author''|Jon Robson|
{{{<<groupBy tags>>}}}
mimics allTags macro

{{{<<groupBy server.bag>>}}}
groups by the server.bag field (this version contains TiddlySpace specific code for turning a bag into a space name)

{{{groupBy modified dateFormat:"YYYY"}}}
group tiddlers by year.

{{{<<groupBy tags exclude:excludeLists exclude:systemConfig>>}}}
group tiddlers by tag but exclude the tags with values excludeLists and systemConfig

Within that group you can also exclude things by filter
{{{groupBy modifier filter:[tag[film]]}}}
will group tiddlers tagged with film by modifier.
(function($) {
var taglocale = config.views.wikified.tag;
var macro = config.macros.groupBy = {
	locale: {
		tooltip: "all tiddlers in group %0",
		noTiddlers: "no tiddlers",
		openAllText: taglocale.openAllText,
		openAllTooltip: taglocale.openAllTooltip,
		openTiddler: "open tiddler with title %0"
	morpher: {
		// TODO: note currently the following 2 morphers are TiddlySpace specific and probably should be in separate plugin
		"server.workspace": function(value, options) {
			return macro.morpher["server.bag"](value.replace("bags/", "").replace("recipes/", ""));
		"server.bag": function(value, options) {
			if(typeof(value) !== "string") {
				return false;
			} else if(value.indexOf("_public") === -1 && value.indexOf("_private") === -1) {
				value = "*%0".format(value); // add star for non-space bags.
			return value.replace("_public", "").replace("_private", "");
		created: function(value, options) {
			return value.formatString(options.dateFormat || "DD MMM YYYY");
		modified: function(value, options) {
			return macro.morpher.created(value, options);

	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString) {
		var field = params[0] || "server.workspace";
		var dateFormat = params[1] || "DD MMM YYYY";
		var container = $("<div />").attr("macroName", macroName).addClass("groupBy").
			attr("refresh", "macro").attr("fieldName", field).
			attr("paramString", paramString).
			attr("dateFormat", dateFormat).appendTo(place)[0];
	isTypeArray: function(value) {
		var valueType = typeof value;
		if(valueType === "object" && typeof value.length === "number" &&
			!(value.propertyIsEnumerable("length")) &&
			typeof value.splice === "function") { //is Array
			return true;
		} else {
			return false;
	_onClickGroup: function(ev, options) {
		var i, target =, locale = macro.locale;
		var tiddlers = $(target).closest(".templateContainer").data("tiddlers");
		var popup = $(Popup.create(target)).addClass("taggedTiddlerList")[0];
		var value = $(target).attr("value");
		var openAll = createTiddlyButton($("<li />").appendTo(popup)[0],
			locale.openAllText.format(value), locale.openAllTooltip);
		$(openAll).click(function(ev) {
			story.displayTiddlers(, tiddlers);
			return false;
		var listBreak = $("<li />").addClass("listBreak").html("<div />").appendTo(popup);
		for(i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			var item = $("<li />").appendTo(popup)[0];
			var template = store.getTiddlerText(options.template) || macro.template;
			wikify(template, item, null, tiddlers[i]);
		$(createTiddlyLink($("<li />").appendTo(popup)[0], value, false)).
		return false;
	_refresh: function(container, tiddlers, options) {
		var totalGroups = 0, locale = macro.locale, i, j;
		var excludeValues = options.exclude;
		var values = {}, value_ids = [];
		var field = options.field;
		var morpher = macro.morpher[field] || function(value) {
			return value;
		for(i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
			var value = tiddler[field] || tiddler.fields[field];
			value = macro.isTypeArray(value) ? value : [ value ];
			for(j = 0; j < value.length; j++) {
				var v = morpher(value[j], options);
				if(v && $.inArray(v, excludeValues) === -1) {
					totalGroups += 1;
					if(!values[v]) {
						values[v] = [];
		var ul = $("<ul />").appendTo(container)[0];
		if(totalGroups === 0) {
			$("<li />").addClass("listTitle").text(locale.noTiddlers);
		value_ids = value_ids.sort();
		var groupTemplate = store.getTiddlerText(options.groupTemplate);
		var onClick = function(ev) {
			macro._onClickGroup(ev, options);
		for(i = 0; i < value_ids.length; i++) {
			var title = value_ids[i];
			var info = getTiddlyLinkInfo(title);
			tiddlers = values[title];
			var btn = createTiddlyButton($("<li />").appendTo(ul)[0],
				"%0 (%1)".format(title, tiddlers.length), locale.tooltip.format(title), null, info.classes);
			if(groupTemplate) {
				wikify(groupTemplate, btn, null, tiddlers[0]);
			$(btn).click(onClick).attr("value", title).attr("refresh", "link").attr("tiddlyLink", title);
			$(btn).addClass("templateContainer").data("tiddlers", tiddlers);
	refresh: function(container) {
		container = $(container).empty();
		var paramString = container.attr("paramString");
		var args = paramString.parseParams("name", null, true, false, true)[0];
		var options = { field: container.attr("fieldName"), dateFormat: container.attr("dateFormat"), exclude: args.exclude || [],
			template: args.template ? args.template[0] : false, groupTemplate: args.groupTemplate ? args.groupTemplate[0] : "" };
		var tiddlers = args.filter ? store.filterTiddlers(args.filter[0]) : store.getTiddlers("title");
		macro._refresh(container, tiddlers, options);
	template: "<<view title link>>"


It seems that a white-blue dwarf is in presence, but whithout atmosphere because it shows no absortion lines. 
The temperature is around 8250ºK and it appears to be almost a perfect black-body radiator. The composition of the stellar body is unknown whitout further analisys. 
Thus I'will have to essay a mechanism to move the original thin atmsphere of H or He out of the surface. Lets try : 
The common sense will say that lighter elements will be in the outer layer and the denser ones will be bellow the surface. But when in presence of a bath of photons/electrons/protons coming from the interior the situation may change like this: 
The interior of the atoms is almost vacuum and larger elements - i.e. heavier elements with more electrons - will offer a bigger volume, thus a bigger cross section, presented to the photons and thus they will have morekicks per unit time prompting them slowly in the outer direction. It seems counterintuitive but in the absence of large convective motion I expect it to be the way I said. 
What do you think?
|''Description''|provide TiddlySpace-specific filter extensions|
|''Author''|Jon Robson|
<<tsList Private>>
<<tsList Public>>
<<tsList Draft>>
(function($) {

var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;
var privateBag = tiddlyspace.getCurrentBag("private");
var publicBag = tiddlyspace.getCurrentBag("public");

config.filterHelpers = {
	is: {
		"private": function(tiddler) {
			var bag = tiddler.fields["server.bag"];
			return bag == privateBag;
		"public": function(tiddler) {
			var bag = tiddler.fields["server.bag"];
			return bag == publicBag;
		draft: function(tiddler) {
			var fields = tiddler.fields;
			var bag = fields["server.bag"];
			return (privateBag == bag && fields[""]) ? true : false;
		local: function(tiddler) {
			return["public"](tiddler) ||["private"](tiddler);
		unsynced: function(tiddler) {
			return tiddler ? tiddler.isTouched() : false;
}; = function(results, match) {
	var candidates = store.getTiddlers("title");
	var type = match[3];
	for (var i = 0; i < candidates.length; i++) {
		var tiddler = candidates[i];
		var helper =[type];
		if(helper && helper(tiddler)) {
	return results;

ECJ of Sean Luke
[[Evolutionary Computation in Python|]] ESEL Esec

|''Description''|highlighting of text comparisons|
Highlights changes in a unified [[diff|]].
Based on Martin Budden's [[DiffFormatterPlugin|]].
The formatter is applied to blocks wrapped in <html><code>{{{diff{..}}}</code></html> within tiddlers tagged with "diff".
!Revision History
!!v0.9 (2010-04-07)
* initial release; fork of DiffFormatterPlugin
.diff { white-space: pre; font-family: monospace; }
.diff ins, .diff del { display: block; text-decoration: none; }
.diff ins { background-color: #dfd; }
.diff del { background-color: #fdd; }
.diff .highlight { background-color: [[ColorPalette::SecondaryPale]]; }
(function() {

config.shadowTiddlers.StyleSheetDiffFormatter = store.getTiddlerText(tiddler.title + "##StyleSheet");
store.addNotification("StyleSheetDiffFormatter", refreshStyles);

var formatters = [{
		name: "diffWrapper",
		match: "^\\{\\{diff\\{\n", // XXX: suboptimal
		termRegExp: /(.*\}\}\})$/mg,
		handler: function(w) {
			var el = createTiddlyElement(w.output, "div", null, "diff");
			w.subWikifyTerm(el, this.termRegExp);
	}, {
		name: "diffRange",
		match: "^(?:@@|[+\\-]{3}) ",
		lookaheadRegExp: /^(?:@@|[+\-]{3}) .*\n/mg,
		handler: function(w) {
			createTiddlyElement(w.output, "div", null, "highlight").
				innerHTML = "&#8230;";
			this.lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex = w.matchStart;
			var lookaheadMatch = this.lookaheadRegExp.exec(w.source);
			if(lookaheadMatch && lookaheadMatch.index == w.matchStart) {
				w.nextMatch = this.lookaheadRegExp.lastIndex;
	}, {
		name: "diffAdded",
		match: "^\\+",
		termRegExp: /(\n)/mg,
		handler: function(w) {
			var el = createTiddlyElement(w.output, "ins", null, "added");
			w.subWikifyTerm(el, this.termRegExp);
	}, {
		name: "diffRemoved",
		match: "^-",
		termRegExp: /(\n)/mg,
		handler: function(w) {
			var el = createTiddlyElement(w.output, "del", null, "removed");
			w.subWikifyTerm(el, this.termRegExp);

config.parsers.diffFormatter = new Formatter(formatters);
config.parsers.diffFormatter.format = "diff";
config.parsers.diffFormatter.formatTag = "diff";

Oracle pl/sql web pages
[[Developing PL/SQL Server Pages|]]
[[Developing Applications with the PL/SQL Web Toolkit|]]
[[Developing PL/SQL Server Pages|]]
[[Developing PL/SQL Server Pages|]]
>We conclude that H I gas has been distributed in a self-similar fashion for the past 12 Gyr. The normalization of f(NHI, X), in contrast, decreases by a factor of two during the ≈ 2 Gyr interval from z = 4 to 2.2 giving corresponding decreases in both the total covering fraction and ρHI. At z ≈ 2, these quantities match the present-day values suggesting no evolution during the past ≈ 10 Gyr.


[[data - The SDSS DLA Survey| ]]

[[The unbreakable postulates of quantum mechanics|]] TRF
[[How classical fields, particles emerge from quantum theory|]] TRF
[[The Casimir Effect and the Quantum Vacuum|]] 
In discussions of the cosmological constant, the Casimir effect is often invoked as decisive
evidence that the zero point energies of quantum fields are “real”. On the contrary, Casimir effects can be formulated and Casimir forces can be computed without reference to zero point energies. They are relativistic, quantum forces between charges and currents.
[[THE MEANING OF WAVE MECHANICS by Erwin Schrödinger |]]

[[QM siphoning Marty Green |]]
[[Marty Green blog|]] Why I hate physics
[[Do we really understand quantum mechanics?|]]
[[Schrodinger equation|]]
[[Informational derivation of Quantum Theory|]] 
[[Quantum Mechanics software|]] Demystifying Quantum Mechanics workbook + software 
[[Experiment that prove the existence of Photons|]]
[[Anti-photon|]] by Lamb
[[There Are No Pea-Shooters for Photons |]] Marty Green (Electr. Eng. and Ind. researcher)
ABSTRACT:   The case for the particle nature of light is well established, just as the wave theory of light has been discredited. Historically, the decisive arguments against the wave theory were developed in the early years of quantum mechanics. The need to consider the wave nature of matter only became fully evident following the advent of the Schroedinger equation in 1926. 
''In this essay we consider whether the old arguments against the wave theory remain fully justified. ''
''i.e. wave theory is enough''

!Bell test inequalities can it be explained by light speed anisotropy ?
[[WP Bell's theorem|]]
[[Aspect experiment|]]
[[detailed description |]]
[[refuting Joy Christian |]]
[[Bell's theorem and the experiments: Increasing empirical support to local realism|]] review by Santos, 2004
[[Experimental demonstration of quantum correlations over more than 10 km |]]
to explore later 
*Lubos wrote in TRF:[[unbreakable-postulates-of-QM|]] and [[Delayed choice eraser|]] and [[QFT has no problems|]] and [[Hardy's paradox kills all "realistic" models|]]  and [[lecture on entanglement and interpretations of QM|]]
[[Lubos entan-interpret|]]
ver tiddler appinventor on [[Android]]

[[ appinventor 2|]]

[[How to calculate distance from Wifi router using Signal Strength?|]]
[[Paleo DB|]]

[[Carbon Isotopes, Photosynthesis, and Archaeology|]]
[[Carbon isotopes as biogeochemical recorders of life over 3.8 Ga of Earth history: evolution of a concept|]]
[[The evolution of the Earth and its biosphere|]] images
[[Evolution of the Early Earth|]] very complete problem's report 
Zircons -Heavy O isotopes suggest formation in clay-rich environments (water)
[[Ratio is All in the Timing|]] changes in 13C/12C records need to be reevaluated, 
Timeline: Life on Earth                  see the graph, pag 12 ([[Palaeobiology II|]]) and ([[Planetary Systems: The Long View|]])
The C13/C12 ratio as an indicator of the presence of life
Life prefers “Carbon Light”
Normal C13/C12 abundance ratio is Ro = 0.01120
δC13 = 1000 x (R - Ro)/Ro
A value of δC13 < -10 is considered a robust indicator of life

[[Traces of Early Life – ''A Geochemist’s View''|]]    print , very complete, w/ deltaF56

[[Enhanced: Evidence for Life on Earth More Than 3850 Million Years Ago|]] w/ links for paleobiologists

[[Geologically significant δ13C excursions |]]
C3 and C4 plants have different signatures, allowing the importance of C4 grasses to be detected through time in the δ13C record.[4] Whereas C4 plants have a δ13C of −16 to −10 ‰, C3 plants have a δ13C of −33 to −24‰.[5]

''Mass extinctions are often marked by a negative δ13C anomaly'' thought to represent a decrease in primary productivity and release of plant-based carbon

The evolution of large land plants in the late Devonian led to increased organic carbon burial and consequently a rise in δ13C.[6]

[[δ18O|]] 18O:16O  delta-O-18 temp of precipitation 
[[δ15N|]] 15N:14N   delta-N-15 


Table 1.1. Average Terrestrial Abundances of the Stable
           Isotopes of Major Elements of Interest in
           Ecological Studies

Element    Isotope  Abundance (%)

1H         99.985
2H          0.015
12C        98.89
13C         1.11
14N        99.63
15N         0.37
16O        99.759
17O         0.037
18O         0.204
32S        95.00
33S         0.76
34S         4.22

[[The Siberian Traps and the End-Permian mass extinction: a critical review |]]
largest-known mass extinction event at the end of the Permian period, has been strengthened by ..... δ 34Ssulphate of about 15‰ immediately prior to, and dur

!C3 C4 CAM photosyntesis

[[Phylogenetic distribution of C4 photosynthesis |]]
They showed a correlation of r = 0.97 between percent C4 grasses within a ¯ora and the minimum growing-season temperature: the higher the temperature the more frequent C4
photosynthesis within the grass taxa
...the daytime temperature range of 20°±28°C as the temperature for the transition shift in C3 to C4 dominance 
Fig. 2 Modeled crossover temperatures c3-c4 distrib Co2 versus temp
[[dienekes blog|]]
[[Genetic Analysis Software|]]
[[LAMP - Local Ancestry in adMixed Populations|]]

Plos Genetics , Bioinformatics
curt Rice blog


|''Author''|Ben Gillies|
|''Description''|Upload a TiddlyWiki file to TiddlyWeb, and import the tiddlers.|
Upload a TiddlyWiki file to TiddlyWeb, and import the tiddlers.
{ //# ensure that the plugin is only installed once
	version.extensions.TiddlyFileImporter = { installed: true };

config.macros.fileImport = {
	reflectorURI: '/reflector?csrf_token=%0',
	incorrectTypeError: 'Incorrect File Type. You must upload a TiddlyWiki',
	uploadLabel: 'Upload',
	uploadLabelPrompt: 'Import tiddlers from this TiddlyWiki',
	step1FileText: 'File:',
	step1PostText: 'In the next screen you will select the tiddlers to import.',
	step1Title: 'Step 1: Pick a TiddlyWiki to import',
	step1TypeChooser: 'Import From:',
	step3Html: ['<input type="hidden" name="markList" />',
		'<input type="hidden" checked="true" name="chkSync" />',
		'<input type="hidden" name="chkSave" />',
		'<input type="hidden" name="txtSaveTiddler" />'].join(),

	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString) {
		var wizard = new Wizard();
		wizard.createWizard(place, 'Import a TiddlyWiki');

	restart: function(wizard) {
		var me = config.macros.fileImport;
		wizard.addStep(me.step1Title, ['<input type="hidden" ',
			'name="markList" />'].join(""));
		var markList = wizard.getElement('markList');
		var uploadWrapper = document.createElement('div');
		markList.parentNode.insertBefore(uploadWrapper, markList);
		uploadWrapper.setAttribute('refresh', 'macro');
		uploadWrapper.getAttribute('macroName', 'fileImport');
		var iframeName = 'reflectorImporter' + Math.random().toString();
		me.createForm(uploadWrapper, wizard, iframeName);
		$(uploadWrapper).append('<p>' + me.step1PostText + '</p>');
		wizard.setValue('serverType', 'tiddlyweb');
		wizard.setValue('adaptor', new config.adaptors.file());
		wizard.setValue('host', config.defaultCustomFields['']);
		wizard.setValue('context', {});
		var iframe = $(['<iframe name="' + iframeName + '" ',
			'style="display: none" />'].join("")).appendTo(uploadWrapper);
		var onSubmit = function(ev) {
			var uploadType = $('select[name=uploadtype]', wizard.formElem).val();
			if (uploadType == "file") {
				// set an onload ready to hijack the form
				me.setOnLoad(uploadWrapper, wizard, iframe[0]);
				wizard.importType = 'file';
			} else {
				var csrf_token = config.extensions.tiddlyspace.getCSRFToken();
					url: "%0/reflector?csrf_token=%1".format(
						config.defaultCustomFields[""], csrf_token),
					type: "POST",
					dataType: "text",
					data: {
						uri: $("input", ".importFrom", wizard.formElem).val()
					success: function(data, txtStatus, xhr) {
						wizard.POSTResponse = data;
						me.importTiddlers(uploadWrapper, wizard);
					error: function(xhr, txtStatus, error) {
						displayMessage(["There was an error fetching the ",
							'url: ', txtStatus].join(""));
				return false;
			caption: me.uploadLabel,
			tooltip: me.uploadLabelPrompt,
			onClick: onSubmit
		$(wizard.formElem).submit(function(ev) {

	createForm: function(place, wizard, iframeName) {
		var form = wizard.formElem;
		var me = config.macros.fileImport;
		form.action = me.reflectorURI.format(
		form.enctype = 'multipart/form-data';
		form.encoding = 'multipart/form-data';
		form.method = 'POST'; = iframeName;
		onSelectChange = function(e) {
			var changeTo = $(this).val();
			if (changeTo == "file") {
				$(".importFrom").html('%0 <input type="file" name="file" />'.
			} else {
				$(".importFrom").html('URL: <input type="text" name="uri" />'
					+ ' Do you want <a target="_blank" href="">inclusion</a> instead?');
			append($(['<select name="uploadtype"><option value="file" selected="selected">file',
				'<option value="uri">url</select>'].join("")).change(onSelectChange)).
			append('<div class="importFrom">%0<input type="file" name="file" /></div>'.

	setOnLoad: function(place, wizard, iframe) {
		var me = config.macros.fileImport;
		var loadHandler = function() {
			me.importTiddlers.apply(this, [place, wizard, iframe]);
		iframe.onload = loadHandler;
		completeReadyStateChanges = 0;
		iframe.onreadystatechange = function() {
			if (++(completeReadyStateChanges) == 5) {

	importTiddlers: function(place, wizard, iframe) {
		var tmpStore = new TiddlyWiki();
		var POSTedWiki = "";
		if (wizard.importType == "file") {
			try {
				POSTedWiki= iframe.contentWindow
			} catch(e) {
			// now we are done, so remove the iframe
		} else {
			POSTedWiki = wizard.POSTResponse;

		var newTiddlers = tmpStore.getTiddlers();
		var workspace = config.defaultCustomFields['server.workspace'];
		var context = {
			status: true,
			statusText: 'OK',
			httpStatus: 200,
			adaptor: wizard.getValue('adaptor'),
			tiddlers: newTiddlers
		}; = tmpStore;
		wizard.setValue('context', context);
		wizard.setValue('workspace', workspace);
		wizard.setValue('inFileImport', true);
		config.macros.importTiddlers.onGetTiddlerList(context, wizard);

var _onGetTiddler = config.macros.importTiddlers.onGetTiddler;
config.macros.importTiddlers.onGetTiddler = function(context, wizard) {
	if (wizard.getValue('inFileImport')) {
		var me = config.macros.importTiddlers;
			displayMessage("Error in importTiddlers.onGetTiddler: " + context.statusText);
		var tiddler = context.tiddler;
		var fields = tiddler.fields;
		merge(fields, config.defaultCustomFields);
		fields["server.workspace"] = wizard.getValue('workspace');
		delete fields['server.permissions'];
		delete fields['server.bag'];
		fields[''] = 'false';
		delete fields['server.recipe'];
		fields.changecount = 1;
		store.saveTiddler(tiddler.title, tiddler.title, tiddler.text,
			tiddler.modifier, tiddler.modified, tiddler.tags, tiddler.fields,
			false, tiddler.created);
		var remainingImports = wizard.getValue("remainingImports")-1;
		if(remainingImports === 0) {
			if(context.isSynchronous) {
					{caption: me.doneLabel, tooltip: me.donePrompt, onClick: me.onClose}
	} else {
		_onGetTiddler.apply(this, arguments);

var _onCancel = config.macros.importTiddlers.onCancel;
config.macros.importTiddlers.onCancel = function(e)
	var wizard = new Wizard(this);
	if (!wizard.getValue('inFileImport')) {
		return _onCancel.apply(this, arguments);
	var place = wizard.clear();
	return false;

var _step3Html = config.macros.importTiddlers.step3Html;
var _onGetTiddlerList = config.macros.importTiddlers.onGetTiddlerList;
config.macros.importTiddlers.onGetTiddlerList = function(context, wizard) {
	var fileImport = config.macros.fileImport;
	var importTiddlers = config.macros.importTiddlers;
	if (wizard.getValue('inFileImport')) {
		importTiddlers.step3Html = fileImport.step3Html;
	} else {
		importTiddlers.step3Html = _step3Html;
	_onGetTiddlerList.apply(this, arguments);
**Q - what physics law is able to contradict the viewpoint: "matter is shrinking"**?   

As an example that sometimes poets and writers can see farther away:   
From the short story of MIA COUTO, a Mozambique writer in Portuguese language: "A menina sem palavras-o não desaparecimento de Maria Sombrinha", 1996(?).  
He asks the question: **Is it a space expansion or a matter shrinking ?**  and he deserves an informed answer from the physics domain.  
between a scenery of famine:  
> **- Ehh, this table is decreasing!**   The other, silently balancing their heads, considering the hypothesis.  
> - Don't you see? Any day we have no where to eat.   When preparing to sleep, he pointed to the bed and said to his wife:  
> **- This bed every day is smaller.** One of these days I have nowhere to lay down.   They discussed the matter, timidly, with his father.  
> They suggested that the reason could be reversed: **the world is that
> was increasing,**

I opted not to leave an open question as it is: **Is it a space expansion or a matter shrinking ?** and wait for some answers because here is no place for discussions.  
Because I know that there are no official answers yet, in the official literature, afaik, I'm simply asking: 
**what physics law is able to contradict the viewpoint: "matter is shrinking"**?   

The defense of matter evanescence is in my [answer][1]  
to this PSE-question ["Is it possible that galaxies' redshift is caused by   something else than the expansion of space?"][2] where I showed with the equations of physics laws that a larger atom in the past can explain the redshift and cosmological time dilation, such that the observed space expansion can trace a matter shrinking.  

remove all § 

as answered here [[PSE-What are the proposed realizations in the New SI for the kilogram, ampere, kelvin and mole?|]]
#### **About the mass measurement process:**

 1.  **The unit mass is the mass of a set of N atoms** and therefore the mass of an atom is equal to 1 / N of unit mass.
 1.  *'The mass of an atom is exactly equal to the mass of an atom'* is the only possible conclusion from the previous point.
 1.  The equations of physics impose masses and lengths of particles and atoms using ratios between them, i.e. relative values.
 1.  There are no limits to the **absolute** size of atoms.
 1.  The unit mass, so the energy is dependent on the **'size'** of the effective atom. Ditto for the *constants* "Planck mass', 'Planck constant'.
 1.  In physics there is freedom to use the most convenient units system to describe natural phenomena.

![SI system (wp)](
[WP]( - The kilogram is one of the seven SI base units; one of three which is defined *ad hoc*, without reference to another base unit.

The unit mass is embodied in the [prototype with N atoms in Paris]( Any proposal for a standard based on X atoms in a silicon sphere, wherein X is eventually an approximation of Avogadro's number does not change the nature of measurement: count atoms. Without loss of generality I assumed that all atoms are only of a single isotope.
The [improvement of the definition of unit of mass]( may be achieved through increased purity of the standard object and an improvement in the counting process (see [Avogadro project](
It has been proposed a [definition based on Planck's constant]( that at the theoretical level will obscure the nature of the measurement object - the mass.

The equations of physics are based on the mass of the electron $m_e$. The masses of all the other particles are proportional to it through well-defined ratios as well as with the intra-atomic and intranuclear binding energies.
Thus, in a clear way the mass measurement is a count, and the law of conservation of energy translates the conservation of particle number.
#### **Generalization of measurement processes**

**all measures are based on**: 

  1. Object count
  2. Count of time intervals, which are dependent on the size of the atom.

We build models of the universe based only on the photons that are received in the detectors and, in addition, take note of the direction from which it comes and also using clocks to measure the frequency of events. 

We can not directly compare the atoms as they were in the past with the current version in the laboratory, thus **preventing us to assume a priori that the atoms are invariant throughout its existence**.

##### **About Watches:**
The period of watches based on astronomical events is a consequence of the law of universal gravitation:
$$F_g=G\frac{ m M}{d^2}$$
and when they are based on atomic events suffer the consequences of Coulomb's Law - electromagnetic interaction:
$$F_e=k_e\frac{ q Q}{d^2}$$  

The dynamic consequences will be valid for both types of clock because of the similarity of relations. I assumed the constancy of the scale factors $G$ and $k_e (= \frac {1} {4 \pi \varepsilon_0}) $, the speed of light $c$ and the fine-structure constant $\alpha$ (dimensionless) . Despite having tried several solutions ranging these factors no one knows how the equations of physics should be written in a manner consistent with the observations.

In circular orbit the centripetal force is equal to the gravitational one $F_c/M=\frac{v^2}{d}=F_g/M$ ,  from  $ v=\frac{2\pi d}{Period}$ 

we obtain the third Keppler's law **that equates the time period with the distances and masses**$$\frac{P^2\cdot(M+m)}{d^3}=\frac{2\pi}{G}$$ 

With $G$ invariant the **RHS** of this relationship is constant. **The constancy of the LHS is guaranteed if all the units of measurement are scaled equally**. That is: Time units, distance, mass and electric charge are simultaneously affected by the same value.
Note: the dimensional equation of **LHS** is $ [T] ^ {2} [M] ^ {1} [L] ^ {-3} $ and **the sum of exponents is equal to zero** and therefore the above statement is validated. For example, if the units increase 1,000 times we obtain $ 1,000 ^ 2 [T] ^ {2} 1 000 ^ 1 [M] ^ {1} 1000 ^ {- 3} [L] ^ {- 3} = [T] ^ {2} [M] ^ {1} [L] ^ {-3}$

Thus we learned that we can use the laws of physics with any reference system using units proportional to commonly used units. These reference systems are equivalent to those obtained when changing the size of atoms. And so it is evident that the measurement of the time intervals depends on the dimensions of the atom.

**About the interpretation of cosmological observations:**

The cosmological *redshift* can be analyzed in two different ways, without a direct way to decide between them:

  1. If the atoms are invariant, ie equal to themselves since the beginning of matter, then the galaxies may be moving away quickly. This view leads to the need of the following theories: 
	  1.  expansion of space
	  2. BB 
	  3. era of inflation 
	  4. dark energy
	  5. dark matter
	  6. constancy of the planetary orbits despite the expansion of space.
  2.  If the atoms are **not invariant** then, to the same physical processes, they emitted radiation at longer wavelengths than at present, and the theories 1 to 5 are not necessary. With this interpretation the planetary orbits are increasing over time and problems related to the Young Earth Paradox and the hot past climate of Earth and Mars are solved. 
In the new interpretation of data the space extension, the number of particles, velocities, temperature ($ \theta$) force and power are invariant.
The evolution of the universe is consistent with the following scale evolution of units of measurement (M, Q, T, L):
$$\alpha (t_s) = e ^ {- H_0 \cdot t_s}$$

The proton mass $m_P$ the charge unit $e$,  the Bohr radius and the time and energy units scale as $\alpha (t_s) $.
The Planck constant ($ [M] [L]^{2}[T]^{-1}$) is not a true constant because scale as $\alpha^2(t_s) $.

**Considerations on the §2.2 of the [BIPM brochure](**, reproduced here, *(and my comment)*: 

 1. the unperturbed ground state hyperfine splitting frequency of
    the caesium 133 atom $\delta \nu(^{133} Cs_{hfs}$)  is exactly
    9192631770 hertz, *the second definition is dependent on the absolute size of the atom, scale as $\alpha$*. 
 2. the speed of light in vacuum $c$ is exactly 299792458 metre per second, *(the $c$ is constant but the unit of length depends on the counting of time intervals and so it scale as $\alpha$ )*
 3. the Planck constant h is exactly $6.62606957 ×10^{-34}$ joule second, *(intended to define the mass postulating Planck's constant. It depends on the energy and time units 'joule second', dimension  $M L^2 T^{ −1}$ and scale as $\alpha^2$)*
 4. the elementary charge e is exactly $1.60217656 ×10^{-19}$ coulomb,*(scale as $\alpha$)*
 5. the Boltzmann constant $k$ is exactly $1.3806488 ×10^{-23}$ joule per kelvin,*( $M L^2 T^{−2} \theta^{ −1}$ scale as $\alpha$)*
 6. the Avogadro constant $N_A$ is exactly $6.02214129 ×10^{23}$ reciprocal mole, *(a counting of particles: invariant)*
 7. the luminous efficacy $K_{cd}$ of monochromatic radiation of frequency $540 ×10^{12}$ hertz is exactly 683 lumen per watt, *(?)*

What conclusions can we get if we compare the current universe to another universe of larger atoms where there are humanoids who created their SI equal to ours? As we have seen, the quantities (amounts) expressed in units of L, M, T, Q vary such that if we could see the atoms side by side we would realize that they are not equal, **however the *measurements* in both SI would be equal. Yes or no?**

The theory outlined here is developed in all its extension, in a formal way in the documents  
[The self-similar model of the Universe unveils the nature of dark energy](  and  
[The Model of Earth's Past Climate from Isotopic and Biologic Data and Its Relationship with Orbits' Expansion](

Other documents are promised with new models to explain the Large Scale Structure of the Universe and the Origin of the Solar System.  

After what I wrote above it looks **silliness** what I'm reading about the **Planck scale** in the book '[Encyclopedia of Physics]( by Joe Rosen' page 254 :   

> we expect nature to reveal the quantum character of SPACE, time and  GRAVITATION

The definition of mass in terms of $h$ (an angular momentum) having a definite number is a little strange to me. It reminds me that the mean distance Earth-Sun, the so called **Astronomical Unit** (AU), was fixed to a definite number of metres, inspite of the amount of distance is getting bigger. The analysis of the **AU variation** is included in the same document:   
[The Model of Earth's Past Climate from Isotopic and Biologic Data and Its Relationship with Orbits' Expansion](

**If someone has a way to show that I am wrong then, please, answer the question**  
[PSE : how to distinguish between the spectrum of an atom in motion and the one of a scaled atom?]( 

**Atoms are decreasing in size because of energy conservation:**
When the particles were created long ago, electromagnetic and gravitational fields began to fill the space and will be away from them at the speed of light. The sum of the growing power of the fields with decreasing energy of the particles is so constant.

**The confusion about the determination of long distances**  

We make distance measures in the Einstein way: a mean value of a two-way light ray path procedure. This is a human invention not used by any natural process and the metre definition embraces this viewpoint.   
The fact that our definition is distinct from the gravitic and electromagnetic distance, a one-way path travel that enters the equations, have unexpected consequences, imo: 
The hyperbolic trajectories of the flybys and the ones of the Pioneers and other spaceships have problems in the computation of the energy.

The famous problem of the 43 arcsec difference between theoretical and the observed value of the anomalous precession of the perihelion of Mercury is a symptom of the problem as I show on [my answer][1] to my own [PSE-question][2]. 

The error in the measure, or in the definition, of distance is only noticed in the long distances. At least we must convert the measured distances to the gravitic ones.
#### **The new SI diagram**  
The new [SI diagram][3], here reproduced, clearly shows the validity of my presentation focused in the importance of the counting process and the precision and stability of the clocks because the definition of the time interval unit influences all of the other definitions exception to the Avogadro number, and mole.
It also shows that in the lab we have no chance to detect that the amount of time that corresponds to a time unit (one second) can vary through time because we will call it '1 second',always.  


Spot the differences between 

<<image  width:300>>

<<image  width:300>>

''Both are the product of vortices, eheh.''
see why here: 
[[Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation With Pulsars|]]

[[Sincronização GPS|]]  en francais !

Orbit Discontinuities
''see graph'' 'Spectra for AC Jumps in Along-track Direction'
> ''semi-annual  peak'' 182.63 d, high 4th harmonic freq 0.012 cycles/day  , ''7 d'' band prominent, ''14 d'' band apparent.. (The Moon ? cycle) 
> ... Prominent 14.19 d band in orbit jumps
> solid earth code  ''dehanttideinel.f'' 
> ocean load  ''hardisp.f''

[[Power Spectra of Reprocessed AC Orbit Discontinuities|]]  International GNSS Service 
> graphs + ps files downloadble 

[[A Brief Review of Basic GPS Orbit Interpolation Strategies|]] GPS codes here
[[The Dark Matter Crisis|]] Kroupa
[[The failures of the standard model of cosmology require a new paradigm|]] Kroupa
[[Pavel Kroupa page|]]
[[Bullet Cluster|]] 

[[the quantum wave |]] LHC CERN Prof Matt Strassler in 5 clear posts 

Next PinnowPreface''
<<image width:800>>
<<image width:800>>
<<image width:800>>
[[PSE - Why is the second the unit time of SI|]]

[[BEST SOURCE - 12 and 24 wind rose |]]
[[BEST SOURCE - Hour|]] . During the New Kingdom, the system was simplified, using a set of 24 stars, 12 of which marked the passage of the night.

[[sundial |]]

[[NIST a walk thru time- ancient|]]

[[BEST SOURCE - link Wind-Hour rose NIST early |]] 
A Macedonian astronomer, Andronikos, supervised the construction of his Horologion, known today as the Tower of the Winds, in the Athens marketplace in the first half of the first century BCE. This octagonal structure showed scholars and shoppers both sundials and mechanical hour indicators. It featured a 24 hour mechanized clepsydra and indicators for the eight winds from which the tower got its name, and it displayed the seasons of the year and astrological dates and periods.

[[oldest sundial|]]
[[BEST SOURCE - oldest sundial New kingdom |]]
link to In 1999 Sarah Symons received a doctorate after defending the thesis "Ancient Egyptian Astronomy: Timekeeping and Cosmography in the New Kingdom."

The division of the ecliptic into the zodiacal signs originates in Babylonian ("Chaldean") astronomy during the first half of the 1st millennium BC, likely during Median/"Neo-Babylonian" times (7th century BC)

[[ca 1473 BCE, 24 section/hours  Astronomical_ceiling_of_Senemut_Tomb |]]
[[ca 2100 BCE 32 group of stars,  DECAN hour|]]

[Euclid's Elements]( 300 BC  

[[Gerbers paper|]] translated
[[discussion at mathpages|]] 
[[Tests of Physical Theories|]] Gerber revisited on the light bending
[[Lorentz contraction from the classical wave equation|]] Hans de Vries on retarded potentials

[[Carlip - Aberration and the Speed of Gravity |]]
[[mathpages Measuring the Speed of Gravity|]]
[[Why Maxwell Couldn’t Explain Gravity | ]] at mathpages

[[WP-Speed of gravity |]]
[[The Speed of Gravity What the Experiments Say-Tom Van Flandern |]]
[[mathpages Gerber's Gravity |]]
[[A paradox in Newtonian gravitation theory|]] John Norton
[[The Cosmological Woes of Newtonian Gravitation Theory|]] and 
[[at research gate|]] John Norton

[[online reveal.js editor|]] 

Presentations in a very Good way
[[GUI to impress.js|]] Impressionist alpha
[[demo|file:///home/velez/bartaz-impress.js-ee79f24/index.html]] and [[Instructions|view-source:]]

[[usage ex.|]] and [[demo|]]

[[demo, dizzle|]] tutorialzine

[[reveal.js|]] [[demo|]]

[[zoom.js|]] [[zoom.js demo|]]
[[impress markdown|]] easy text way

[[Strut impress.js|]] graphic way [[demo|]]
<svg xmlns:rdf="" xmlns="" height="100%" width="100%" version="1.1" xmlns:cc="" xmlns:dc="" viewBox="0 0 40 40"><metadata><rdf:RDF><cc:Work rdf:about=""><dc:format>image/svg+xml</dc:format><dc:type rdf:resource=""/><dc:title/></cc:Work></rdf:RDF></metadata><defs><linearGradient id="lG3826" x1="7.0996" gradientUnits="userSpaceOnUse" y1="18.829" gradientTransform="matrix(1.5858347,0,0,1.8078238,1098.1851,351.13716)" x2="1.5461" y2="-0.95166"><stop stop-color="#000" offset="0"/><stop stop-color="#9c9b99" offset="1"/></linearGradient><linearGradient id="lG3828" y2="372.44" gradientUnits="userSpaceOnUse" y1="375.7" x2="1111.7" x1="1097.7"><stop style="stop-color:#ac9393;" offset="0"/><stop style="stop-color:#c8b7b7;" offset="1"/></linearGradient></defs><g transform="translate(-1080.9375,-357.3329)"><path style="stroke-width:0;stroke-miterlimit:4;fill:url(#lG3826);" d="m1080.9,357.32,39.996-0.0426-0.01,40.008c-15.507-25.519-15.36-25.95-39.988-39.965z"/><path style="stroke-dashoffset:0;stroke:#7aa3be;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-miterlimit:4;stroke-width:1.49999988;fill:#c1e6fd;" d="m1091.9,363.55c6.5716-6.4925,16.576-7.3925,23.147-0.90003,6.5717,6.4925,6.5717,17.019,0,23.511-4.4424-8.6113-12.288-15.713-23.147-22.611z"/><path style="stroke-dashoffset:0;stroke:#ce81b0;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-miterlimit:4;stroke-width:1.5;fill:#f4c4e2;" d="m1110.2,367.62c3.217,3.2168,3.217,8.4323,0,11.649-3.8194-4.2357-8.3307-8.1824-11.649-11.649,3.217-3.2168,8.4325-3.2168,11.649-0.00002z"/><path style="stroke-linejoin:bevel;stroke:#000000;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-dasharray:none;stroke-miterlimit:4;stroke-width:0.80000001;fill:url(#lG3828);" d="m1081,357.34c18.79,6.4752,32.53,16.56,39.894,39.892-11.19-17.028-14.878-19.19-27.352-14.96,6.2984-12.098,3.9371-13.19-12.542-24.932z"/></g></svg>
[[SC explained here |]]

 Framework pesada mas parece muito boa
|''Description''|Provides a following macro|
|''Author''|Jon Robson|
|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig TiddlySpaceTiddlerIconsPlugin ErrorHandler|
Tag a tiddler with "follow" to express a list of followers.
Using the {{{<<followTiddlers X>>}}}
will reveal the number of tiddlers with name X in the set of spaces the *current* user viewing your space follows.
{{{<<following jon>>}}} will list all the users following Jon.
{{{<<followers jon>>}}} will list all the followers of jon.
{{{<linkedTiddlers>>}}} will list all tiddlers across TiddlySpace linked to the current tiddler
{{{<linkedTiddlers follow:yes>>}}} will list all tiddlers across TiddlySpace that come from your list of followers
adds spaceLink view type {{{<<view server.bag spaceLink>>}}} creates a link to the space described in server.bag
{{{<<view server.bag spaceLink title>>}}} makes a link to the tiddler with title expressed in the field title in space server.bag
If no name is given eg. {{{<<following>>}}} or {{{<<follow>>}}} it will default the current user.
.followTiddlersList li {

.followButton {
	width: 2em;

.followTiddlersList li .siteIcon {
	width: 48px;

#sidebarTabs .followers li a,
.followers .siteIcon,
.followers .siteIcon div {
	display: inline;

.followTiddlersList li .externalImage, .followTiddlersList li .image {
	display: inline;

.scanResults li {
	list-style: none;
(function($) {

var tweb = config.extensions.tiddlyweb;
var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;
var currentSpace =;

var shadows = config.shadowTiddlers;
config.annotations.ScanTemplate = "This tiddler is the default template used in the display of tiddlers founding using the tsScan macro. To access attributes use the view macro e.g. {{{<<view title text>>}}}";
shadows.ScanTemplate = "<<view modifier SiteIcon width:24 height:24 spaceLink:yes label:no>> <<view title link>>";
shadows.FollowersTemplate = "<<view server.bag SiteIcon width:24 height:24 spaceLink:yes label:no>> <<view server.bag spaceLink>>";
shadows.FollowingTemplate = "<<view title SiteIcon width:24 height:24 spaceLink:yes label:no>> <<view title spaceLink>>";
shadows.FollowTiddlersBlackList = "";
shadows.FollowTiddlersHeading = "There are tiddlers in spaces you follow using the follow tag which use the title <<view title text>>";
shadows.FollowTiddlersTemplate = ["* <<view SiteIcon width:24 height:24 spaceLink:yes label:no>> ",
	"<<view spaceLink title external:no>> modified by <<view modifier spaceLink>> ",
	"in the <<view spaceLink>> space (<<view modified date>> @ <<view modified date 0hh:0mm>>).\n"].join("");

var name = "StyleSheetFollowing";
shadows[name] = "/*{{{*/\n%0\n/*}}}*/".
	format(store.getTiddlerText(tiddler.title + "##StyleSheet"));
store.addNotification(name, refreshStyles);

// provide support for sucking in tiddlers from the server
tiddlyspace.displayServerTiddler = function(src, title, workspace, callback) {
	var adaptor = store.getTiddlers()[0].getAdaptor();
	var localTitle = tiddlyspace.getLocalTitle(title, workspace);
	var tiddler = new Tiddler(localTitle);
	tiddler.text = "Please wait while this tiddler is retrieved...";
	tiddler.fields.doNotSave = "true";
	src = story.displayTiddler(src || null, tiddler.title);
	tweb.getStatus(function(status) {
		var context = {
			host:, // TODO: inherit from source tiddler?
			workspace: workspace,
			headers: { "X-ControlView": "false" }
		var getCallback = function(context, userParams) {
			var tiddler = context.tiddler;
			tiddler.title = localTitle;
			story.refreshTiddler(localTitle, null, true); // overriding existing allows updating
			if(callback) {
				callback(src, tiddler);
		adaptor.getTiddler(title, context, null, getCallback);

tiddlyspace.scroller = {
	runHandler: function(title, top, bottom, height) {
		var i;
		var handlers = tiddlyspace.scroller.handlers;
		var tidEl = story.getTiddler(title);
		if(tidEl) {
			var topEl = $(tidEl).offset().top + 20;
			if(top === false || (topEl > top && topEl < bottom)) {
				var h = handlers[title];
				for(i = 0; i < h.length; i++) {
		} else {
	clearHandlers: function(title) {
		tiddlyspace.scroller.handlers[title] = [];
	registerIsVisibleEvent: function(title, handler) {
		tiddlyspace.scroller.handlers[title] = tiddlyspace.scroller.handlers[title] || [];
	init: function() {
		this.handlers = {};
		this.interval = window.setInterval(function() {
			var top = $(window).scrollTop();
			var height = $(window).height();
			var bottom = top + height;
			var title;
			for(title in tiddlyspace.scroller.handlers) {
				if(title) {
					tiddlyspace.scroller.runHandler(title, top, bottom, height);
		}, 2000); // every 2 seconds check scroll position

var followMacro = config.macros.followTiddlers = {
	locale: {
		followListHeader: "Here are tiddlers from spaces you follow using the follow tag which use this title.",
		noTiddlersFromFollowers: "None of the spaces you follow contain a tiddler with this name.",
		errorMessage: "There was a problem retrieving tiddlers from the server. Please try again later."
	init: function() {
		followMacro.lookup = {};
	followTag: "follow",
	getHosts: function(callback) {
		tweb.getStatus(function(status) {
			callback(, tiddlyspace.getHost(status.server_host, "%0"));
	getBlacklist: function() {
		return store.getTiddlerText("FollowTiddlersBlackList").split("\n");
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		var args = paramString.parseParams("anon")[0];
		var containingTiddler = story.findContainingTiddler(place).getAttribute('tiddler');
		var title = (args.anon && args.anon[0]) || tiddler.fields["server.title"] || tiddler.title;
		var tid = store.getTiddler(title);
		var user = params[1] || false;
		if(tid) {
			followMacro.makeButton(place, {
				url: "/search?q=title:%22" + encodeURIComponent(title) + "%22",
				containingTiddler: containingTiddler,
				blacklisted: followMacro.getBlacklist(), title: title, user: user,
				consultFollowRelationship: (args.follow &&
					args.follow[0] === 'false') ? false : true });
	makeButton: function(place, options) { // this is essentially the same code in TiddlySpaceFollowingPlugin
		var title = options.title;
		var blacklisted = options.blacklisted;
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
		var btn = $('<div class="followButton" />').addClass("notLoaded").appendTo(place)[0];
		if(blacklisted.contains(title)) {
		} else {
			var user = options.user;
			window.setTimeout(function() { // prevent multiple calls due to refresh
				tiddlyspace.scroller.registerIsVisibleEvent(options.containingTiddler, function() {
					var mkButton = function(followers, ignore) {
						if(!followers && !ignore) {
						} else {
							$("<a />").appendTo(btn);
							var scanOptions = { url: options.url,
								spaceField: options.spaceField || "bag", template: null, sort: "-modified",
								callback: function(tiddlers) {
									followMacro.constructInterface(btn, tiddlers);
							if(!ignore) {
								scanOptions.showBags = followMacro._getFollowerBags(followers);
							scanOptions.hideBags = [tiddler.fields["server.bag"]];
							scanMacro.scan(null, scanOptions, user);
					if(options.consultFollowRelationship) {
					} else {
						mkButton([], true);
			}, 1000);
	constructInterface: function(container, tiddlers) {
		var txt = tiddlers.length;
		var className = txt > 0 ? "hasReplies" : "noReplies";
		var el = $(story.findContainingTiddler(container));
		var btn = $("<a />").addClass("followedTiddlers").text(txt).
			click(function(ev) {
			}).appendTo('<div class="followedTiddlers" />').appendTo(container)[0];
		$.data(btn, "tiddlers", tiddlers);
	followingOnClick: function(ev) {
		var target =;
		var locale = followMacro.locale;
		var el = $('<div class="followTiddlersList" />')[0];
		var popup = Popup.create(target,"div");
		$(popup).addClass("taggedTiddlerList followList").click(function(ev) { // make it so only clicking on the document outside the popup removes the popup
			if( != document) {
		var tiddlers = $.data(target, "tiddlers") || [];
		scanMacro.template(el, tiddlers.slice(0,1), "FollowTiddlersHeading");
		scanMacro.template(el, tiddlers, "FollowTiddlersTemplate");
		if(tiddlers.length === 0) {
			$("<li />").text(locale.noTiddlersFromFollowers).appendTo(el);
		return popup;
	_getFollowerBags: function(followers) { // XXX: private or not?
		return $.map(followers, function(name, i) {
			return name != currentSpace ? "%0_public".format(name) : null;
	getFollowers: function(callback, username) {
		// returns a list of spaces being followed by the existing space
		var followersCallback = function(user) {
			if(!user.anon) {
				scanMacro.scan(null, { 
					url: "/search?q=bag:%0_public tag:%1 _limit:%2".format(, followMacro.followTag, LIMIT_FOLLOWING),
					spaceField: "title", template: null, cache: true,
					callback: function(tiddlers) {
						var followers = [];
						for(var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			} else {
		return !username ? tweb.getUserInfo(followersCallback) : followersCallback({ name: username });

var scanMacro = config.macros.tsScan = {
	init: function () {
		this.scanned = {};
	_tiddlerfy: function(jsontiddlers, options) {
		var tiddlers = [];
		var spaceField = options.spaceField || "bag"; // TODO: phase out use view types instead
		$.each(jsontiddlers, function(i, t) {
			var use = false;
			if(!options.showBags || (options.showBags && options.showBags.contains(t.bag))) {
				use = true;
			if(options.hideBags && options.hideBags.contains(t.bag)) {
				use = false;
			if(use) {
				var spaceName = t[spaceField];
				var tiddler = config.adaptors.tiddlyweb.toTiddler(t,;
				tiddler.fields[""] = tiddlyspace.resolveSpaceName(spaceName);
		return tiddlers;
	_scanCallback: function(place, jsontiddlers, options) {
		var locale = followersMacro.locale;
		var tiddlers = scanMacro._tiddlerfy(jsontiddlers, options);
		if(options.sort) {
			tiddlers = store.sortTiddlers(tiddlers, options.sort);
		if(options.filter) {
			var _store = new TiddlyWiki();
			config.lastStore = _store;
			for(var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
				var clone = tiddlers[i];
				clone.title = tiddlyspace.getLocalTitle(clone.title, clone.fields['server.workspace']);
			tiddlers = _store.filterTiddlers(options.filter);
		if(place) {
			var list = $("<ul />").appendTo(place)[0];
			scanMacro.template(list, tiddlers, options.template);
			if(tiddlers.length === 0) {
				$("<li />").text(options.emptyMessage || locale.noone).appendTo(list);
		if(options.callback) {
	constructSearchUrl: function(host, options) {
		if(options.url) {
			return options.url;
		var inputs = options.searchValues;
		var tag = options.tag;
		var searchField = options.searchField || "title";
		var searchQuery = [];
		for(var i = 0; i < inputs.length; i++) {
			searchQuery.push('%0:"%1"'.format(searchField, inputs[i]));
		var query = searchQuery.join(" OR ");
		query = tag ? "(%0) AND tag:%1".format(query, tag) : query;
		query = options.query ? "%0;%1;".format(query, options.query) : query;
		query = options.fat ? "%0&fat=1".format(query) : query;
		return '%0/search?q=%1'.format(host, query);
	scan: function(place, options) { // TODO: make use of list macro with url filter
		var locale = followersMacro.locale;
		options.template = options.template ? options.template : "ScanTemplate";
		followMacro.getHosts(function(host, tsHost) {
			options = options ? options: {};
			var url = scanMacro.constructSearchUrl(host, options);
			if(options.cache && scanMacro.scanned[url]) {
				var tiddlers = scanMacro.scanned[url].tiddlers;
				var run = function(tiddlers) {
					scanMacro._scanCallback(place, tiddlers, options);
				if(tiddlers) {
				} else {
			} else {
				var callback = function(tiddlers) {
					scanMacro._scanCallback(place, tiddlers, options);
				if(scanMacro.scanned[url] && scanMacro.scanned[url].callbacks) {
				} else {
					scanMacro.scanned[url] = {
						callbacks: [callback]
					url: url,
					dataType: "json",
					success: function(tiddlers) {
						scanMacro.scanned[url].tiddlers = tiddlers;
						var callbacks = scanMacro.scanned[url].callbacks;
						while(callbacks.length > 0) {
					error: function(xhr) {
						$("<span />").addClass("annotation error").text(locale.error.format(xhr.status)).appendTo(place);
	template: function(place, tiddlers, template) { // TODO: make use of list macro.
		for(var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
			var item = $('<li class="spaceName" />').appendTo(place)[0];
			var spaceName = tiddler.fields[""] || "";
			var templateText = store.getTiddlerText(template).replace(/\$1/mg, spaceName);
			wikify(templateText, item, null, tiddler);
	getOptions: function(paramString, tiddler) {
		var args = paramString.parseParams("name", null, true, false, true)[0];
		var options = { query: false, sort: false, tag: false, template: false, showBags: || false,
			hideBags: args.hide || false, filter: false, spaceField: "bag", searchField: "title", fat: false,
			emptyMessage: false };
		for(var name in args) {
			if(name != "name") {
				if(name == "fat") {
					options[name] = true;
				} else {
					options[name] = args[name][0];
		// if user has set searchField to modifier, then use the modifiers value if available otherwise use searchValues.
		var searchField = options.searchField;
		var searchValues = args[searchField] ? args[searchField] : args.searchValues;
		// if neither of those were used use the first parameter
		var defaultValues = tiddler ? [ tiddler.title ] : [];
		options.searchValues = searchValues ? searchValues : ( ? [[0]] : defaultValues);
		return options;
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		var container = $("<div />").addClass("scanResults resultsArea").appendTo(place)[0];
		var options = scanMacro.getOptions(paramString, tiddler);
		scanMacro.scan(container, options);

var followersMacro = config.macros.followers = {
	locale: {
		loggedOut: "Please login to see the list of followers",
		noSupport: "We were unable to retrieve followers as your browser does not support following.",
		pleaseWait: "Please wait while we look this up...",
		error: "Error %0 occurred whilst retrieving data from server",
		noone: "None."
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		var locale = followersMacro.locale;
		var args = paramString.parseParams("name", null, true, false, true)[0];
		var username = ?[0] : false;
		var container = $('<div class="followers" />').text(locale.pleaseWait).
		var followersCallback = function(user) {
			if(user.anon) {
				$("<span />").text(locale.loggedOut).appendTo(container);
			} else {
				var options = scanMacro.getOptions(paramString);
				$.extend(options, {
					url: "/search?q=title:@%0 OR title:%0 tag:%1 _limit:%2".
						format(, followMacro.followTag, LIMIT_FOLLOWING),
					spaceField: "bag",
					template: options.template ? options.template : "FollowersTemplate"
				scanMacro.scan(container, options);
		return !username ? followersCallback({ name: currentSpace }) : followersCallback({ name: username });

var followingMacro = config.macros.following = {
	locale: {
		pleaseWait: followersMacro.locale.pleaseWait,
		loggedOut: "Please login to see who you are following",
		noSupport: followersMacro.locale.noSupport,
		error: followersMacro.locale.error,
		noone: followersMacro.locale.noone
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		var locale = followingMacro.locale;
		var args = paramString.parseParams("name", null, true, false, true)[0];
		var fat = args.fat ? true : false;
		var username = ?[0] : false;
		var container = $('<div class="following" />').text(locale.pleaseWait).
		var followingCallback = function(user) {
			if(user.anon) {
				$("<span />").text(locale.loggedOut).appendTo(container);
			} else {
				var options = scanMacro.getOptions(paramString);
				$.extend(options, {
					url: "/search?q=bag:%0_public tag:%1 _limit:%2".format(, followMacro.followTag, LIMIT_FOLLOWING),
					spaceField: "title",
					template: options.template ? options.template : "FollowingTemplate"
				scanMacro.scan(container, options);
		return !username ? followingCallback({ name: currentSpace }) : followingCallback({ name: username });

var linkedMacro = config.macros.linkedTiddlers = {
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		var args = paramString.parseParams("anon")[0];
		var title = params[0] || tiddler.fields["server.title"] || tiddler.title;
		var tid = store.getTiddler(title);
		var containingTiddler = story.findContainingTiddler(place).getAttribute('tiddler');
		if(tid) {
			followMacro.makeButton(place, {
				spaceField: "recipe",
				url: "/bags/%0/tiddlers/%1/backlinks".format(tid.fields['server.bag'],
				blacklisted: followMacro.getBlacklist(),
				title: title,
				containingTiddler: containingTiddler,
				user: params[1] || false,
				consultFollowRelationship: args.follow ? true : false });

if(config.options.chkFollowTiddlersIsLinkedTiddlers) {
	merge(config.macros.followTiddlers, config.macros.linkedTiddlers);
	config.shadowTiddlers.FollowTiddlersHeading = "These are the other tiddlers that link to this tiddler.";



[[get a book|]] heldervelez xy**** ??

[[mais livros: |]]

[[PHYS 312 : Experimental Physics|]]
[[including BETA DECAY|]]

[[the periodic table|]]

[[The Theory of Beta-Decay|]] book  
[[The Energy Spectra of Electron and Positron Beta-Decay|]]  (one page)

[[Thayer Watkins |]]
[[Thayer Watkins |]]
[[Thayer Watkins nuclear model|]]
 [[Thayer Watkins - formation of the planets|]]  
[[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  [[|]]  

[[Alan Franklin |]] colorado edu  
[[Are the Laws of Physics Inevitable?| ]] 30 pages pdf 

[[Selectivity-And-Discord-Problems-Experiment|]] history of neutrino by Alan Franklim
> and a review of the history of the proposed 17-keV neutrino. He has written a history of the neutrino, from its proposal in 1931 to the present and his most recent book Selectivity and Discord: Two Problems of Experiment deals with the issues of experimenter bias and of the resolution of discordant experimental results.
[[Experiment Right or Wrong |]] by Alan Franklim

   n & \to p + e^-+ \bar{\nu_e}\\
   p & \to n + e^++ \nu_e\\
   n + p & \to p + n \\ 
   e^+ + e^- & \to \gamma + \gamma = 2* 511 keV \\
   ^{14}_6C & \to ^{14}_7N  + e^- + \bar{\nu_e}\\
   ^{23}_{12}Mg  & \to^{23}_{11}Na + e^+ + \nu_e\\
   ^{37}_{18}Ar & \to ^{37}_{18}Ar  + e^- + e^+ +\bar{\nu_e} + \nu_e\\

[[37Ar18|]]  -30.9476 MeV
[[14C6|]]  3.0198 MeV ; [[14N7|]]  2.8634 MeV ; +0.1564 MeV
[[23Mg12|]]  -5.4732 MeV ; [[23Na11|]]  -9.5298 MeV; +4.0566 MeV

38Ar		18	20	8.984870	
40Ar		18	22	8.947325	


[[WP Beta decay |]] 
[[Fermi interaction |]]
[[Review of Neutrino Mass Measurements  |]] 
[[Cowan–Reines neutrino experiment|]]
[[Neutrino Mass |]]

[[questions-on-beta-decay |]]
[[what is this?|]] Limits on Majoron-emitting double-beta decays of 136Xe in the KamLAND-Zen experiment 
eliminates this ? - [[double beta decay|]] and Neutrinoless double beta decay 

[[images of spectrum of beta decay|]]
[[The Basics of Radioactivity|]]
[[beta gamma ray spectr|]] 1956 book
[[Q-value |]] Q value is the kinetic energy released in the decay at rest
[[Pandemonium effect |]]
[[hyper Energy and Momentum Spectra for Beta Decay|]]
[[The beta ray spectrum of Ra E|]] 1939

[[beta and gamma ray spectroscopy book 1955|]] 

plot ((1-((1- (369/300000)^2 )/(1 - (369/300000 cos(x))))^2)) for x = 0 to 2pi 

[[WP List of particles |]]

|particle|mass \((eV/c^2)\)|
|neutron \(\) |939565378|
|proton   \(\)  |938272046|
|electron \(\) |     510998.928|
|neutrino electron \(\)  |       <0.22|
|muon  \(\)  | 105700000|
|neutrino muon \(\)|   <170000|
|tau \(\) |   105700000|
|neutrino tau \(\) |  <170000|

light speed       299792.458 km/s
~Earth-CMB             369.200 km/s

$$n^0 → p^+ + e^− + \bar{\nu}_e$$
$$ Q = (m_\text{n} - m_\text{p} - m_\mathrm{\overline{\nu}} - m_\text{e})c^2 = K_p + K_e +K_{\nu}= 0.782 MeV$$
where \(m_\text{n}\) is the mass of the neutron, \(m_\text{p}\) is the mass of the proton, \( \bar{\nu}_e\) is the mass of the electron antineutrino and \(m_\text{e}\) is the mass of the electron. In beta decay, a typical Q is around 1 MeV.

[[Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File|]] database
( ENSDF) Retrieval 

[[Q - neutron from nudat2|]]  782.347 keV
search Etherpad lite

<svg xmlns="" xmlns:xl="" version="1.1" viewBox="434 218 68 68"
width="30" height="30">
<g stroke="none" stroke-opacity="1" stroke-dasharray="none" fill="none" fill-opacity="1">
		<path d="M 478.39694 232.53705 L 478.39694 232.53705 
		C 477.1145 231.85132 475.77875 231.30147 474.41058 230.88734 L 474.41058 218.24994 L 461.58942 218.24994 
		L 461.58942 230.88734 C 460.22125 231.30147 458.8855 231.85132 457.60306 232.53705 L 448.66824 223.60214 
		L 439.6022 232.66814 L 448.53717 241.60304 C 447.8515 242.8854 447.30157 244.22116 446.88745 245.58936 
		L 434.25 245.58936 L 434.25 258.41052 L 446.88745 258.41052 
		C 447.30157 259.77869 447.8515 261.11447 448.53717 262.39688 L 439.6022 271.33173 L 448.66824 280.3978 
		L 457.60306 271.46283 C 458.8855 272.14862 460.22125 272.69846 461.58942 273.11252 L 461.58942 285.74988 
		L 474.41058 285.74988 L 474.41058 273.11252 C 475.77875 272.69846 477.1145 272.14862 478.39694 271.46283 
		L 487.33176 280.3978 L 496.39767 271.33173 L 487.46286 262.39688 
		C 488.14853 261.11447 488.69836 259.77869 489.11255 258.41052 L 501.74988 258.41052 L 501.74988 245.58936 
		L 489.11255 245.58936 C 488.69836 244.22116 488.14853 242.8854 487.46286 241.60304 L 496.39767 232.66814 
		L 487.33176 223.60214 Z M 475.3328 244.66714 C 479.3825 248.71698 479.3825 255.2829 475.3328 259.33273 
		C 471.28296 263.3826 464.71704 263.3826 460.66724 259.33273 
		C 456.61737 255.2829 456.61737 248.71698 460.66724 244.66714 
		C 464.71704 240.61734 471.28296 240.61734 475.3328 244.66714" fill="#111"
[[CSS3 atom model|]] nice

[[ANU-ASTRO1x|]]  speed of light measurement is accurate?
[Rømer’s method of measuring light speed][1], and by the way any other method, do not take care of the motion of solar system thru space (Planck 2013 results: V = 369(+-0.9 ) km/s.  
The total path of light is assumed to be in a plane (the ecliptic plane) when in fact it pertains to a larger path because the sender and the receiver are both in motion, i.e. the ecliptic is in motion in 3D space.
This leads me to the conclusion that the measure is not of the true light speed thru space but it is only the (smaller) value of its projection on the ecliptic. 
A possible confirmation of this statement is the presence of the solar system absolute speed in the values of the [anomalous advance of Mercury's perihelion][2] - my own finding ;) 
$$43/5557=2\pi\cdot V/c=error/predicted$$  
which gives V=369.20 km/s (which I expect to be confirmed in the next measures). The factor $2\pi$ is natural because of the geometry (the LHS is a ratio of arcseconds) . 
By the way the planetary paths are not ellipsis but rather in the tip of an helix.

In conclusion: the above relation has the potential to put in question both SR and GR. 
The two way light ray distance measure made by humans, a la Einstein, is not in use in nature: it is a **mean** value that is distinct of the gravitational/electromagnetic distance (a one-way process) that must enter the inverse square laws.  

How can I be wrong?
As I said all the methods use a two-way procedure (it is a mean value based on the light's time of flight ) 
Do you know of any natural process that measure distances in that way : emmit a radar/laser pulse ... reflection ... reception ?

To illustrate the error in our measures of distance I will make clear the distinction between ‘gravitational distance’ and the ‘Einstein measure’ with the Earth-Moon system with the help of this image ![help of this image][1].   
At the space position $E_0$, and time $t_0$, a laser light is emitted, that propagates with spherical waves at $c_0$ speed. It is reflected at $M_1$ (Moon’s position at time $t_1$) and , because the Earth is in motion, is received back at position $E_2$ and time $t_2$.  
The solar system motion is in the direction $\overline{E_0 E_2}$ . The Einstein distance measure is a *mean value* $d_E= c\cdot (t_2-t_0)/2 $ and it reports the same distance when the Moon is located at any point in the red curve at moment $t_1$.  
At the moment of reception the Moon is at the gravitational distance $r= \overline{E_2 M_1}$  and this is the value that must be used in the inverse square law. The factor of conversion between the Einstein measure $d_E$ and the effective gravitational distance $d_g$ is dependent on the angle of the light ray at reception $\theta$ and obeys  [the relation $\frac{1-e^2}{1-e\cos\theta}$][2] where $e$ is the eccentricity. $d_E$ is equal to $d_g$ only for $e=0$, i.e. $V=0$ . This error in the distance measure, or light speed, must have consequences.    
I'm not taking in account the light aberration nor the clock rate correction.  
Measuring correctly distances is fulcral in energy balance, orbit determination (flyby/pioneers).  
Unless I'm wrong we have bad distance/speed of light measures.  

my comment

The neutrino was the first 'missing mass problem' in physics. If any of c or the reference frame to do the computation of energy are incorrect then the energy balance is flawed. It can be a drama if I'm correct about the errors in the measures.

both the Earth and atmosphere rotate ...
+ gravit assist slingshot


[[Fomalhaut Debris Disks detailed|]]
[[Newtonian Dynamics|]] very nice book by prof Richard Fitzpatrick 

[[Planetary Nebula M2-9|]] 


[["The near-infrared structure and spectra of the bipolar nebulae M2-9 and AFGL 2688: The role of ultraviolet pumping and shocks in molecular hydrogen excitation"|]] planetary formation in real time.

[img[Solar System|]]

''[[Position of the Sun|]]'' detailed account

''[[Jack Wisdom links (MIT)|]]''  stability, LINKS...

[[On Conic Sections, Conservation of Angular momentum and Kepler's Second Law|]]

[[Solar System Orbital Simulation Data|]]
[[Coplanarity of the Solar system and the Milky way|]] dubious resource
[[dust benchmarck |]]
[[CoffeeKup|]]   [[on git|]]
[[not working: subst in cli.js #7 OptionParser = require('coffee-script/lib/coffee-script/optparse').OptionParser; |]]
[[coffeecup|]] (maintained fork of coffeekup)
[[play at coffeecup interactive demo|]] 

[[HTML2CoffeeKup converter|]]
[[HtmlKup|]] ~Html2Kup

[[GFX mobile library effects|]]

[[Swig|]] fastest

[[benchmarks |]] [[swig|]] wins by far, with code
[[cooffeekup versus others|]] with code
!''[[OutraFisica -  Oustanding New Physics|]]'' 
Using only standard physics, the author presents an alternative view of the History of the Universe with the help of four characters that have a long conversation.

''The End of Space Expansion    - Matter is Shrinking'' 
   ''Mass,Length and Time vary thru time and show a Scaling self-similar Universe''
''The End of Big Bang Theory - BB''
''The End of Dark Energy  - DE''
''The End of Cosmological Constant''
''The End of Inflation Era''
''The End of Dark Matter - DM''           - A new [[GalactoDynamics|Galaxy Vortex]] is offered              
''The End of Supermassive ~BlackHoles  - ~SMBs''
''Second Law of Thermodynamics do not hold in presence of Gravitation - 2ndTL''

In order to be fully appreciated it should be read in chronological order (google chrome browser with google translation and google reader)

![[''OutraMargem-Alf -  The Sagesse''|]] 
''The Sun'' - A Queen and her Sons

[[A 3.46 Ga impact tsunami breccia/conglomerate and geochemical meteoritic signatures of Archaean impact clusters, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia|]] ver grafico Ni/Cr versus Ni/Co 
na net 
[[How I Earn My Living Buying and Selling Appliances on Craigslist|]] 
''Preface,  Predictions and Synopse
Next PinnowElementaryParticles11 
<<image width:800>>
<<image width:800>>
<<image width:800>>
<<image width:800>>
<<image width:800>>
<<image width:800>>

[[Crustal Magnetic Fields of Terrestrial Planet|]]

[[a treatise on math love|]] pages 250 +- 254

[[Multilayer Capacitor Model of the Earth's Upper Crust |]]
> progress of earthquake forecast in future piezoelectric property disappears above Curie temperature (approximately 10 km of depth is the limit) there still exist correlating anomalies before the earthquakes with in the depth level 10...20 km...

[+[tides + earthquakes|]]
>  The phase of the tide determines whether the Earth moves in a direction that adds stress to a fault or relieves stress.  The author finds a strong correlation between earthquakes and Earth tide phase in the decade before each megaquake, providing evidence that Earth tides can indeed induce an earthquake on a fault that is already critically stressed. 

[[Earth Tides Can Trigger Shallow Thrust Fault Earthquakes|]] 2004 , Elizabeth S. Cochran
> We show a correlation between the occurrence of shallow thrust earthquakes and the occurrence of the strongest tides. The rate of earthquakes varies from the background rate by a factor of 3 with the tidal stress. The highest correlation is found when we assume a coefficient of friction of m 0 0.4 for the crust, although we see good correlation for m between 0.2 and 0.6. Our results quantify the effect of applied stress on earthquake triggering, a key factor in understanding earthquake nucleation and cascades whereby one earthquake triggers others
[[? How the moon causes high tides but not earthquakes |]]
> John Bellini, a geophysicist with the US Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information Center in Colorado, said there was "no evidence" that the moon could cause earthquakes. He added: "There were some studies in the past that tried to link lunar effects to seismicity and there was nothing found."

[[Degeneracies of discrete and continuum states with the Dirac sea in the pair-creation process|]]
Quantum mechanical tunneling in multifield-induced pair creation from vacuum (2013)

the most exact [[proton to electron masses|]] 
\(1836.12\pm0.05 \approx 6\pi^5=1836.11810871\) - 1952
[[wp|]] \(1836.15267245\)
[[encinographic wave equations code|]] [[SimClass|]]

[[The Lifebox, the Seashell, and the Soul|]] book

[[Continuous Valued Cellular Automata for Nonlinear Wave Equations|]]
// TiddlyWeb adaptor
// v0.14.3

/*jslint vars: true, unparam: true, nomen: true, white: true */
/*global jQuery */

var tiddlyweb = (function($) {

"use strict";

var tw = {
	routes: {
		// host is the TiddlyWeb instance's URI (including server_prefix)
		// placeholders "_type" & "name" refer to the respective bag/recipe
		root     : "{host}/",
		bags     : "{host}/bags",
		bag      : "{host}/bags/{name}",
		recipes  : "{host}/recipes",
		recipe   : "{host}/recipes/{name}",
		tiddlers : "{host}/{_type}s/{name}/tiddlers",
		tiddler  : "{host}/{_type}s/{name}/tiddlers/{title}",
		revisions: "{host}/{_type}s/{name}/tiddlers/{title}/revisions",
		revision : "{host}/{_type}s/{name}/tiddlers/{title}/revisions/{revision}",
		search   : "{host}/search?q={query}"

var convertTimestamp, supplant;

// host (optional) is the URI of the originating TiddlyWeb instance
tw.Resource = function(type, host) {
	if(arguments.length) { // initialization
		this._type = type;
		if(host !== false) { = host !== undefined ? host.replace(/\/$/, "") : null;
$.extend(tw.Resource.prototype, {
	// retrieves resource from server
	// callback is passed resource, status, XHR (cf. jQuery.ajax success)
	// errback is passed XHR, error, exception, resource (cf. jQuery.ajax error)
	// filters is an optional filter string (e.g. "select=tag:foo;limit=5")
	get: function(callback, errback, filters) {
		var uri = this.route();
		if(filters) {
			var separator = uri.indexOf("?") === -1 ? "?" : ";";
			uri += separator + filters;
		var self = this;
		return $.ajax({
			url: uri,
			type: "GET",
			dataType: "json",
			success: function(data, status, xhr) {
				var resource = self.parse(data);
				resource.etag = xhr.getResponseHeader("Etag");
				callback(resource, status, xhr);
			error: function(xhr, error, exc) {
				errback(xhr, error, exc, self);
	// sends resource to server
	// callback is passed data, status, XHR (cf. jQuery.ajax success)
	// errback is passed XHR, error, exception, resource (cf. jQuery.ajax error)
	put: function(callback, errback) {
		var self = this;
		var options = {
			url: this.route(),
			type: "PUT",
			contentType: "application/json",
			data: JSON.stringify(this.baseData()),
			success: function(data, status, xhr) {
				callback(self, status, xhr);
			error: function(xhr, error, exc) {
				errback(xhr, error, exc, self);
		if(this.ajaxSetup) {
		return $.ajax(options);
	// deletes resource on server
	// callback is passed data, status, XHR (cf. jQuery.ajax success)
	// errback is passed XHR, error, exception, resource (cf. jQuery.ajax error)
	"delete": function(callback, errback) {
		var self = this;
		var options = {
			url: this.route(),
			type: "DELETE",
			success: function(data, status, xhr) {
				callback(self, status, xhr);
			error: function(xhr, error, exc) {
				errback(xhr, error, exc, self);
		if(this.ajaxSetup) {
		return $.ajax(options);
	// returns an object carrying only the essential information of the resource
	baseData: function() {
		var data = {},
			self = this;
		$.each(, function(i, item) {
			var value = self[item];
			if(value !== undefined) {
				data[item] = value;
		return data;
	// returns corresponding instance from a raw object (if applicable)
	parse: function(data) {
		return data;
	// list of accepted keys in serialization
	data: [],
	// returns resource's URI
	route: function() {
		return supplant(tw.routes[this._type], this);

var Container = function(type, name, host) {
	if(arguments.length) { // initialization
		tw.Resource.apply(this, [type, host]); = name;
		this.desc = "";
		this.policy = new tw.Policy({});
Container.prototype = new tw.Resource();
$.extend(Container.prototype, {
	tiddlers: function() {
		return new tw.TiddlerCollection(this);
	parse: function(data) {
		var type = tw._capitalize(this._type),
			container = new tw[type](,;
		data.policy = new tw.Policy(data.policy);
		return $.extend(container, data);
	data: ["desc", "policy"]

// attribs is an object whose members are merged into the instance (e.g. query)
tw.Collection = function(type, host, attribs) {
	if(arguments.length) { // initialization
		tw.Resource.apply(this, [type, host]);
		$.extend(this, attribs);
tw.Collection.prototype = new tw.Resource();

tw.TiddlerCollection = function(container, tiddler) {
	if(arguments.length) { // initialization
		tw.Collection.apply(this, [tiddler ? "revisions" : "tiddlers"]);
		this.container = container || null;
		this.tiddler = tiddler || null;
tw.TiddlerCollection.prototype = new tw.Collection();
$.extend(tw.TiddlerCollection.prototype, {
	parse: function(data) {
		var container = this.container;
		return $.map(data, function(item, i) {
			var tiddler = new tw.Tiddler(item.title, container),
				bag = item.bag;
			tiddler = tw.Tiddler.prototype.parse.apply(tiddler, [item]);
			if(!tiddler.bag && bag) { // XXX: bag always present!?
				tiddler.bag = new tw.Bag(bag,;
			if(!tiddler.recipe && item.recipe) {
				tiddler.recipe = new tw.Recipe(item.recipe,;
			delete item.recipe;
			return $.extend(tiddler, item);
	route: function() {
		var params = this.container;
		if(this.tiddler) {
			var container = this.tiddler.bag || this.tiddler.recipe;
			params = {
				_type: container._type,
				title: this.tiddler.title
		return supplant(tw.routes[this._type], params);

tw.Search = function(query, host) {
	tw.Collection.apply(this, ["search", host]);
	this.query = query;
tw.Search.prototype = new tw.Collection();
$.extend(tw.Search.prototype, {
	parse: function(data) {
		this.container = { // XXX: hacky
			_type: "bag",
		var tiddlers = tw.TiddlerCollection.prototype.parse.apply(this, arguments);
		delete this.container;
		return tiddlers;

// title is the name of the tiddler
// container (optional) is an instance of either Bag or Recipe
// optionally accepts a single object representing tiddler attributes
tw.Tiddler = function(title, container) {
	tw.Resource.apply(this, ["tiddler", false]);
	this.title = title;
	this.bag = container && container._type === "bag" ? container : null;
	this.recipe = container && container._type === "recipe" ? container : null;
	var self = this;
	$.each(, function(i, item) {
		self[item] = undefined; // exposes list of standard attributes for inspectability
	if(title && title.title) { // title is an object of tiddler attributes
		$.extend(this, title);
tw.Tiddler.prototype = new tw.Resource();
$.extend(tw.Tiddler.prototype, {
	revisions: function() {
		return new tw.TiddlerCollection(this.bag || this.recipe, this);
	route: function() {
		var container = this.bag || this.recipe;
		var params = $.extend({}, this, {
			host: container ? : null,
			_type: this.bag ? "bag" : (this.recipe ? "recipe" : null),
			name: container ? : null
		return supplant(tw.routes[this._type], params);
	parse: function(data) {
		var tiddler = new tw.Tiddler(this.title),
			container = this.bag || this.recipe;
		if(data.bag) {
			tiddler.bag = new tw.Bag(data.bag,;
			delete data.bag;
		delete data.recipe;
		tiddler.created = data.created ? convertTimestamp(data.created) : new Date();
		delete data.created;
		tiddler.modified = data.modified ? convertTimestamp(data.modified) : new Date();
		delete data.modified;
		if(this.recipe) {
			tiddler.recipe = this.recipe;
		return $.extend(tiddler, data);
	data: ["created", "creator", "modifier", "modified", "tags", "type", "text",
	ajaxSetup: function(options) {
		var self = this;
		if(this.etag && (options.type === "PUT" || options.type === "DELETE")) {
			options.beforeSend = function(xhr) {
				xhr.setRequestHeader("If-Match", self.etag);
		if(options.type === "PUT") {
			var callback = options.success;
			options.success = function(data, status, xhr) {
				var loc = xhr.getResponseHeader("Location"),
					etag = xhr.getResponseHeader("Etag");
				if(loc && etag) {
					self.etag = etag;
					if(!self.bag) {
						var bag = loc.split("/bags/").pop().split("/")[0];
						self.bag = new tw.Bag(bag,;
					callback(self, status, xhr);
				} else { // IE
					self.get(callback, options.error);

tw.Revision = function(id, tiddler) {
	var container = tiddler.bag || tiddler.recipe;
	tw.Tiddler.apply(this, [tiddler.title, container]);
	this._type = "revision";
	this.revision = id;
tw.Revision.prototype = new tw.Tiddler();
$.extend(tw.Revision.prototype, {
	revisions: false,
	data: false,
	put: false,
	"delete": false

tw.Bag = function(name, host) {
	Container.apply(this, ["bag", name, host]);
tw.Bag.prototype = new Container();

tw.Recipe = function(name, host) {
	Container.apply(this, ["recipe", name, host]);
	this.recipe = [];
tw.Recipe.prototype = new Container();
$.extend(tw.Recipe.prototype, {
	data: ["recipe"].concat(

tw.Policy = function(constraints) { // TODO: validation?
	var self = this;
	$.each(this.constraints, function(i, item) {
		self[item] = constraints[item];
tw.Policy.prototype.constraints = ["read", "write", "create", "delete",
	"manage", "accept", "owner"];

 * utilities

tw._capitalize = function(str) {
	return str.charAt(0).toUpperCase() + str.slice(1);

// convert YYYYMMDDhhmmss timestamp to Date instance
convertTimestamp = function(t) {
	if (t.match(/^\d{12,17}$/)) {
		return new Date(Date.UTC(
			parseInt(t.substr(0, 4), 10),
			parseInt(t.substr(4, 2), 10) - 1,
			parseInt(t.substr(6, 2), 10),
			parseInt(t.substr(8, 2), 10),
			parseInt(t.substr(10, 2), 10),
			parseInt(t.substr(12, 2) || "0", 10),
			parseInt(t.substr(14, 3) || "0", 10)
	} else {
		return new Date(Date.parse(t));

// adapted from Crockford (
supplant = function(str, obj) {
	return str.replace(/{([^{}]*)}/g, function (a, b) {
		var r = obj[b];
		r = typeof r === "string" || typeof r === "number" ? r : a;
		return $.inArray(b, ["host", "query"]) !== -1 ? r : encodeURIComponent(r); // XXX: special-casing

return tw;

|>|>|!My Beliefs (ATM)|!|
|!Theory| ! No | ! Yes |!|
|TMS|Uniform Cosmological Time|it is a perception,evolve as matter shrinks||
|TMS|Matter|Aether perturbation confined (bounded) by Light Resonances||
|TMS|Light|Aether free (unbounded) propagating perturbation||
|TMS|Energy|our perception as Aether perturbations change of state||
|TMS|Fields:Electric, Magnetic, Gravitational, Strong,Weak|Electrostatic Field, by Hans de Vries and Pinnow|[[Link|]]|
|TMS|Chirality|response to sense of rotation of the Earth (local anisotropy of light)||
|TMS|~AntiMatter/Matter imbalance|at born neutron/antineutron differentiated (anisotropy of light)||
|SR||Aether Exist (its the Field), by Alfredo|[[Link|]]|
|SR||Absolute Referential (Light), by Alfredo|[[LinkSR|]]|
|GR|Quantum Vacuum|Polarizable Vacuum|[[Link|]]|
|>|>|color:red;''Energy and Particles''||
|SM|Standard Model  of //Particles//|Resonant model of //Particles// by Pinnow|[[Link|Our Resonant Universe by Douglas Pinnow]]|
|QM|//Particles// are Invariant|//Particles// shrink as Field grow, by Alfredo|[[Link|]]|
|QM|Interaction mediated by //Particles//|Interaction mediated by Field (wave)|[[Link|]]|
|QM|No //particles//|Only field waves, Schrodinger, Goedecke,Haus,Pinnow|[[Link|Our Resonant Universe by Douglas Pinnow]]|
|QM|photons are //particles//|photons are a propagating vacuum perturbation (field)|[[Link|]]|
|QM|everything is quantized|only energy exchange is quantized due to resonances|[[Link|]]|
|SM|neutrinos|do not exist, the energy conservation issue is easy to solve (we will kown later), by Alfredo|[[Link|]]|
|SM|transport of energy|energy is already in situ (vacuum)|[[Link|]]|
|SM|conservation of energy|vacuum excitations can vanish (anti-laser experiment). Done in the Absolute Referential|[[Link|]]|
|SM|Hot Big Bang|Cold and homogeneous start|[[Link|]]|
|SM|Space expansion|Matter shrinks as time goes by, Alfredo|[[Link|]]|
|SM|Cosmological redshift|photons have a greater original wavelength, Alfredo|[[Link|]]|
|SM|Inflation Era|No need, by Alfredo|[[Link|]]|
|SM|Dark Energy|No need, by Alfredo|[[Link|]]|
|SM|Cosmological Constant|No need, by Alfredo|[[Link|]]|
|SM|Dark Matter|new Galacto Dynamics, by Alfredo|[[Link|LinkD_M]]|
|SM|Galacto Dynamics central force|gravitational vortex, by Alfredo|[[Link|]]|
|>|>|color:red;''2nd Thermodynamic Law''|[[Link|]]|
|2ndTL|a NO GO with gravity|by Alfredo|[[Link|]]|
|>|>|color:red;''Black Holes''||
|~BHs|Black Holes|mass will leave as light (GRBs), by Pinnows's|[[Link|Our Resonant Universe by Douglas Pinnow]]|
|~BHs|Super Massive Black Holes|new Galacto Dynamics, by Alfredo|[[Link|Our Resonant Universe by Douglas Pinnow]]|
|>|>|color:red;''Solar System''||
|Planets|spining disk origin|Our beloved Sun exploded, Bode Law timing|[[Link|]]|
|Planets|orbits stability critical|stable in the long term|[[Link|]]|
|Planets|Dinamo model|magnetism-Piezoelectric effect |[[Link|PiezoElectricity]]|

|''Author''|Ben Gillies and Jon Robson|
|''Description''|Upload a binary file to TiddlyWeb|
|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig TiddlyWebConfig|
<<binaryUpload bag:<name> edit:tags edit:title tags:<default tags> title:<title> >>
* {{{bag:<name>}}}: optional; if left out, the file will be saved to the current workspace
* {{{edit:tags}}}: specifies that you want to tag the file being uploaded
* {{{edit:title}}}: specifies that you want to set the title to something other than the filename
* {{{tags:<default tags>}}}: specifies a default set of tags to apply to the file (requires {{{edit:tags}}} to be set)
* {{{title:<title>}}}: predefines the title of the binary tiddler
(function($) {

var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;

var macro = config.macros.binaryUpload = {
	locale: {
		titleDefaultValue: "Please enter a title...",
		tagsDefaultValue: "Please enter some tags...",
		titlePrefix: "title: ",
		tagsPrefix: "tags: ",
		loadSuccess: 'Tiddler %0 successfully uploaded',
		loadError: "An error occurred when uploading the tiddler %0",
		uploadInProgress: "Please wait while the file is uploaded...",
		membersOnly: "Only members can upload."
	renderInputFields: function(container, options) {
		var locale = macro.locale;
		var editableFields = options.edit;
		var includeFields = {
			tags:  editableFields && editableFields.contains("tags") ? true : false,
			title: editableFields && editableFields.contains("title") ? true : false
		var fields = ["title", "tags"];
		for(var i = 0; i < fields.length; i++) {
			var fieldName = fields[i];
			var userDefault = options[fieldName];
			var defaultValue = userDefault ? userDefault[0] : false;
			if(includeFields[fieldName] || defaultValue) {
				var localeDefault = locale["%0DefaultValue".format(fieldName)];
				var className = defaultValue ? "userInput" : "userInput notEdited";
				var inputEl;
				var val = defaultValue || localeDefault || "";
				var iContainer = $("<div />").addClass("binaryUpload%0".format(fieldName)).
				if(defaultValue && !includeFields[fieldName]) {
					var label = locale["%0Prefix".format(fieldName)];
					$("<span />").text(label).appendTo(iContainer);
					$("<span />").addClass("disabledInput").text(val).appendTo(iContainer);
					inputEl = $("<input />").attr("type", "hidden");
				} else {
					inputEl = $("<input />").attr("type", "text");
				inputEl.attr("name", fieldName).
	getTiddlerName: function(fileName) {
		var fStart = fileName.lastIndexOf("\\");
		var fStart2 = fileName.lastIndexOf("/");
		fStart = fStart < fStart2 ? fStart2 : fStart;
		fileName = fileName.substr(fStart+1);
		return fileName;
	errorHandler: function(fileName) {
		displayMessage("upload of file %0 failed".format(fileName));
	uploadFile: function(place, baseURL, workspace, options) {
		var pleaseWait = $(".uploadProgress", place);
		var iframeName =;
		var form = $("form", place);
		var existingVal = $("input[name=title]", form).val();
		var fileName = existingVal || $('input:file', form).val();
		if(!fileName) {
			return false; // the user hasn't selected a file yet
		fileName = macro.getTiddlerName(fileName);
		$("input[name=title]", place).val(fileName);
		// we need to go somewhere afterwards to ensure the onload event triggers
		var redirectTo = "/%0/tiddlers.txt?select=title:%1".
			format(workspace, fileName);
		var token = tiddlyspace ? tiddlyspace.getCSRFToken() : "";
		var action = "%0?csrf_token=%1&redirect=%2"
			.format(baseURL, token, redirectTo);
		form[0].action = action; // dont use jquery to work with ie
		form[0].target = iframeName;
		// do not refactor following line... won't work in IE6 otherwise
		$(place).append($('<iframe name="' + iframeName + '" id="' + iframeName + '"/>').css('display','none'));
		macro.iFrameLoader(iframeName, function() {
			var content = document.getElementById(iframeName).contentWindow.document.documentElement;
			if($(content).text().indexOf(fileName) > -1) {
				options.callback(place, fileName, workspace, baseURL);
			} else {
		return true;
	createUploadForm: function(place, options) {
		var locale = macro.locale;
		if(readOnly) {
			$('<div class="annotation" />').text(locale.membersOnly).
		var bag = options.bag;
		options.callback = options.callback ? options.callback :
			function(place, fileName, workspace, baseurl) {
				macro.displayFile(place, fileName, workspace);
				$("input[type=text]", place).val("");
		var defaults = config.defaultCustomFields;
		place = $("<div />").addClass("container").appendTo(place)[0];
		var workspace = bag ? "bags/%0".format(bag) : config.defaultCustomFields["server.workspace"];
		var baseURL = defaults[""];
		baseURL += (baseURL[baseURL.length - 1] !== "/") ? "/" : "";
		baseURL = "%0%1/tiddlers".format(baseURL, workspace);
		//create the upload form, complete with invisible iframe
		var iframeName = "binaryUploadiframe%0".format(Math.random());
		// do not refactor following line of code to work in IE6.
		var form = $('<form action="%0" method="POST" enctype="multipart/form-data" />'.
		macro.renderInputFields(form, options);
			append('<div class="binaryUploadFile"><input type="file" name="file" /></div>').
			append('<div class="binaryUploadSubmit"><input type="submit" value="Upload" disabled /></div>').
			submit(function(ev) { = iframeName; = iframeName;
				macro.uploadFile(place, baseURL, workspace, options);
			.find('[type="file"]').bind('change', function() {
				$(form).find('[type="submit"]').prop('disabled', false);
		$('<div />').addClass("uploadProgress").text(locale.uploadInProgress).hide().appendTo(place);
		$("input[name=file]", place).change(function(ev) {
			var target = $(;
			var fileName = target.val();
			var title = $("input[type=text][name=title]", place);
			if(!title.val()) {
	handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
		params = paramString.parseParams(null, null, true);
		macro.createUploadForm(place, params[0]);
	iFrameLoader: function(iframeName, callback) {
		var iframe = document.getElementById(iframeName); //jQuery doesn't seem to want to do this!?
		var locale = macro.locale;
		$(".userInput").addClass("notEdited"); // reset editing
		var finishedLoading = function() {
		var iFrameLoadHandler = function() {

		iframe.onload = iFrameLoadHandler;
		completeReadyStateChanges = 0;
		iframe.onreadystatechange = function() {
			if (++(completeReadyStateChanges) == 3) {
	displayFile: function(place, title, workspace) {
		var adaptor = store.getTiddlers()[0].getAdaptor();
		var context = {
			workspace: workspace,
			host: config.defaultCustomFields['']
		adaptor.getTiddler(title, context, null, function(context) {
			if(context.status) {
				story.displayTiddler(place, title);
				var image = config.macros.image;
				if(image && image.refreshImage) {
					image.refreshImage("/%0/tiddlers/%1".format(workspace, title));
					image.refreshImage("%0/%1/tiddlers/%2".format(, workspace, title));
			} else {

if(tiddlyspace) {
	config.macros.binaryUploadPublic = {
		handler: function(place, macroName, params, wikifier, paramString, tiddler) {
			var options = paramString.parseParams(null, null, true)[0];
			var bag = tiddlyspace.getCurrentBag("public");
			options.bag = bag;
			macro.createUploadForm(place, options);
	config.messages.privacySetting = config.options.chkPrivateMode ?
		"private" : "public";
	config.macros.binaryUpload.defaultWorkspace = tiddlyspace.

!electron model
on CODEN:LUTEDX/(TEAT-7049)/1-11/(1996)
Non-radiating sources in time-domain
transmission-line theory
Ari Sihvola, Gerhard Kristensson and Ismo V. Lindell

The question of possible electron models that would be stable in the sense that
the dynamics of the charges would not lose energy through radiation puzzled physicists
like Sommerfeld, Herglotz, and Ehrenfest early in the beginning of this century.
The famous result by Schott [6] is that a rotating spherical shell of charge is nonradiating
if the radius of the shell b satisfies the following condition:
$$b = \frac{ncT}{2}$$
where n is integer and T is the period of the charge motion. This result by Schott
does not require that the rotation orbit be circular; as a matter of fact, it does
not even have to be planar. Goedecke has generalized these results to more general
rotating and spinning charge distributions [5]. This reference gives examples of
various localized NR sources that can be asymmetric and non-spherical, and that
could also include a spinning current contribution in addition to the orbital movement
of the charge. The non-radiating character of these charge constellations is
connected to a quantized condition for the orbital and spinning motions, which result
leads to the temptation to hypothesize that all stable particles in nature would
be “merely non-radiating charge-current distributions whose mechanical properties
are electromagnetic in origin,” although Goedecke in [5] seems to be very careful in
propagating this suggestion.
[[Searches for New Physicsat LHC by DeRoeck SLAC July/2011|]] status LHC ppt 44 pages  
[[Expected Performance of the ATLAS Experiment - Detector, Trigger and Physics|]]  37.8 Mb !
[[Introduction to Supersymmetry: Astrophysical and Phenomenological Constraints|]]  lectures 67 pages 
[[thesis - The search for a standard model Higgs at the LHC and electron identification using transition radiation in the ATLAS tracker|]]
[[5 Ways to Make Ajax Calls with jQuery|]]
[[jQuery ajax() Method|]] w3schools
[[scrapy tut|]]



extract from 

[[Creeves channel|]]
[[google crawl web page python mysql|]]

[[adbnews|]] python crawl 
[[python crawl to db |]]

 [[nist webcrawler |]] in python

 [[SCRAPY|]] using [[XPath|]]     [[overview|]] and storing [[in mysql|]]

[[stackoverflow answers|]] 
[[|]] [[|]] [[|]] [[|]] 
[[Python Page Spider Web Crawler Tutorial|]] with BeautifulSoup - youtube :  [[with code here|]]
[[php crawler|]] 
[[filter olx, ebay, allegro|]] python 
[[A pet project to scrap OLX ad details. (For learning purposes only)|]] .net 
|''Description''|Initializes new TiddlySpaces the first time they are created|
|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig RandomColorPalettePlugin chrjs ImageMacroPlugin|
* robust error notification and recovery
<link href="/bags/%0_public/tiddlers.atom" rel="alternate"
	type="application/atom+xml" title="%0's public feed" />
<link rel="canonical" href="%1/" />
(function($) {

var versionField = "tiddlyspaceinit_version";
var markupPreHead = store.getTiddlerText(tiddler.title + "##MarkupPreHead", "");
var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;
var currentSpace = tiddlyspace.currentSpace;
var tweb = config.extensions.tiddlyweb;

var plugin = config.extensions.TiddlySpaceInit = {
	version: "0.6",
	SiteTitle: "%0",
	SiteSubtitle: "a TiddlySpace",
	flagTitle: "%0SetupFlag",
	flagWarning: "Please do not modify this tiddler; it was created " +
		"automatically upon space creation.",

	dispatch: function(ev) {
		var title = plugin.flagTitle.format([]);
		config.annotations[title] = plugin.flagWarning;
		if(currentSpace.type != "private") {
		var tiddlers = [];
		var tid = store.getTiddler(title);
		if(tid) {
			curVersion = parseFloat(tid.fields[versionField]);
			reqVersion = parseFloat(plugin.version);
			if(curVersion < reqVersion) {
				plugin.update(curVersion, tid);
				tid.fields[versionField] = plugin.version;
				tid = store.saveTiddler(tid);
		} else { // first run
			tid = new Tiddler(title);
			tid.tags = ["excludeLists", "excludeSearch", "excludePublisher"];
			tid.fields = $.extend({}, config.defaultCustomFields);
			tid.fields[versionField] = plugin.version;
			tid.text = "@@%0@@".format([plugin.flagWarning]);
			tid = store.saveTiddler(tid);
			tiddlers = tiddlers.concat(plugin.firstRun(), tid);
		autoSaveChanges(null, tiddlers);
	update: function(curVersion, flagTiddler) {
		if(curVersion < 0.2) {
		if(curVersion < 0.3) {
			flagTiddler.tags.pushUnique("excludePublisher"); // XXX: never persisted
		if(curVersion < 0.5) { // v0.4 was faulty
		if(curVersion < 0.6) {
	pubTid: {
		tags: ["excludeLists", "excludeSearch"],
		fields: $.extend({}, config.defaultCustomFields, {
			"server.workspace": tiddlyspace.getCurrentWorkspace("public")
	makeTiddlerIfNot: function(tiddler) {
		if (!store.tiddlerExists(tiddler.title)) {
			$.extend(true, tiddler, plugin.pubTid);
			return [store.saveTiddler(tiddler)];
		} else {
			return [];
	firstRun: function() {
		var tiddlers = [];
		// generate Site*itle
		$.each(["SiteTitle", "SiteSubtitle"], function(i, item) {
			var tid = new Tiddler(item);
			tid.text = plugin[item].format([]);
		// generate public ColorPalette
		var tid = new Tiddler("ColorPalette");
		tid.text = config.macros.RandomColorPalette.generatePalette({
			saturation_pale: 0.67, saturation_light: 0.53,
			saturation_mid: 0.43, saturation_dark: 0.06,
			pale: 0.99, light: 0.85, mid: 0.5, dark: 0.31
		tiddlers.push.apply(tiddlers, plugin.makeTiddlerIfNot(tid));
		return tiddlers;
	// remove _cookie slices (TiddlyWiki 2.6.2 beta 6 remnants)
	purgeSystemSettings: function() {
		var ss = store.getTiddler("SystemSettings");
		if(ss) {
			var lines = ss.text.split("\n");
			var persistentOptions = $.grep(lines, function(line, i) {
				return line.indexOf("_cookie:") == -1;
			ss.text = persistentOptions.join("\n");
			ss = store.saveTiddler(ss);
			autoSaveChanges(null, [ss]);
	createAvatar: function() {
		var avatar = "SiteIcon";
		var host =;
		var notify = function(xhr, error, exc) {
			displayMessage("ERROR: could not create avatar - " + // TODO: i18n
				"%0: %1".format([xhr.statusText, xhr.responseText]));
			// TODO: resolve!?

		var pubBag = tiddlyspace.getCurrentBag("public");
		var tid = new tiddlyweb.Tiddler(avatar);
		tid.bag = new tiddlyweb.Bag(pubBag, host);

		var callback = function(data, status, xhr) {}; // avatar already exists; do nothing
		var errback = function(xhr, error, exc) {
			if(xhr.status != 404) {
			// copy default avatar
			var _notify = function(tid, status, xhr) {
				displayMessage("created avatar"); // TODO: i18n
				var image = config.macros.image;
				if(image && image.refreshImage) {
					var uri = "/%0/tiddlers/SiteIcon".
			var _callback = function(tid, status, xhr) {
				tid.title = avatar; = pubBag;
				delete tid.etag;
				tid.put(_notify, notify); // TODO: add to current session document (via adaptor?)
			tweb.getUserInfo(function(user) {
				var avatarTitle = == ?
					"defaultUserIcon" : "defaultSiteIcon";
				var tid = new tiddlyweb.Tiddler(avatarTitle);
				tid.bag = new tiddlyweb.Bag("common", host);
				tid.get(_callback, notify);
		tid.get(callback, errback);
	savePublicTiddlerText: function(title, text, pubWorkspace) {
		var tid = new Tiddler(title);
		tid.text = text;
		tid.tags = ["excludeLists"];
		tid.fields = $.extend({}, config.defaultCustomFields);
		tid.fields["server.workspace"] = pubWorkspace;
		tid.fields[""] = "false";
		tid = store.saveTiddler(tid);
		autoSaveChanges(null, [tid]);
	setupMarkupPreHead: function() {
		var pubWorkspace = tiddlyspace.getCurrentWorkspace("public");
		var existing = store.getTiddler("MarkupPreHead");
		if(!existing || existing.fields["server.workspace"] != pubWorkspace) {
			var context = this;
			tweb.getStatus(function(status) {
				var text = markupPreHead.format(,
				context.savePublicTiddlerText("MarkupPreHead", text,
		// also set up DefaultTiddlers
		var title = "DefaultTiddlers";
		existing = store.getTiddler(title) || new Tiddler(title);
		if(existing.fields["server.workspace"] != pubWorkspace) {
			var text = existing.text || store.getShadowTiddlerText(title);
			this.savePublicTiddlerText(title, text, pubWorkspace);

$(document).bind("startup", plugin.dispatch);

[[rapidminer (ex-Yale)|]]

[[orange - Data Mining - Fruitful and Fun|]]

[[theory data mining|]]


[[WP data mining |]]
>In 2010, the open source ''R language'' overtook other tools to become the tool used by more data miners (43%) than any other

[[Neuron|]] Neuron (software) for neurosciences (cell simulator)

[[2010 Data Miner Survey|]]

[[The Forrester Wave |]] Predictive Analytics And Data 
Mining Solutions, Q1 2010
>SAS, SPSS/iBM, KxEn, oracle, And Portrait Software lead, With others innovating
biased report:
>Forrester conducted product evaluations in Q3 2009 and interviewed nine vendor companies: Angoss Software, Fico, iBM, KxEn, oracle, Portrait Software, SAS institute, SPSS (a product group of IBM), and TiBco Software. We also interviewed two customer references from each vendor

developed by Universities :
>[[RapidMiner|]] (YALE) - já usei e é muito bom, estável, cross-platform
>[[WEKA|]] bom,venerável, close to Pentaho open-source BI suite, estável,cross-platform
>[[KNIME|]]  includes WEKA,R-lang, ~JfreeChart [[White paper|]]
>>KNIME is released under a ''dual licensing scheme''. The open source license (GPL) allows KNIME to be downloaded, distributed, and used freely.

[[Oracle Data Mining|]] pay 

[[Knime Server  and KNIME_TeamSpace |]] 
>Operating System Windows 7, Windows 2008 Server,Linux SUSE 10 and 11, Linux Fedora 10, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, Ubuntu (32 or 64 bit) Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, 10.6 Snow Leopard 
>Application server: GlassFish 2.1.1
>Licensing KNIME Server is available under an annual license model based on the number of users and includes KNIME Team Space and professional support 
[[CoffeeScript on ProcessingJs|]] online [[help|]]

[[How to Use Brackets]|]]
[[Theseus extension|]] 
>  Usage: ''Debug JavaScript running in Node.js''
Start your program by running node-theseus app.js (instead of node app.js as you normally would). Theseus will automatically connect to that process.
(You install node-theseus with npm install -g node-theseus)
>  Usage: ''[[Debug JavaScript running in Chrome|]]''

[[JSX|]] JSX is a statically-typed, object-oriented programming language designed to run on modern web browsers

[[React JSX support for Coffeescript|]]
[[Brackets CoffeeScript|]] An extension for Brackets that improves CoffeeScript and CJSX syntax highlighting.
[[coffee react quickstart|]] single page app

[[The Absolute Beginner’s Guide to CoffeeScript|]]
[[haml-html-coffeecup-javascript-coffeescript-converter|]] [[on git|]]
[[coffee-templates|]] much faster than CS

[[IcedCoffeeScript|]] ease with parallel and async code, very nice , includes cs ref in the single page

[[The Little Book on CoffeeScript|]] available online
[[Smooth CoffeeScript|]] free book 200 pages, + sources, 
[[Interactive HTML5 book SmoothCoffeScript|]]

[[Coffeescript Cookbook |]] reference 
[[Sublime Text with support for CoffeeScript|]] and [[better here|]]

[[CoffeeScript, Meet Backbone.js|]]

[[WP Online Javascript IDE |]]
[[|]]  Online edit and share 
[[jsfiddle|]] Online edit and share ~CoffeeScript,JS,html,css 
[[plnkr |]] Online edit muito usado
[[ - Online edit and share JS+html+css online at|]] account helder.velez (google login)

[[JavaScript Tutorial|]]

~/node_modules/coffee-script/bin/coffee and cake

~/node_modules/js2coffee/bin/js2coffee  <input>  > <output>
~/node/tools/                                  (?)

[[coffee command options|]]

[[Coffeescript|]]  dwnl , doc and try online
[[js2coffee|]]  [[try online|]]
[[CoffeeKup|]] - HTML simplificado or [[Jade|]]

HAML & SASS a pair for simpler HTML-CSS 
[[HAML tutorial|]]
[[HAML-try online|]]
[[gedit systax|]]

[[haml-sucks-for-content|]] and so, use HAML + markup 
[[Compass|]] CSS Authoring [[screencast-334|]]

Scout, a GUI for Compass|]]

[[Normalize.css|]] instead of compass?

[[coffeescript gedit snippets|]]

coffeeScript and caffeine
[[coffee-script Text-editor-plugins|]]
[[List of languages that compile to JS|]] coffeeScript and others derivatives

[[coffee-script Build-tools|]] ver [[Buildr|]] 
[[Astron Pulsars Course|]] 

[[ATNF Pulsar catalog|]]
[[Seven Pulsars in Binary Systems above the Spin-up Line|]]
[[Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation With Pulsars|]]
[[Pulsars ppt|]] with links

PSR J1909−3744 [[43 microseconds width pulse?|]] How ?
pulsar’s intrinsic spindown rate (P˙int) is non-negative  ??
[[Recycled Pulsars|]] Thesis by Bryan Anthony Jacoby

[[Pulsars-incoherent|]] 53 pag presentation

[[The 23 millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tucanae|]] dP/dt < 0
Currently, 10 out of the 16 pulsars with phase-coherent timing solutions are observed to have negative period derivatives (dP/dt < 0 ). Rather than being intrinsic to the pulsars, the most natural explanation for this apparent spin-up is the line-of-sight accelerations as the pulsars move within the gravitational potential of the cluster. Freire et al. (2001a) demonstrated that a simple King model potential was consistent with the observed period derivatives. Neglecting Galactic and proper motion terms we have ...

[[Soft Gamma Repeaters and Anomalous X-ray Pulsars: Together Forever|]] review 

[[The recent pulse period evolution of SMC X-1|]]  -dP/dt = 
google anomalous pulsars AXPs (unkown source of energy)
[[**AXP catalog**|]]
[[Colloquium: Comparison of Astrophysical and Terrestrial Frequency Standards|]]

[[Conference on pulsars|]] lots of papers 2004
google search p-pdot for images 
[[WP Orbits about the central mass |]]
[[Tests of GR|]]
[[math pages anomalous precessions|]]
 $$\frac{43}{5557} = 2\pi\frac{369.2\ km\ s^{−1}}{299792.458\ km\ s^{−1}}$$

!Upload an icon
<<tiddler spaceIcon>>
!Describe your space
If you haven't already done so, you should provide a brief decscription of yourself and what you're using this space for. To do this, just edit the [[SiteInfo]] tiddler (keeping the title the same of course).

!Change the title
<<tiddler spaceTitle>>
!Change the theme
<<tiddler colorScheme>>
!Change the menu
If you'd like to change the menu items along the top, you can edit the [[MainMenu]] tiddler.

!Change the default tiddlers
<<tiddler setDefaultTiddlers>>
!More Advanced customisations
If you know HTML and CSS, you can edit some or all of the following tiddlers to customise your space further:
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!If the rest masses changed ...
[[ANU-ASTRO1x|]]  2014-06-05
I do not know how you can justify a sentence of prof. Paul, I believe, in response to a question that I cannot find. 

**"If the rest masses changed, that would change the relative wavelength of different spectral lines by different amounts"** 

It seems to me that the spectral [energy levels][1] are proportional to the mass of the electron and to the constants $c$ and $\alpha$ and changing the rest mass of the electron and keeping the $\frac{m_e}{m_p}$ will generate a scaled spectrum, equivalent to that observed with the redshift.  

In case I am mistaken I have to give up my argument that larger atoms of the past justify the observed redshift.


a day ago
There is no straightforward equation for the energy levels of atoms or molecules. Some depend on the constants you mention, while others depend on them in a different way, while other still depend on different constants. A number of researchers have used this different dependence to look for (for example) changes in the fine structure constant α with time, by using the way it affects different lines by different amounts.
Simple lines (like the Balmer series for hydrogen) depend on the electrostatic attraction of electron to nucleus, balanced against the quantum mechanical nature of the electron - and hence their wavelengths are set by the balance between Planck's constant and the electric attraction. But then spin-flip lines like the 21cm line do not depend on this at all, instead being set by the magnetic dipoles of electrons and protons. And molecular lines (like CO or H2O) depend on the strength of the chemical bonds balanced against the atomic masses.
So the bottom line is - changing any one physical constant will affect different lines by different amounts. You could try to adjust multiple parameters in such a way as to keep the ratios of lines constant. This would be very difficult and probably impossible, though I'm not sure anyone has looked into it in detail. It would require quite a conspiracy on the part of nature to fool us...

HV Comment

Yes, I agree that it looks like a conspiracy. But it is possible to decode, if you want to follow my reasoning.  
As you said, altering one parameter as Narlikar and others did, the search was unsuccessfull.  

But if we scale physically the atom,  i.e. the Mass,Length,Time and the Charge units by the same amount the physical laws remain the same, i.e. they are insensitive to such variation. This fact is expectable because no property/law was derived from the absolute size of the atom and our measures are comparisons between atoms, ratios, without the help of any external reference.  

The Coulomb force, responsible for the small scale interactions as the molecular CO lines and 21cm line, as well as the universal gravitational law are also insensitive to the scaling: 
because the sum of the exponents is zero we see that scaling MLTQ by the same amount the Force is the same and thus the universe will not fall apart. The constants $c,\varepsilon_0,G$ being properties of the space should remain as such.  

All the information that we have from the past is the spectra of distant galaxies and the scientific framework is based on the interpretation that they are receding.  
But my interpretation, based on larger atoms in the past, can explain the space expansion, providing a cause for our measures. In physics we should not give up from the search of the whys.  
In the question on the why the atoms are shrinking you can note that the atoms have associated fields expanding at $c$ speed and they have energy, and as with the batteries the source must be slowly drained, even if in the lab we are blinded to such variation. This was not a question that the fathers of the Electromagnetism faced then because they assumed that the atoms were around since ever. 

It exists a formal study on this viewpoint, originated out of the academia with my modest contribution, showing  that a simple scaling relation $\alpha(t_S)=e^{−H_0\cdot t_S}$ justifies the observations. The $\alpha(t_S)$ is the scaling relation (not related to the constant alpha) and $t_S$ is an invariant time unit not dependent on the atom's size.  
I'm hoping that someday, someone with enough knowledge will read it and could say: in fact the universe is subtle, more than we expected. Let us see how can we distinguish between galaxies receding and atoms shrinking.  
[self-similar model of the Universe unveils the nature of dark energy][1]


In relation to $\alpha$ variation I'm aware of the work of Mr. Webb. 
Such $\alpha$ variation remains unexplained under the actual framework and Mr. Webb, and certanly others, are trying to figure out what kind of variation of the laws permit that.  
In his 1998 paper - A Search for Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant he probed the nuclear multiplet of Mg and the variable value of alpha could be explained if, in his own words ...  
>  a significant change in the isotopic ratios could explain the observations. ...  
and a physical mechanism found to convert almost all the 26Mg into 24Mg by the present epoch.  

The mechanism is presently unknown although I have an hint: the nuclear formulas involve the ratio Mass/Volume and such a variation could show that the Valley of Stability could have been slightly different in the past.  
I dont know for now, but I'm expecting such, that similar problems would arise on the ratios of some other elements, for instance the D/H ratio.   

by HV
[[ANU-ASTRO1x|]] local/global expansion
You have explained that objects which are "gravitationally bound" such as our solar system, or even our local galaxy group are immune to the stretching of space.

It has been considered that the space does not expand locally because we have no direct evidence of this. The required precision is higher than available by now. On the other hand, no one knows how to calculate an orbit in space expansion. The standard model is incompatible with local gravitational fields and is valid only on a scale where the distribution of matter can be considered uniform and isotropic. It is not the space that expands locally, is the standard model that is not valid locally. 

The following text is directly related to some of the theoretical concerns of the question and it is based on a document that I'm previewing, (lucky me):  

Soon it will be made ​​public the Evolutionary Climate Model (ECM) that shows that the orbits expand at a rate of $2H_0$ thus justifying the Earth's hot past climate, favorable to the emergence of life, the Mars hot past, $\delta^{18}O$ evolution among other facts.  

a snippet:  

> So, the attentions focused on the ephemerides analyses; however,
> several more years of measurements are required. The mains reasons are
> the complex treatment of measured values (see Pitjeva, 2013), the
> limited accuracy of measurements, especially for the determination of
> the variation of orbits (Falkner, 2010), the complexity of the model
> (more than 260 parameters, as mentioned in Pitjeva, 2011) and the
> absence of a theory supporting expanding orbits. ...  
>  It is worth mentioning that Krasinky & Brumberg (2004), considering
> that “the effects of expanding uniform Universe do not involve any
> measurable effects in the motion of the major planets”, have found,
> within such paradigm, **an increase of Earth-Sun distance of $15\pm 4 \ m/cy$
> , a value ruling out invariant orbits but too low for a
> cosmological orbital expansion.** ...  
>  In sec. X it is shown that the ECM accurately fits $\delta^{18}O$  data, which
> is a first important confirmation of it. The following sections
> analyze relevant consequences of the model, namely the Great
> Oxygenation Event, the formation of dolomite and of long organic
> molecules; they rule out any model of the past climate colder than the
> one here built. Possible explanations for other occurrences are also
> presented. In Appendix I it is presented a short summary of the
> self-similar dilation model and in Appendix II it is calculated the
> orbital expansion.  ...  
> The above impasse changed with the presentation of the [self-similar
 dilation model (Oliveira, 2011)][1], which predicts expanding orbits at
> the rate of $2H_0$ while being compatible with fundamental physical laws
> (reminding us of how subtle the universe can be). Although not an
> accepted model by now, it establishes the theoretical possibility of
> expanding orbits **without conflicting with laws and measurements, as
> the invariance of the value of GM holds**. This is enough for allowing
> the building of a warm model for Earth past climate that cannot be
> dismissed for having no theoretical support – only its compliance with
> evidences is relevant.


[[ANU-ASTRO1x|]] If anyone has a question for Prof. Brian Schmidt...

Q HV One question still has no answer:  Why is the space expanding.   

Whereas the cause of the expansion of space is presently unknown and that the measurement units Length , Mass , Charge and Time are based on the size of the atoms without any external reference.  

**Does larger Atoms in the past , compared with the current , emit at longer wavelengths?**

**Can this decrease in measures , ie atoms , be an explanation for the cause of the expansion of space and the justification of redshift?**

Another possible formulation of the question is whether it makes sense to assign an absolute fixed size to the atom, to the extent that there is no law that imposes limits on the size of the space / universe.

If the question on the why the atoms are shrinking you can make a note that the atoms have associated fields that have energy expanding at $c$ speed.  

*And now my propaganda* (*):  
A formal study has been done on the issue and claiming that a simple scaling relation $\alpha ( t_s ) = e^{-H_0\cdot t_S}$ justifies the observations of the universe without the need for Dark Energy, nor the expansion of space, nor the inflationary period. This model shows that the laws of physics remain unchanged and the values ​​of $c,G,\varepsilon$ are actually kept constant.  

In this model the planetary orbits are increasing in size at a rate $2H_0$, thus allowing a hot model for the Earth's past, energetically favorable for the origin of life. This hot model will be soon available to the public.  

[The self-similar model of the Universe unveils the nature of dark energy][1] 

(*) I am interested party but I am not the author.  
Helder Velez.

[Voids (images)][1] = Bubbles
The [voids (WP)][2] are the larger structures in the universe. And they are mostly spherical and depleted of matter, showing intersections with other voids in the present universe.  If we measure the proper motions of the galaxies (in clusters, superclusters (and filaments)) that make the outer shell of the voids, were matter concentrates, we will see a direct relation with their size ( diameter of void ) i.e. the bigger they are the bigger the proper motions. Those proper motions are directed away from the centre of the void as matter flew away from it. At the interior of the voids sometimes we can have QSO's (quasars).  This is the actual observations that terraqueous inhabitants can observe in the universe. From now on I will advance an alternative  justification for the voids and the quasars that, afaik, is consistent with the above observations.  
It can be shown (I can put a link to the equations and images if required) that using only gravity and begining with an homogeneous background at temperature 0ºK any under-density region will develop as a void with an accelerated rate of growing.  We can use intuition:  in an isodense universe any atom is atracting all the universe into it and the universe remains static. But if matter is not there than all the universe becames unbalanced and will depart away from that hole (think of a growing defect in the crystal silk socks of women - image bellow)
Smaller voids that grew in the vicinity of older (and bigger) voids are swallowed and integrated by them.  The intersection of six or more neighbourhood voids of similar sizes shows a curious pattern: an hollow star,  formed by high speed matterial fastly swirling in a vortex - 'not under a central force',  will appear at the centre of the intersection  formed with the parts of the previous voids that are closer to the centre and the outer parts of the shells, more distant of the centre, will develop as an exterior outer shell of a bigger void.  Those are the Quasars, that possess mass/energy output and spectra contents and variability consistent whith this description.   ![growing defect in the crystal silk socks of women][3].   
A paper is in the forge to present this alternative viewpoint of the evolution of the large scale structures in the universe, up to the galaxies, were DM nor SMBHs are not needed. That new model is based only upon actual data and follows the document were the 'space expansion' is equated to 'shrinking matter' . The question of the primordial universe started in a hot or cold state is only derived from the model and it it not derived from any observation (afaik).  

This toy universe is young because there are no visible intersections between voids. 

The End of Darkness in Cosmology
''Geometric Algebra resources''
[[Classical Physics with geometric algebra |]]
[[GA in Python (and Sage) |]]

[[Imaginary Numbers are not Real - the Geometric Algebra of Spacetime|]]
[[Selected Papers on Geometric Algebra in Quantum Mechanics|]]
[[Modelling 3D Euclidean geometry|]]
[[ |]] 
[[Geometric Algebra for Computer Science |]] code, contains many sections and chapters on programming with GA. You may download the accompanying source code from these pages.
''[[Geometric Algebra,A Unifieded Language for Physics and Engeneering |]]''
''[[Geometric Algebra for Physicists|]]'' Introduction
''[[Geometric Algebra and its Application to Mathematical Physics|]]'' Chris Thesis
''[[A Lecture Course in Geometric Algebra |]]'' online lectures
''[[Geometric Calculus|]]'' Research and Development, very good site
''[[GA-Maths for (Games) Programmers |]]''
''[[Fotonica - Algebra Geometrica|]]'' (pt)
''[[Oersted Medal Lecture 2002: Reforming the Mathematical Language of Physics |]]'' Hestenes
''[[Spacetime Physics with Geometric Algebra|]]'' Hestenes
''[[Gauge Theory Gravity with Geometric Calculus|]]'' Hestenes
''[[Clifford Algebras and their Applications to Physics|]]''   Andrew Silberfarb (tex, use TexWorks to make pdf)
''[[Classification of Multivector Theories and the Modification of the Postulates of Physics|]]''  
''[[Should Metric Signature Matter in Clifford Algebra Formulations of Physical Theories?|]]'' Pezzaglia

''[[The Zitterbewegung Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics|]]''

''[[The Physical Origin of Electron Spin |]]'' Milo Wolff (caution possible crack) interesting viewpoint  not GA

!''[[Solar system]]''


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''[[Simbad|]]'' search data on celestial bodies with the proper tools.
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[[bsp file for NEAR|]] SPK data

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. For Sun orbiting objects, just select a center of @10 (Sun), vector output, and eclip for the reference plane.

Ephemeris Type [change] : 	VECTORS
Target Body [change] : 	Dawn Spacecraft [-203]
Coordinate Origin [change] : 	Solar System Barycenter (SSB) [500@0]
Time Span [change] : 	Start=2008-01-01, Stop=2015-04-08, Step=1 d
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''[[Skyview , Nasa |]]'' a Virtual Observatory on the Net  
''[[WWT World Wide Telescope |]]''  Microsoft 

''simulation and presentations''  
''[[Celestia|]]''  free space simulation that lets you explore our universe in three dimensions.  
''[[astrolab|]]''  presentations_astronomiques (FR)
Stableorbit started out as two programs, a Genetic Algorithm and a 3D solar system visualiser (named 'GA' and 'planetarium' respectively). The Genetic Algorithm uses stochastic methods to find long lasting (stable) solar system configurations. Through repeated mutations and simulations GA pushes a population of solar systems, each containing one or more stars and multiple planets towards long-term stability. The planetary systems can then be displayed in 3D using our planetarium tool.

[[Geometric Algebra]] GA 
[[Particle Physics]]


''[[Dark Matter: A Primer|]]'' review

[[Lots of links |]]
[[Planning Algorithms|]] 800 pgs, motion, motion, motion 

[[Galileo and Einstein|]] very interesting book by Michael Fowler , Text for Physics 109, Fall 2009

''[['Physics Quest' Understanding Relativistic Quantum Field Theory by Hans de Vries |]]''    
I love this  'book in progress' to understand ''Special Relativity'', and beyond. To see how a real Lorentz contraction do happen (ch. 4) and [[how magnetic field is ''induced''  by electrostactic field and Non-simultaneity (it is like a Coriollis effect|]])  

''[['Light and Matter' by Benjamin Crowell- |]]''  [[ and General Relativity |]]

''[['Electromagnetic Field Theory' by Bo Thidé|]]''   - advanced Electrodynamics textbook

''[[HyperPhysics|]]''  - //everything//, in short.

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''[[physics made easy|]]''

''[[the physics hypertextbook|]]'' detailed online book, very interesting Work in Progress

''[['Relativity - The Special and General Theory' by Albert Einstein (1920)|]]''

''[[Feynman lectures I-II-III single pdf|]] ''
[[Feynman Lectures Vol I mechanics, radiation and heat|]]
[[Feynman Lectures Vol II electromagnetism and matter |]]
[[Feynman Lectures Vol III quantum mechanics |]]

''[[Newtonian Dynamics |]]'' Richard Fitzpatrick book (Austin univ)  
''[[Wikipedia Physics|]]''  a portal to start digging. A colaborative gigantic work. 

''[[WikiBooks –SR|]]''  a textbook on Relativity. 

''[[WikiSource - Relativity Portal|]]''  find here 'The Measure of Time' by Henri Poincaré and many other original sources.

''[[Stanford Encyclopedia of Phylosophy|]]''  a plethora of info related to physics (for ex.[[singularities|]])

''[[The Physics of Waves|]]''  by HOWARD GEORGI of Harvard and ''[[program |]]''
''[[The Physics of Ocean Waves (for physicists and surfers)|]]'', by Michael Twardos at UCI
''[[Photonics - The Basics and Applications|]]'' 92 pages , University of Pennsylvania
''[[Inverse Problem Theory and Methods for Model Parameter Estimation|]]'' 333 pages by Albert Tarantola
''[[Strings, Waves, Drums: Spectra and Inverse Problems |]]''

''[[Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light|]]'' 305 pages, Joannopoulos et al, Princeton Univ Press

''[[NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY|]]'' Chalmers univ, (viewable)

''[[An Introduction to Radioactivity|]]'' 20 pages

!''journals open access and online collections''
[[HAL archives-ouvertes|]] 
[[WP List of repositories|]]
[[hal-ird |]] Archive Ouverte HAL-IRD 
[[hal-ird  manual|]]
[[portal de arquivos abertos|]] 

''[[Directory of Open Access Journals|]]''  free, full text, quality controlled scientific and scholarly journals (6286, been 2735 searchable at article level). 
''[[MathPages|]]''   - lectures on various subjects in ''physics'' and mathematics.

''[[livingreviews journal|]]''  articles by invitaton on relativity and beyond  

''[[livingreviews blog|]]''        about the journal articles

''[[|]]'' research on the ''electromagnetic quantum vacuum''

!''sources to use with precaution''


''[[ARXIV|]]''   door to papers that I cannot afford (sometimes good ideas), Cornell univ controlled  
I follow this archive thru this MIT's blog [[The Physics arXiv Blog|]] 

''[[VIXRA|]]''  free to post the ugly, the bad, the crazy, and sometimes good ideas

''[[Hyper Articles en Ligne|]]'' HAL


''[[|]]''  Access to a //world// of original digitized books, and much more.  
''[[NASA ADS|]]''  Absctract Data Service [[search|]]  
''[[Scribd|]]''   a generic social publishing site where I find books (scientific/technical) with full or partial access.  
''[[|]]''   from the giant that is changing the observable universe of Human beings  
''[[Cosmos Portal|]]''  of Digital Library
''[[Encyclopedia of Earth|]]'' of Digital Library

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''[[Richard Feynman - Science Videos|]]''  - 4 original videos (recorded at Auckland)  arguably the greatest science lecturer ever. 

[[Walter Lewin Lectures on Physics|]] MIT excelente

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[[calculus online book|]]  ilegal, me parece
find pdf Introductory Differential Equations using Sage 

[[The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing|]] BOOK FFT

[[Linear systems and optimization - the Fourier Transform and its applications |]] 30 online lessons on FFT and data analisys

''math and physics online tools:''
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''[[CluViz/CluCalc 3D|]]''  very intuitive visualizations and scientific calculations using ''Geometric Algebra''
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''[[OpenModelica|]]'' Physical modeling and simulation environment
[[modelica library docs |]] at
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''[[aqua gpu sph |]]
!''Scy Frameworks''
''[[Enthought|]]  Enthought Tool Suite to construct custom scientific applications


!''[[Astronomy and astrophysics]]''

!''other resources'' 
[[AST100H Prof. Brooks Lectures|]]

''[[Kirk McDonald page at|]]''  a handfull of resources on EM,QED,QM (+-5Gb ;-) 
''[[resources look here|]] /EP, etc 

''[[Springerlink's LaTeXsearch|]]'' you can search articles by using latex formulas input

 The present theory presents a necessary but not sufficient Keplerian solution which it compares with Le Verrier's and Einstein's theories''

[[Fitzpatric book|]] perihelium 
$$43/5557=2*pi*V/300000\rightarrow V=369.46 km/s$$ that is close to the absolute speed of the Earth through space = 369\(\pm\)(.09) (a big match \(\simeq\) 99.9%)

potential energy, , of our planet in the Sun's gravitational field takes the form 
\(U(r)=-GMm/r\) eq. 214
total energy of our planet is a conserved quantity 
\(\varepsilon=v^2/2-Gm/r\) eq. 215
\(\varepsilon\)  is actually the planet's total energy per unit mass, and \(\vec{h}=\vec{r}\times \vec{v}\)  is the planet's angular momentum per unit mass, is constant in time. 
Then with dot r we got \(\vec{h}\cdot \vec{r}=0\) eq. 217
Polar coordinates 
\(\vec{e}(r)=(\cos \theta ,\sin \theta )\) 
\(\vec{e}(\theta)=(-\sin \theta ,\cos \theta )\)

\(\vec{v}=\dot{r}\vec{e}_r+\vec{r}\dot{\theta} \vec{e}_\theta\)  eq 223 ..
\(\vec{a}=-GM/r^2\vec{e}_r\) is the acceleration
radial equation of motion :        \( \ddot{r}-\vec{r}\dot{\theta}^2=-GM/r^2 \)  eq 228
tangential equation of motion:    \(r\ddot{\theta}+2\dot{r}\dot{\theta}=0\)
from 215 e 223 the total energy per unit mass of an object in orbit is...
an elliptical orbit, whose major radius  is \(a\) finite is
\(\varepsilon= -GM/2a\)
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[[solution kaggle competition|]]

Helder Velez
[[ANU-ASTRO1x|]] A teasing question about space expansion interpretation
Certainly all the *measures* are showing that the space is expanding.  
A distinction from 'the measure' and the correspondent amount of space is imperative.   
The statement 'space expands' is based in the presumption, never proved, that the unit of measure is invariant.  
We measure with atomic properties. Lengt/hmass/charge/time units, and all other derived quantities, are dependent on the actual/local and present size of the atoms.  
It can be shown(*) that larger atoms in the past provide a model of the universe evolution whitout space expansion and whithout Dark Energy.  

We forget that the atoms are radiating gravitational and electrostatic energy away from them, at $c$ speed, since their begining and this fact is a well motivated reason for the **shrinking of matter**.  In the lab it is impossible to measure this effect. 

In short: 'space expansion' is the consequence of a wrong viewpoint and 
DE is an artifact of the wrong model.  

Anyone is welcome to show, with physics/math arguments, that I'm wrong. Until then I keep saying that the consensus interpretation is bad physics.  
(As an eng. I can never accept a model that is 95% misalligned with data).    

(*) [A self-similar model of the Universe unveils the nature of dark energy][1]


my comment

About the naming $\alpha$ - after from eq. 5 :

> The symbol $\alpha$ represents **also** the fine structure constant but the
> danger of confusion seems negligible.

In the paper $\alpha(t_S) = e^{-H_0\cdot t_S}$ is the scaling law of the Universe (derived in the first 10 eqs) with no ad-hoc hypoteses, starting with two postulates (page 8): 

 1. the values of $\varepsilon,G,c$ are constants
 2. with atomic units we measure an expansion of space

The initial part of the paper provides a rationale about the process of measuring, making the distinction from *a measure* and the corresponding physical amount. For the same amount the measure is determined by the variation of the units of measure.  
The analysys of the variations of a system must be done observing it from the outside and two system of units are used in the paper. One system has units based in atomic properties (they are the usual units that we use). The other system of units are invariant, attached to space much like comoving coordinates.  
$t_S$ is the time invariant unit and in figure 1 , page 9, we see that there is an infinit time for a reference observer, that translates to a finite time in the perspective of the atomic observer (us).  

$H_0$ is the only parameter needed to describe the whole evolution starting from an infinite and homogeneous universe.
Starting with the bulk equations of matter and field (page 3) he shows that the gravitational and electromagnetic interactions are the same  whatever atoms's size. If the atoms get shrinking  the units L,M,T,C  change identically in sync under the scaling law.   
(from dimensional analisys of $F=ma=GmM/d^2$ and $F=ma=k qQ/d^2$)  
$[h]=$... and $[\sigma]=$...

The main finding of Alfredo can be summed here:   
> The equations of field constants ($\varepsilon,G,c$) display a
> peculiar characteristic: the summation of exponents of the dimension
> function of each field constant is zero!

(-1+3-2=0 and -1+2-3+2=0) 
By eq 10 he proved that the scaling law for the variation of the units is the above exponential relation in $H_0$ and proved that not only the universe **can** scale with the atom's size but **it must** scale.

The exponential decay is the expected relation when the effect is proportional to the source (think of radioactivity). The paper do not pretend to explain the why of the evanescence of matter (the BB do not explain why) but you I can think at least of 3 whys:  
Consider the creation of a pair electro/positron originated by the collision of two gamma rays: previously to the event that was no electrostatic field at a x distance, and after that we can measure it. Fields have energy that propagate away and that puts others particles in motion. If later the pair got annihilated the motion will not revert. If we want to say that energy is conserved then we must drain some from the pair.  
The energy associated to electromagnetic/gravitic fields is an integral over all the space, from distance 0+ to $\infty$ , in spite that under standard assumptions there is no such thing as infinite past time - the authors of electromagnetism did not know that. Now if we put this knowledge in that equations the energy of the field have a growing value. At expense of what ? The particle is the source of the field and the answer is obvious.  
Second way: matter in motion radiate energy : page 526 of online motionmountain book : Gedanken by Jørgen Kalckar and Ole Ulfbeck (reference inside the book)
Third way: charges in accelerated motion radiate energy (it is not hard to understand that uniform motion is only an approximation)

The vacuum has energy is a well known fact. It receives energy from the particles and in some distant future particles will be created again from the vacuum.  The universe being infinite in time and in extension is a well substitute for the act of creation and Spinoza figured it : One substance ! 
This model only needs one parameter instead of the 6 of standard model. The cosmological time dilation was 'discovered' in 1998 (?) and patched in the theory along with DE. The Inflation era (no physical laws) was 'found' in ... and patched, and space grows from no known cause, and,...
This new model, that I know since 1991, do not need any additional data besides the matter/radiation we observe. The observational data we have shows an uniform flat universe and anything we say that happened before is 'if..'. I can show that the effects that motivate the DM can be explained (a longer post and links, if you wish) 

I will use metaphores to explain the whole concept:  
Fill a graduated a bottle with water (vacuum/space) and inside put a handful of equal sized candies (the atoms).  If we measure any distance inside the bottle with candy's length we can observe that the distances are becoming greater and greater as candies are dissolving in the water (the so called space expansion). If we measure distances whith the bottle units (invariant space units) than the distances are constant.  Can I say that the water/space is created ? No comments.  
Another metaphore: I'm adult now and I need 20 steps to cross the same road that I used to cross in 100 steps in my childhood.    
The fact is that we measure with atoms and we have no reference to compare with except one with the others. 
This is why I'm so confident that no scientist will ever step forward to claim that my viewpoint is wrong. (everyone has been silent). 
Under this model, that contrary to SM apply to all scales, the distance Sun-Earth is increasing and the Earth is freezing. Science puts the origin of life in an unhealty frozen Earth (younger fainter Sun) and this model provides a convenient hot environment.   
Today we make a measure of the H 21cm line in Angstroms or $nm$ (whatever unit) and we find it to have the same value of yesterday measure. Good. Do we have a way to show that the atoms have the same size as yesterday? NO, because the instrumentation also changed.   
In physics there is a known *principle*: If it can be that way then it will happen.   

My relation with physics changed back in 1991 when by fortunate chance I found a written page in the garbage basket.  Suddenly the universe became coherent with conservation of energy. The standard consensus is naif, based on a first answer, that prompted a handfull of posterior patches.  
Forgive any error in the writing because I'm not an english speaker, and I'm not using the spell checker and above all I'm human : error prone.  
If you have any doubt in your mind just ask and I'will try to explain.  

My comment 
under SM this is not true: 

> For 1 thing, particles to not live for the entire duration of a universe. So they do degrade but I think that is already known within the current picture.

only if there is a way to show that I'm wrong 
> I wished there was one of those smart professors discussing with us.
In that model gravity is not needed, nor the Cosmological constant.  

To me this unexpected [Space roar][1] unsolved mystery is good news: The model offers an 'infinite' time and bigger atoms that certainly produced a lot of radiation on longer wavelengths.  

In the future it will be known that the astrononical unit (au) is increasing beyond any present model prediction, (rumors and contradictions for now).  

SM has 6 parameters, does not apply to space near galaxies, inserts gravity in a curved space but all the measures say 'flat' (planck 2013 results). In contrast I've 1 parameter, no gravity is needed in a flat universe, no Cosmological Constant, no DE, no Inflation Era, no BB and it applys to all scales.  

If some respect exists in relation to a formal proof then there is no need to beleive. Just check the correctness of the proof inside the paper (2 postulates and the first 10 eqs). If it is incorrect then say why. Easy math and basic physics (that probably you already understand).  

Centre yourself in the analogy of the candies.
The space observer do not expand. He has constant (invariant in time) units:in the bottle analogy he is outside of the graduated bottle with a clock wall. He observes the shrinking of the candies and the variation of the units derived from candie's size. In the real world we live inside of the bottle and we are made of candies/atoms and we have to measure increasing distances inside the bottle/universe. The amount of space did not increased as confirmed by the exterior space observer, only the measure of distance by the in bottle livings: the ruler is shortening and we are not aware of it because there is no way to keep in the pocket the ruler of yesterday to compare with the one of today.  

The original idea in this model is not about a direct translation of the measures into equations as the naive SM did.  
It starts with the original intuition that the universe has an intrinsic scaling property. By scaling or better, dilation, is meant: how can the universe evolve and appear to be always the same? i.e. obbey always to the same set of equations inspite of the evolution? 
Standard physics only know the bulk equations in the atomic referential. When they say 'other universes with other laws' they do not know noting about that, zero.  
This model shows a more general form of the bulk equations as seen by another refential, the space invariant referential, detached from the problems induced by the measuring devices (atoms).  
Whith this model we have answers, causes and consequences, conservation, no darkness, no laws breaking (inflation and BB singularity). Compare: Why the space is expanding? NO answer at all.  

About the temperature: this a measure of kinetic energy in a system with collisions. In the other post, where I show that a model without DM and SMBHs is possible, the temperature starts at 0K and will increase in time via the gravitational interaction. 
Think on the energy in the universe as the whole of water in the sea: the surface waves (analog of photons and gravity) can transmit energy from place to place, the undersurface water is replected of energy but it is *still* and is not contributing to the evolution of the system.  Our sensors measure variations, they are photons sensitive, and we have no way to measure the *undersurface* energy, nor energy density.  
What is this *undersurface* energy? Take a proton/electron, still in the medium, it radiates electrostatic/gravitational energy and other proton/electron around will be put in motion. 
Now put an atom (a proton shielded by its electron) and we do not measure any electrostatic. Can we decide that there is no electrostatic because we can not measure it or that both are radiating? My bet is that both are radiating and perhaps I can use a similar tought in relation to the neutron. 
The space whithout matter/radiation has no geometry. Even with matter/radiation the geometry is imposed (a result of) by the *fields*. We use fields to measure and we, by mistake, .. a long talk. A lot of physicists can only look to equations and forget the general principle: a consequence has to have a cause, without exception. The working solution that solve any problem is 'an explosion' or collision or dark/blackness. Ignorance has many faces.   

[[Wikibooks- Celestia1.6.0|]]
[[A (not so) Brief Introduction to Celestia Addons (3rd edition)|]]  

[[SkyMarvels|]] exoplanets

[[Stars and planets file generator for Celestia|]] ~GenCelestia

[[celestia guide|]]

[[Celestia Scripting Stuff|]]
[[CELX in Celestia|]]

[[Cham addons and scripts|]] WMAP, Vitesse Sol and many others

[[SDSS and Celestia and FoG Fingers of God, with SDSS data and perl script|]]

[[WP - Hyperfine structure|]]

[[WP - Deuterium |]]
[[Deuterium in a Halo Cloud of the Milky Way |]] 2004 Sembach

[[Discussion A: On the abundance of deuterium in the local interstellar medium and in high-redshift systems|]]
[[FUSE data|]]
[[Fuse - The Deuterium Puzzle Solved?   |]]

[[on book What the D/O ratio |]]
[[FUSE docs|]]
[[NED: The Primordial Deuterium Abundance|]]

[[Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Survey of the Local Interstellar Medium within 200 Parsecs|]]

[[The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system|]]
[[Origin of water in the solar system is interstellar|]]

[[FUSE Deuterium Observations: A Strong Case ForGalactic Infall|]] 

[[Deuterium and the baryonic density of the universe|]] 2000

[[Metal abundances in the high-redshif|]] arxiv Michele  Fumagalli

[[The Deuterium-to-Hydrogen Abundance Ratio toward the QSO SDSS|]] 

[[Constraints on the gas masses of low-z damped Lyman-α systems|]] 2014/06
no evidence for a redshifted Hi 21cm emission signal was obtained in the GBT spectra of two absorbers, ...

[[Discussion A: On the abundance of deuterium |]]
Discussion A: On the abundance of deuterium in the local interstellar mediumand in high-redshift systems Monica Tosi 

[[Symposium S268 (Light Elements in the Universe) - 2009|]] 

[[What the D/O ratio tells us about the interstellar abundance of deuterium?|]] 


fig 7 -- [[SS bodies D/H abundance|]]

[[WP deuterium|]]
Because deuterium is destroyed in the interiors of stars faster than it is produced, and because other natural processes are thought to produce only an insignificant amount of deuterium
..about 26 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogen atoms) has its origin from that time. This is the ratio found in the gas giant planets, such as Jupiter..
discovery of deuterium/protium ratios in a number of comets very similar to the mean ratio in Earth's oceans (156 atoms of deuterium per million hydrogens) has led to theories that much of Earth's ocean water has a cometary origin.[2][3] The deuterium/protium ratio of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as measured by the Rosetta space probe is about three times that of earth water, a figure that is the highest yet measured in a comet.[4] 
..Deuterium comprises 0.0026 – 0.0184% (by population, not by mass) of hydrogen samples on Earth, with the lower number tending to be found in samples of hydrogen gas and the higher enrichment (0.015% or 150 ppm) typical of ocean water. Deuterium on Earth has been enriched with respect to its initial concentration in the Big Bang and the outer solar system (about 27 ppm, by atom fraction) and its concentration in older parts of the Milky Way galaxy (about 23 ppm). Presumably the differential concentration of D in the inner solar system is due to the lower volatility of deuterium gas and compounds, enriching deuterium fractions in comets and planets exposed to significant heat from the Sun over billions of years of solar system evolution...
[[67P/Churyumov Comet (Rosetta/ Philae mission)|]]
The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen in the water from the comet was determined to be three times that found for terrestrial water. This makes it unlikely that water found on Earth came from comets such as Churyumov–Gerasimenko
[[Geomagnetism: Theories of Since 1900 |]] American Geophysical Union

[[Earth's Magnetic Field: From Satellites to Reversals|[]]  58 min video lesson
IMPRIMIR [[Magnetism of planet Earth|]]

[[Magnetic monitoring of Earth and space |]]
Note, in particular, the abrupt changes, or jerks, in the rate of secular variation, around 1970

[[NPL 2.7.6 Geomagnetism  |]]
equations and theory

[[The Earths's Magnetism : an introduction for Geologists |]] online book 
[[The Earth's Magnetic Field: An Overview|]]

[[FAQs Geomagnetism Frequently Asked Questions |]] 

[[The IGRF Model|]] The International Geomagnetic Reference Field

[[Essentials of Paleomagnetism: Web Edition 1.0 (March 18, 2009)|]] online book
''Earth Magnetic Field''
[[ PmagPy |  ]] 
> The PmagPy software package is a comprehensive set of programs for paleomagnetists and rock magnetists
[[MAGIC |]] Magnetics Information Consortium (~MagIC)
>Promoting information technology infrastructures for the international paleomagnetic, geomagnetic and rock magnetic community.

[[WP Earth's magnetic field |'s_magnetic_field]]  with the variations since last reversal indicate that the magnetic field could have shifted at a rate of ''up to 6 degrees per day'' at some time in Earth's history, which ''significantly challenges the popular understanding of how the Earth's magnetic field works''

>The two poles 'wander independently of each other'' and are not at directly opposite positions on the globe. Magnetic dip pole can migrate rapidly: movements of up to 40 km per year have been observed for the North Magnetic Pole.

[[SIO229 Gravity and Geomagnetism|]] curso, including 

[[The geomagnetic power spectrum|]]

[[IM Portugal, medidas geomagnetismo |]] 

O campo magnético terrestre é uma grandeza com caracter vectorial, isto é em cada ponto do espaço tem uma direcção e uma dimensão. 
Para descrever inequivocamente o campo são necessários três grandezas, como por exemplo:
a intensidade de três componentes ortogonais (X,Y e Z) ou
a intensidade do campo total e dois ângulos (F, D e I) ou
a intensidade de duas componentes e um ângulo (H, Z e D).
> Em qualquer ponto de observação utiliza-se um referencial cartesiano em que as direções X e Y estão respetivamente coincidentes com os paralelos e meridianos geográficos. A direção Z está alinhada na vertical. Assim temos que:
F é a intensidade total do vetor do campo magnético
H é a componente horizontal do vetor do campo
Z é a componente vertical do vetor do campo e é por convenção positivo para baixo
X é a componente Norte-Sul do campo magnético
Y é a componente Este-Oeste do campo magnético
D é a Declinação magnética definida pelo o ângulo entre o Norte geográfico e o Norte magnético (componente H) e é por convenção positivo para Este
I é a Inclinação magnética definida pelo o ângulo entre o plano horizontal e o vetor do campo magnético e é por convenção positivo em direção a F.
D e I são grandezas medidas em graus (º). 
As restantes componentes são medidas em 'nanotesla' (nT; 1 nT = 10-9Tesla = 10-5Gauss). 
Os sete elementos que caracterizam o campo magnético terrestre podem ser expressas matematicamente da seguinte maneira.
D=arctan(Y/X)	I=arctan(Z/H)	H=((X**2+Y**2))½	X=H.cos(D)	Y=H.sen(D)	F=((X**2+Y**2+Z**2))½
A intensidade do campo total (F) varia entre cerca de 24 000 nT numa área da América do Sul e cerca de 66 000 nT numa área entre a Antártica e a Austrália. Em Portugal Continental e no Arquipélago dos Açores varia atualmente em redor dos 44 000 nT, no Arquipélago da Madeira à volta dos 40 000 Nt.

[[Brunhes–Matuyama reversal|]]

[[data BGS data |]] ''hourly online download from three stations !!''
[[MAGNETIC DATA FORMAT|]] Format description for world-wide magnetic survey data [[conditions of use|]]
>uggested Acknowledgement Text (template 1)
>The results presented in this paper rely on data collected at magnetic observatories. We thank the national institutes that support them and INTERMAGNET for promoting high standards of magnetic observatory practice (

[[Hartland |]]
Hartland       Magnetic Observatory - 50.995° N	355.516° E
Eskdalemuir Magnetic Observatory - 55.317° N	356.800° E
Lerwick         Magnetic Observatory - 60.133° N	358.816° E

[[Geomagnetic Data Master Catalogue|]] ALL DATA ? I can't beleive ! 
[[INTERMAGNET data |]] 
[[list of INTERMAGNET observatories|]]
''AMS  (Martin de Vivies-Amsterdam Island)   
- Colatitude 127.800	 East Longitude 77.570''
= Latitude 127.8 -90 = 27.8º South, Longitude 77.570
AMS	37º47'47'' S	77º34'19'' E	''58	19''
MMB	Memambetsu	Colatitude 46.090	 East Longitude 144.190 

	CoLatit	LAT	LON	I	J	
Hartland		51N	355E	30	20	
Lerwick		60N	358E	3	15	
Eskdalemuir		55N	357E	30	18	
AMS	127,8	37,8 S	77,57	43	26	
MMB	46,09	43,91	144,19	55	23	
TRW		-43.267°N	294.617°E			

[[European geomagnetic station network |]] with links
[[DK data|]]
[[British Geological Survey |]] Geomagnetism 
The geomagnetic field has a regular small variation with a fundamental period of 24 hours...
Another important pattern is the 27-day recurrence of some storms related to the 27-day rotation of the Sun as seen from Earth.
[[EARTH: MAGNETIC FIELD AND MAGNETOSPHERE|]] model with components 1997 C T Russel
[[EARTH’S MAGNETIC FIELD|]]  Susan Macmillan (chapter)
[[Earth’s Magnetic Field and Climate Variability|]] Solar modulation
[[Earth's Magnetic Field|]] model with components and Code
[[IGRF Code|]] Frortran Code ( Official )
[img[surface variation of mag.field|]]
[[some data|]]

North Magnetic Pole is moving continually northwestward. In 1996 an expedition certified its location by magnetometer and theodolite at 78°35.7′N 104°11.9′W.[8] Its estimated 2005 position was 82.7°N 114.4°W, to the west of Ellesmere Island in Canada.[9] During the 20th century it moved 1100 km, and since 1970 its rate of motion has accelerated from 9 km/year to approximately 41 km/year, or 1.3 mm/sec (2001–2003 average; see also ''Polar drift''). 

This general movement ''is in addition to a daily or diurnal variation in which the North Magnetic Pole describes a rough ellipse'', with a maximum deviation of 80 km from its mean position.[10] This effect is ''due to disturbances of the geomagnetic field by charged particles from the Sun''.

|North Magnetic Pole [9]	|(2001) 81.3°N 110.8°W	|(2004 est) 82.3°N 113.4°W	|(2005 est) 82.7°N 114.4°W|
|South Magnetic Pole [11]	|(1998) 64.6°S 138.5°E.	|(2004 est) 63.5°S 138.0°E|

[[Common effect of geomagnetism and change of moon phases...|]]
>A correlation was found between the summarized values of horizontal component change of the geomagnetic field-strength measured at night, and the amount of light-trap catches of fall webworm moth (Hyphantria cunea Drury). It was stated that the change of geomagnetic field strength significantly, but in the various moon-phases differently, influces the catches. On this basis of above tests a new hypothesis has been elaborated for the spatial orientation of insects. Results of the study may be used in plant protection forecasting too.

+magnetic field +tides
[[Tides induced magnetic field in the solar system|]] 2011 , MHD model 
> . Finally, we present our first steps towards demonstrating the existence of a tidal dynamo 

[[Electric and Magnetic Fields Induced by Deep Sea Tides|]] 2010/Nov
> A lunar semidiurnal variation (12·4206 h period) induced by tides in the deep ocean is demonstrated in (i) a month's observations of the horizontal electric field and magnetic declination at a sea floor site located 600 km off the California coast in 4·4 km of water, in (ii) a month's observations of the vertical magnetic field at a coastal site near Cambria, California, and in (iii) two years' observations of the vertical magnetic field at the island magnetic observatory on San Miguel, Azores. Comparison of the sea floor, coastal, and island observations with simultaneous continental magnetic observations permits an estimation of that part of the variation due to a lunar ionospheric oscillation.
[[Electric and magnetic fields associated with sea tides in the English Channel |]] 2002
> The electric field 1 km from the coast at Sidmouth due to sea tides in the English Channel is 5 × 10−5 V m−1 (peak to peak) at the time of spring tides and 2.5 × 10−5 V m−1 (peak to peak) at the time of neap tides. A magnetic gradiometer was used to record the difference between the total magnetic fields at Sidmouth and at Exeter, which is 20 km from the coast. The difference is separated into a solar component and a lunar component of period 12.42 h. The latter variation is interpreted quantitatively in terms of a tidally induced electric current system in the English Channel. The magnitudes of other magnetic variations of 12.42 h period are discussed.

[[WP Theory of tides]]
[[WP lunar theory |]]
[[WP TIDE |]]
[img[WP M2 tidal constituint |]]
[[WP Spring Tide|]]
[img[WP Diurnal_tide_types |]]
[[WP Perigean spring tide |]]
>A perigean spring tide is when the moon is closest to the Earth during the spring tide. ..  Additionally, twice each month, around the times of the new moon and full moon, when the earth, sun, and moon are nearly in line, there is an increase in the average range of the tides. These are called "spring tides." Three or four times a year, the occurrence of a new or full moon will coincide with the "perigee" of the moon, which Fergus Wood has termed the "perigean spring tides".

[[WP Tidal resonance|]]
[[Lecture on Tides |]]

[[Tides: a scientific history Por David Edgar Cartwright |]] book google scholar 81£ BUY ?

[[Geomagnetic Observations and Models Por Mioara Mandea |]]   BUY ?

[[Dr. Rollin A. Harris' Theory of the Tides|]]

[[The sun to the earth--and beyond: panel reports|]]
[[Is the Long Wavelength Crustal Magnetic Field Dominated by Induced or by Remanent Magnetisation |]]
[[MUSE Earth Moon System Dynamics |]] 
>It takes exact 28.5 days for the moon to spin about its axis. So one moon-day is 28.5 Earth-days long and same goes for the night.
# WNV_2_C_monet.sql


# 39304 records created
DROP TABLE wnv.sites_wind_charge_train ;
CREATE TABLE wnv.sites_wind_charge_train (
    site VARCHAR(6), data date, species varchar(100), WEEK TINYINT,
    WindInt0 real DEFAULT 0,
    WindInt1 real DEFAULT 0,
    WindInt2 real DEFAULT 0,
    WindInt3 real DEFAULT 0,
    WindInt4 real DEFAULT 0,
    WindInt5 real DEFAULT 0,
    WindInt6 real DEFAULT 0,
    WindInt7 real DEFAULT 0,
    WindInt8 real DEFAULT 0,
    WindInt9 real DEFAULT 0,
    WindInt10 real DEFAULT 0,
    WindInt11 real DEFAULT 0
## first insert all sites + dates + weeks
insert into  wnv.sites_wind_charge_train (site,data,week,species)
     select distinct,, tt.week, tt.species from wnv.train1_weather2  as tt;
drop  table wnv.train_fogMosq;
create table wnv.train_fogMosq (site varchar(20), data date, species varchar(100) , week integer, previous_date date, dir integer, intens real,fogMosq real);
insert into wnv.train_fogMosq (site,data,species,week,previous_date,dir, intens,fogMosq)
  select site,data,species,week, previous_date, dir,  sum(speed), 0 from (
      select site,data,species,week, previous_date, ResultDir0 as dir, ResultSpeed0 as speed, 0  from wnv.train1_weather2 where
      ResultSpeed0 is not null
union select site,data,species,week,previous_date, ResultDir1 , ResultSpeed1 , 0  from wnv.train1_weather2 where ResultSpeed1 is not null
union select site,data,species,week,previous_date, ResultDir2 , ResultSpeed2 , 0  from wnv.train1_weather2 where ResultSpeed2 is not null
union select site,data,species,week,previous_date, ResultDir3 , ResultSpeed3 , 0  from wnv.train1_weather2 where ResultSpeed3 is not null
union select site,data,species,week,previous_date, ResultDir4 , ResultSpeed4 , 0  from wnv.train1_weather2 where ResultSpeed4 is not null
union select site,data,species,week,previous_date, ResultDir5 , ResultSpeed5 , 0  from wnv.train1_weather2 where ResultSpeed5 is not null
union select site,data,species,week,previous_date, ResultDir6 , ResultSpeed6 , 0  from wnv.train1_weather2 where ResultSpeed6 is not null ) as xxx
group by site,data,species,week, previous_date,dir

drop table wnv.tempxx;
create table wnv.tempxx (site varchar(20), data date, species varchar(100), dir integer, fog real);

# precisa de muito espaço em disco, demorou muito tempo: 3381 affected row (174.730ms)
insert into tempxx
    select site, data, species, dir, sum(fog)  as fog
    from (
        #select,, tFm.species, tFm.dir, (nummosquitos*d2_1) as fog
        select,, tFm.species, tFm.dir, (d2_1) as fog   # WITHOUT NUMMOSQUITOS effect
         from wnv.train_fogmosq as tFm,
         (select, tw.nummosquitos ,dt.d2_1, dt.site_from, dt.site_to, dt.sector  , tw.species
           from wnv.dist_sites dt, wnv.train1_weather2 tw
           where 1=1 and dt.site_from = )
           as dttw
        where 1=1
          and = dttw.site_from
          and tFm.species = dttw.species
          and tFm.previous_date =
          /*       # data must be from a previous week
             (select min(
                    from wnv.train1_weather2 twx
                    where = and tFm.species = twx.species
                          and between - interval '10' day and )
          and tFm.dir  = dttw.sector
        #and = 'T226'
        #and = '2013-09-19'
        #and tFm.species='CULEX PIPIENS/RESTUANS'
        #and  tFm.dir = 1
    ) as xx
    group by site, data, species, dir

update wnv.sites_wind_charge_train
    set WindInt0 = (select fog from wnv.tempxx as XX where  XX.dir=0 and
      and  and  sites_wind_charge_train.species=XX.species)
where exists (select 'x' from wnv.tempxx as yy where
    and and sites_wind_charge_train.species=yy.species);

update wnv.sites_wind_charge_train
    set WindInt1 = (select fog from wnv.tempxx as XX where  XX.dir=1 and
      and  and  sites_wind_charge_train.species=XX.species)
where exists (select 'x' from wnv.tempxx as yy where
    and and sites_wind_charge_train.species=yy.species);

update wnv.sites_wind_charge_train
    set WindInt2 = (select fog from wnv.tempxx as XX where  XX.dir=2 and
      and  and  sites_wind_charge_train.species=XX.species)
where exists (select 'x' from wnv.tempxx as yy where
    and and sites_wind_charge_train.species=yy.species);

update wnv.sites_wind_charge_train
    set WindInt3 = (select fog from wnv.tempxx as XX where  XX.dir=3 and
      and  and  sites_wind_charge_train.species=XX.species)
where exists (select 'x' from wnv.tempxx as yy where
    and and sites_wind_charge_train.species=yy.species);

update wnv.sites_wind_charge_train
    set WindInt4 = (select fog from wnv.tempxx as XX where  XX.dir=4 and
      and  and  sites_wind_charge_train.species=XX.species)
where exists (select 'x' from wnv.tempxx as yy where
    and and sites_wind_charge_train.species=yy.species);

update wnv.sites_wind_charge_train
    set WindInt5 = (select fog from wnv.tempxx as XX where  XX.dir=5 and
      and  and  sites_wind_charge_train.species=XX.species)
where exists (select 'x' from wnv.tempxx as yy where
    and and sites_wind_charge_train.species=yy.species);

update wnv.sites_wind_charge_train
    set WindInt6 = (select fog from wnv.tempxx as XX where  XX.dir=6 and
      and  and  sites_wind_charge_train.species=XX.species)
where exists (select 'x' from wnv.tempxx as yy where
    and and sites_wind_charge_train.species=yy.species);

update wnv.sites_wind_charge_train
    set WindInt7 = (select fog from wnv.tempxx as XX where  XX.dir=7 and
      and  and  sites_wind_charge_train.species=XX.species)
where exists (select 'x' from wnv.tempxx as yy where
    and and sites_wind_charge_train.species=yy.species);

update wnv.sites_wind_charge_train
    set WindInt8 = (select fog from wnv.tempxx as XX where  XX.dir=8 and
      and  and  sites_wind_charge_train.species=XX.species)
where exists (select 'x' from wnv.tempxx as yy where
    and and sites_wind_charge_train.species=yy.species);

update wnv.sites_wind_charge_train
    set WindInt9 = (select fog from wnv.tempxx as XX where  XX.dir=9 and
      and  and  sites_wind_charge_train.species=XX.species)
where exists (select 'x' from wnv.tempxx as yy where
    and and sites_wind_charge_train.species=yy.species);

update wnv.sites_wind_charge_train
    set WindInt10 = (select fog from wnv.tempxx as XX where  XX.dir=10 and
      and  and  sites_wind_charge_train.species=XX.species)
where exists (select 'x' from wnv.tempxx as yy where
    and and sites_wind_charge_train.species=yy.species);

update wnv.sites_wind_charge_train
    set WindInt11 = (select fog from wnv.tempxx as XX where  XX.dir=11 and
      and  and  sites_wind_charge_train.species=XX.species)
where exists (select 'x' from wnv.tempxx as yy where
    and and sites_wind_charge_train.species=yy.species);

drop table wnv.train_data;
create table wnv.train_data (site varchar(10),data date,species varchar(100),week integer, w0 real,w1 real,w2 real,w3 real,w4 real,w5 real,w6 real,w7 real,w8 real,w9 real,w10 real,w11 real,tmax real,tmin real,dayhours real,precip real,mosqs integer,virus varchar(1));
insert into wnv.train_data
SELECT , ,x.species , x.week,
      case when  windint0 is null then 0 else windint0 end as w0,
      case when  windint1 is null then 0 else windint1 end as w1, 
      case when  windint2 is null then 0 else windint2 end as w2, 
      case when  windint3 is null then 0 else windint3 end as w3, 
      case when  windint4 is null then 0 else windint4 end as w4, 
      case when  windint5 is null then 0 else windint5 end as w5, 
      case when  windint6 is null then 0 else windint6 end as w6, 
      case when  windint7 is null then 0 else windint7 end as w7, 
      case when  windint8 is null then 0 else windint8 end as w8, 
      case when  windint9 is null then 0 else windint9 end as w9, 
      case when  windint10 is null then 0 else windint10 end as w10,
      case when  windint11 is null then 0 else windint11 end as w11,
        y.tmax, y.tmin, y.dayhours, y.preciptotal as precip, y.nummosquitos as mosqs,
	#y.wnvpresent as virus
	case when y.wnvpresent = 1 then '1' else '0' end as virus        
FROM wnv.sites_wind_charge_train x join wnv.train1_weather2 y 
on ( and and x.species=y.species) 

|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig TiddlySpaceFollowingPlugin|
(function($) {
var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;
var tsScan = config.macros.tsScan;

config.shadowTiddlers.SearchTemplate = "<<view server.bag SiteIcon label:no width:24 height:24 preserveAspectRatio:yes>> <<view server.bag spaceLink title external:no>> in space <<view server.bag spaceLink>>";
config.shadowTiddlers.StyleSheetSearch = [".resultsArea .siteIcon { display: inline; }",
	".searchForm {text-align: left;}"].join("\n");
store.addNotification("StyleSheetSearch", refreshStyles);

var search = config.macros.tsSearch = {
	locale: {
		advanced: "Advanced Options",
		header: "Search",
		resultsHeader: "Results (%0)",
		find: "find",
		noResults: "No tiddlers matched your search query",
		query: "QUERY: ",
		error: "please provide a search query or a tag, modifier or title!",
		titleAdvanced: "where the title is",
		modifierAdvanced: "where the last modifier is",
		spaceAdvanced: "only in the space: ",
		notspaceAdvanced: "but not in the spaces: ",
		tagsAdvanced: "with the tags: "
	andConstructor: function(container, label, fieldname, negationMode) {
		var tags = $("<div />").appendTo(container);
		$('<span />').text(label).appendTo(tags);
		var id = "area" + Math.random();
		container = $("<span />").attr("id", id).appendTo(tags)[0];
		function add(container) {
			var el = $('<input type="text" />').attr("field", fieldname).appendTo(container);
			if(negationMode) {
				el.attr("negation", "true");
		var el = $("<button />").text("AND").click(function(ev) {
		$(el).data("container", container);
	fieldConstructor: function(container, label, field) {
		container = $("<div />").appendTo(container)[0];
		$("<span />").text(label).appendTo(container);
		$("<input />").attr("text", "input").attr("field", field).appendTo(container);
	advancedOptions: function(form) {
		var locale = search.locale;
		var container = $("<div />").addClass("tsAdvancedOptions").appendTo(form)[0];
		$("<h2/ >").text(search.locale.advanced).appendTo(container);
		$("<div />").addClass("separator").appendTo(container);
		search.fieldConstructor(container, locale.titleAdvanced, "title");
		search.fieldConstructor(container, locale.modifierAdvanced, "modifier");
		search.fieldConstructor(container, locale.spaceAdvanced, "space");
		search.andConstructor(container, locale.notspaceAdvanced, "space", true);
		search.andConstructor(container, locale.tagsAdvanced, "tag");
	constructSearchQuery: function(form) {
		var data = [], select = [];
		var query = $("[name=q]", form).val();
		if(query) {

		// add tags, fields etc..
		$("[field]", form).each(function(i, el) {
			var val = $(el).val();
			var name = $(el).attr("field");
			var negate = $(el).attr("negation") == "true";
			if(val && name) {
				val = encodeURIComponent(val);
				val = negate ? "!" + val : val;
				if(name == "space") {
					val += "_public";
					name = "bag";
				if(negate) {
				} else {
					var prefix = data.length === 0 ? "q=" : "";
					data.push('%0%1:"%2"'.format(prefix, name, val));
		var dataString = data.join(" ");
		if(dataString.length === 0 && !query) {
			return false;
		var selectStatement = select.join("&");
		if(dataString.length > 0 && selectStatement.length > 0) {
			dataString += "&";
		dataString += selectStatement;
		return "/search?%0".format(dataString);
	constructForm: function(place) {
		var locale = search.locale;
		$("<h1 />").text(locale.header).appendTo(place);
		var form = $("<form />").appendTo(place)[0];
		$('<input type="text" name="q" />').appendTo(form);
		$('<input type="submit" />').val(locale.find).appendTo(form);
		var query = $('<h2 class="query"/>').appendTo(place)[0];
		var results = $("<div />").appendTo(place).addClass("resultsArea")[0];
		var lookup = function(url) {
			if(!url) {
			config.extensions.tiddlyweb.getStatus(function(status) {
				var href = status.server_host.url + url;
				$("<a />").attr("href", href).text(href).appendTo(query);
				tsScan.scan(results, { url: url, emptyMessage: search.locale.noResults, cache: true,
					template: "SearchTemplate", sort: "title", callback: function(tiddlers) {
						$("<h2 />").text(locale.resultsHeader.format(tiddlers.length)).prependTo(results);
		$(form).submit(function(ev) {
			var url = search.constructSearchQuery(form);
			config.macros.tsSearch.lastSearch = url;
		if(search.lastSearch) {
		return form;
	handler: function(place) {
		var container = $("<div />").addClass("searchForm").appendTo(place)[0];

[[FHS - Filesystem Hierarchy Standard|]] /usr /bin /local ...
[[install and setup python and packages on ubuntu 14_04|]]

[[Python Cookbook, Third Edition|]] read online

[[ipython notebook |]]
[[ipython jupyter notebook manual|'s-Toolbar]]

[[Yet Another Lambda Tutorial|]]
[[Notebook Gallery Links to the best IPython and Jupyter Notebooks|]]

[[PythonBasics tutorial|]]


[[regex on python|]] [[on stackOF|]]

[[short list on regex on PLSQL|]]

remove non text and strip

[[codeskulptor - Online phyton|]] 
[[pythontutor   - VISUALIZE the execution of Python, Java, and JavaScript code|]]
[[skulpt - Python client side|]]

[[coursera interactive python 1|]]
[[coursera interactive python 2|]] 27/Mar/2015

[[learn python the hard way (book)|]]

{{{ Light  :c=299792.45 km/s                                                            (1)  }}} 
{{{ Earth : 369 km/s                                                                           (v/c=0.0123) ((v/c)^2=0.000151)  }}} 
{{{ +- annual orbital vel 150000000*2*pi/365/24/60/60=29.89 km/s  (v/c=0.0000997)  ;((v/c)^2=9.94e-9) }}} 
{{{ +- daily motion   +-     6371*2*pi/24/60/60 =0.463  km/s       (v/c=0.00000154)  }}} 
{{{ Alpha : 15000 km/s                                                                       (v/c=0.05)  }}} 
{{{ Beta   : 96561 -- 289682                                                               (v/c=0.3221-- 0.9663)  }}} 

''Alpha particles'' have a typical kinetic energy of 5 MeV and have a speed of about 15000 km/s, or 5% of the speed of light. There is surprisingly small variation around this energy, 

''Beta particles have velocities'' ranging from 96561 km/s até 289682 km/s 
60,000 to 180,000 miles/sec (96 560 640 m/s até 289 681 920 m/s )

@@[[CMB|]] 369 km/s@@
Our velocity relative to the rest frame of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) generates a dipole temperature anisotropy on the sky which has been well measured for more than 30 years, and has an accepted amplitude of v/c = 0.00123, or v = 369km/s. In addition to this signal generated by Doppler boosting of the CMB monopole, our motion also modulates and aberrates the CMB temperature fluctuations (as well as every other source of radiation at cosmological distances). This is an order 0.1% effect applied to fluctuations which are already one part in roughly one hundred thousand, so it is quite small. Nevertheless, it becomes detectable with the all-sky coverage, high angular resolution, and low noise levels of the Planck satellite. Here we report a first measurement of this velocity signature using the aberration and modulation effects on the CMB temperature anisotropies, finding a component in the known dipole direction, (l,b)=(264, 48) [deg], of 384km/s +- 78km/s (stat.) +- 115km/s (syst.). This is a significant confirmation of the expected velocity.

[[Abundance elements|]]

[[Annual Modulation of Cosmic Relic Neutrinos|]] mention to the CMB finally

[[Old textbook knowledge reconfirmed: Decay rates of radioactive substances are constant |]] 2014-10

[[Seasonal Nuclear Decay |]] on [[NewsScientist|]] maximum in Feb, minimum in August
The decay was at its fastest in February and slowest in August - exactly what Jenkins and Fischbach were seeing in manganese-54.

[[Perturbation of Nuclear Decay Rates During the Solar Flare of 13 December 2006  J H Jenkins and Ephraim Fischbach|]]

[[WP Semi-empirical_mass_formula|]] nuclear liquid drop model 
[[Live Chart of Nuclides|]]
[[²⁴Mg |]]  Z=12, N=12 , A=24, 79%
²⁵Mg                                                                                                                     Z=12, N=13 , A=25, 10%   
[[²⁶Mg |]]           Z=12, N=14 , A=26, 11%     
Symbol - Mg , A range 24-26 ; check: Levels Half-Life and Stable

[[hyperphysics mass calculator |]]

sagenb :
# binding energy, Rohlf base parameter values

#  ######################
# input parameters integers A,Z, real t , «alf scaling model of the universe» 
#  ######################


def isodd(num):
        return num & 1 and True or False     
def pairing(A,N):
    if isodd(A): return 0
    if isodd(A-N) and isodd(N): return -11.18
    return 11.18
def E_b(A,Z,t): 
    return (a_V*A - a_S * A**(2.0/3)   - a_C  * Z*(Z-1.0)/A**(1.0/3.0) - a_A * ((A-2*Z)**2.0)/A + pairing(A,Z))*exp(-t/H0)
#x=a_V*A - a_S * A**(2.0/3)   - a_C  * Z*(Z-1.0)/A**(1.0/3.0) - a_A * ((A-2*Z)**2.0)/A + pairing(A,Z)
x,  pairing(A,Z)

[[A Search for Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant|]] Webb 1998 Mg
> ..that a significant change in the isotopic ratios could explain the observations. However, the change would need to be substantial; for  example, this would require most of the Mg in the universe at z > 1 to be in 26Mg (the present epoch abundance is ∼ 10%), and a physical mechanism found to convert almost all the 26Mg into 24Mg by the present epoch.
We look to the past and we assume that the Universe matter properties, namelly the nuclear distribution of Z/A in the isotopes, are the same as the ones we see in the present.  The doublets and triplets spectral lines probe the nuclear structure (anomalous Zeeman effect).  Several papers, including the one in the DETECTION OF AN UNIDENTIFIED EMISSION LINE IN THE STACKED X-RAY SPECTRUM OF GALAXY CLUSTERS, point to the fact that matter, from a nuclear viewpoint may be evolving.  
"However, for several Seyferts in our sample...cannot simultaneously explain strong Ca II Triplet and relatively weak Mgb"...
A Search for Time Variation of the Fine Structure Constant, 1998 Webb
"..that a significant change in the isotopic ratios could explain the observations. However, the change would need to be substantial; for example, this would require most of the Mg in the universe at z > 1 to be in 26Mg (the present epoch abundance is ∼ 10%), and a physical mechanism found to convert almost all the 26Mg into 24Mg by the present epoch."

No one was able to invalidate the work of Webb in the measuring a varying \(\alpha\), afaik. 
A physical mechanism (in Webb words) must be in action.
[[The Pioneer Anomaly or Do We Really Understand the Physics Within the Solar System?|]]  flybyes etc ... 

!Seasonal variations of radioactivity (diurnal and annual) linked to CMB dipole 
[[alpha-activity depends on direction of alpha particles flow and the Earth rotation |]] ''SIDERAL DAY PERIOD'' and null variation when alpha particles flow to be oriented to the Polar Star ! (2004) 


!!!space missions (RTG-Radioisotopes Thermal Generators)
''[[Searching for modifications to the exponential radioactive decay law with the Cassini|]]'' seek here, IT IS HERE, look the details
''[[Evidence for Correlations Between Nuclear Decay Rates and Earth-Sun Distance|]]'' seek here, IT IS HERE, look the details
''[[Power Spectrum Analyses of Nuclear Decay Rates|]] nuclear decay data displaying annually varying periodic fluctuations'' 
''[[EVIDENCE FOR TIME-VARYING NUCLEAR DECAY DATES |]]'' Jun/2011 it includes a review of experiments
''[[Search for anisotropic light propagation as a function of laser beam alignment relative to the Earth’s velocity vector |]]''
''[[Evidence against correlations between nuclear decay rates and Earth–Sun distance|]]'' they use ratios and obtained a null result :-) , they smashed the variation
''[[several links by BCrowell|]]'' 
[[several links|]] in german
[[The Cassini probe – multiple gravity assists|]]''
[img[Cassini's speed related to Sun|]]
''[[Cassini trajectory|]]'' Cassini trajectory for Celestia
''[[Cassini trajectory for Celestia| ]]''  relevant data cassini-all.ssc
*-- dates       day -- event
**1997-10-15 --    0 -- launch
**1998-04-26 --  193 -- Venus 1 flyby
**1998-12-03 --  414 -- manoeuver
**1999-06-24 --  617 -- Venus 2 flyby
**1999-08-18 --  672 -- Earth flyby
**2000-12-30 -- 1172 -- Jupiter flyby
**2004-07-01 -- 2451 -- Saturn orbit

''[[Evidence for Correlations Between Nuclear Decay Rates and Earth-Sun Distance|]]''  Brookhaven National Laboratory (Si-32), and at the Physikalisch-Technische-Bundesandstalt in Germany (Ra-226)
''[[Seasonal fluctuation in neutron yield underground measurement|]]''
''[[Tidal effect in the radon-due neutron flux from the Earth’s crust|]]''  we can recognise semidiurnal periodicities

''[[Signs of dark matter from Minnesota mine|]]'' seasonal variation  
''[[Second experiment hints at seasonal dark matter signal|]]''
''[[The Dark Matter Data Bonanza |]]'' jun/2011 arxiv blog (phase peaks in early May and  ~CoGenT and DAMA/LIBRA  data are compatible)
''[[WP CMBR_dipole_anisotropy|||]]''
"our local group of galaxies appears to be moving at ''627±22 km/s'' relative to the reference frame of the CMB (also called the CMB rest frame, or the frame of reference in which there is no motion through the CMB) in the direction of ''galactic longitude l = 276±3°, b = 30±3°''."

''[[U2 measures|]]''
This would seem to violate the postulates of Galilean and Special Relativity but there is a preferred frame in which the expansion of the Universe looks most simple. That frame is the average rest frame of the matter and CMB and from that frame the expansion is essentially isotropic.

The motion of an observer means that photons arriving from the direction of motion are boosted in energy. Those from behind lose energy. An like a car driving in the rain, more rain falls on the front winshield than the rear window. In its full form this is called the Doppler effect. The motion of an observer with velocity v relative to an isotropic blackbody of temperature To produces a Doppler-shifted temperature

''[[Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy|]]'' CMB detailed info at Ned Wright site
''[[Celestia CMB Background Microwave Map |]]'' 
 ''[[Celestia CMB Background Microwave Map (more info) | ]]''
 ''[[Celestia CMB Background Microwave Map (more info DIPOLE)| ]]''

''[[Pioneer data : exponential model[]]'' :  temporally decaying anomalous acceleration (~2\times 10^{-11} m/s^2/yr)

''[[Does the Neptunian system of satellites challenge a gravitational origin for the Pioneer anomaly?|]]''

[Pioneers Anomalous (unmodeled) acceleration as a function of distance from the Sun  here
 ''[[Cassini Program Power Study (pre-launch)| ]]''
 ''[[Pioneer Anomaly Project Update| ]]''
 ''[[Study of the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 1 | ]]'' Anderson 2002, see figure 16
 ''[img[The constancy of the Pioneer anomalous acceleration 
| ]]''  The variation of the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 in units of   as function of days since July 12th 1992. The gray dashed line represents the results from a least squares routine with 12 day arcs, while the black line represents the final results from a Kalman filter with stochastical variables. Each vertical dashed line corresponds to conjunctions. (here

<<image width:600>> 

<<image width:600>>

''Orientation of Astronomical Coordinates''

<<image  width:800>>
Orientation of the galactic, ecliptic and equatorial coordinate systems, projected on the celestial sphere, showing the galactic equator (black), north galactic pole (NGP), the ecliptic (orange), north ecliptic pole (NEP), the celestial equator (blue) and north celestial pole (NCP). Sun and earth not shown to scale but to indicate sun's orbital direction around the galactic center and earth's orbital direction around the sun.

''[[WP Celestial coordinate system|]]'' 
''[[WP Galactic coordinate system|]]''
 ''[[Equatorial to Galactic Conversion| ]]'' 

 ''[[The Galactic Coordinate System|]]''
[[Where is M13|]] galactic software, free

  ''[[Celestia Reference Frames|]]''

  ''[[ | ]]''  ''[[ | ]]''  ''[[ | ]]''   ''[[ | ]]''  ''[[ | ]]''  ''[[ | ]]''   ''[[ | ]]''  ''[[ | ]]''  ''[[ | ]]'' 

[[BootStrap tutorial|]]
[[bs navbar |]]
[[navbar example|]]
<<image unsyncedIcon width:48>> Sync is currently unavailable in ~TiddlyWiki due to security constraints in modern browsers. Research is being done to build a suitable alternative. In the meantime if you have changed content in an offline ~TiddlyWiki, you can get your content back into ~TiddlySpace by using the ''import'' functionality from the backstage of the online wiki.

<<message messages.memberStatus>> <<homeLink>>
{{unsyncedList{<<message messages.syncListHeading>> <<list filter [is[unsynced]]>>}}}

running TiddlySpace@glossary version <<message extensions.tiddlyweb.status.tiddlyspace_version>>
<<tiddler Backstage##Resources>>

[[blog|@@blog]] [[documentation|@@docs]] [[featured spaces|@@featured]] 

You can download this TiddlySpace as an offline TiddlyWiki:


|upload a <<message messages.privacySetting>> file: <<binaryUpload>>|<<closeAll>><<permaview>><<newTiddler>><<newJournal "DD MMM YYYY" "journal">><<saveChanges>>|
|>|<<tiddler Backstage##Tiddlers>>|

	"Recent" "Recently edited tiddlers" TabTimeline
	"All" "All tiddlers" TabAll
	"Public" "All public tiddlers" [[TiddlySpaceTabs##Public]]
	"Private" "All private tiddlers" [[TiddlySpaceTabs##Private]]
	"Tags" "All tags" TabTags
	"Spaces" "Tiddlers grouped by space" [[TiddlySpaceTabs##Spaces]]
	"Missing" "Missing tiddlers" TabMoreMissing
	"Orphans" "Orphaned tiddlers" TabMoreOrphans
	"Shadows" "Shadowed tiddlers" TabMoreShadowed

	"Private" "Move tiddlers from private to public" Backstage##BatchPrivate
	"Public" "Move tiddlers from public to private" Backstage##BatchPublic

<<TiddlySpacePublisher type:private>>

<<TiddlySpacePublisher type:public>>

''Note:'' Many of these plugins are core TiddlySpace plugins and cannot be changed unless first cloned.

<<tiddler PluginManager>>

These options change behavior in TiddlyWiki //only// and may be ineffective in TiddlySpace.

<<tiddler AdvancedOptions>>
|''Description''|Revert to a previous revision|
|''Requires''|TiddlyWebAdaptor TiddlySpaceRevisionView|
Add a control button to revert to a particular revision.

The button must be called from within a revision, as generated by TiddlySpaceRevisionView
(function($) {

config.commands.revert = {
	text: "revert",
	tooltip: "make this revision the current one",
	handler: function(ev, src, title) {
		var revElem = story.getTiddler(title);
		var tidToRevert = store.getTiddler($(revElem).attr("revName"));

		var revision = store.getTiddler(title);
		if ((revision) && (tidToRevert)) {
			tidToRevert.text = revision.text;
			var newFields = merge({}, revision.fields);
			for (var fieldName in newFields) {
				if (fieldName.substr(0, 7) === "server.") {
					delete newFields[fieldName];
			merge(tidToRevert.fields, newFields);
			tidToRevert.tags = merge([], revision.tags);
			tidToRevert.fields.changecount = 1;
			delete tidToRevert.fields.doNotSave;

			store.saveTiddler(tidToRevert.title, tidToRevert.title,
				tidToRevert.text, null, null, tidToRevert.tags,
				tidToRevert.fields, false, tidToRevert.created, tidToRevert.creator);


<svg xmlns="" xmlns:xl="" version="1.1" viewBox="2 724 68 55" 
width="30" height="30">
<g stroke="none" stroke-opacity="1" stroke-dasharray="none" fill="none" fill-opacity="1">
		<path d="M 2.25 756 L 11.25 747 L 24.75 760.4994 L 60.750004 724.4994 L 69.75 733.49902 
		L 24.749977 778.49976 Z" fill="#101010" class="glyph"/>
[[appinventor 2|]]

[[install sun JDK no ubuntu|]] ''estava em falta o jarsigner'' no openJDK
''mas o appinventor needs java 1.6 !!''
[[sudo update-alternatives --config java]]

Run the following command to set the default install location to your SD card:
cd /usr/google/appinventor/commands-for-Appinventor
./adb shell pm setInstallLocation 2
If you want to revert this change later and install apps to the internal storage by default, run this command:
./adb shell pm setInstallLocation 0


[[AIlive|]] standalone
start AI server by typing ./
open another terminal, cd to where you unzipped AILiveComplete!
Start AI build server by typing ./
Now start a browser and goto [[http://localhost:8888]]
NOTE : run javaws (Java Control Panel) and click Delete Files and click all options and Disable : 'Keep temporary files on my computer'  to prevent the error : cannot find cached resource for URL

[[MIT App Inventor Book, on-line|]]
look for ubuntu

[[apppinventor online|]]

[[appinventor projects|]] 

[[aicompanion2|]] on google play

cd  /usr/google/appinventor/commands-for-Appinventor$
./adb devices  
* daemon not running. starting it now on port 5037 *
* daemon started successfully *
List of devices attached 
43423541314445565055	device

[[Modelling 3D Euclidean geometry|]] with GA


[[Save a text file to SD card using the Activity Starter calling a Java app|]] 

[[AIDE - Android IDE - Java, C++]] Google Play AIDE, very complete IDE

[[Moving Average Filters|]]  chapter 15 of The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing
[[android sensors - java|]]
Distance between 2 points 
The Haversine Formula
For two points on a sphere (of radius R) with latitudes φ1 and φ2, 
latitude separation Δφ = φ1 −φ2, and longitude separation Δλ 
the distance between the two points:

ver [[Sphinx search engine and MySql|]]

cd ~myvagrant
vagrant up

[[kaggle|]]  user ~HelderVelez loged via facebook
[[piazza|]] discuss 

Raspberry Py RPi

Once you have some content then you may choose to determine a tiddler, or set of tiddlers to display each time you load ~TiddlySpace. This is determined by the [[DefaultTiddlers]].
<!DOCTYPE html>
	<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8">
	<title>This Space</title>
	<link href="/bags/common/tiddlers/profile.css" type='text/css' rel='stylesheet' >
	<link href="/bags/common/tiddlers/admin.css" type='text/css' rel='stylesheet' >
	<!--[if lte IE 8]>
	<script type="text/javascript" src="/bags/common/tiddlers/json2.js"></script>
	<script type="text/javascript" src="/bags/common/tiddlers/es5-shim.min.js"></script>
<div id="container">
	<div id="text-html" class="main section">
		<a class="app" href="/">home</a>
		<div class="left">
		<h2>About this space <button class='toggleNext'></button></h2>
		<div id="siteinfo"></div>
		<h2>Site Icon</h2>
			<img id="siteicon" class="siteicon">
			<form id="upload" method="POST" enctype="multipart/form-data">
				<input type="hidden" name="title" value="SiteIcon" />
				<input type="hidden" name="tags" value="excludeLists">
				<input type="hidden" name="csrf_token" class="csrf" />
				<input type="file" name="file" accept="image/*" />
				<input class="btn" type="submit" value="upload" />
			<div id="dropzone">Drop file here
				<img class="notloading" src="/bags/common/tiddlers/ajax-loader.gif" alt="submitting SiteIcon" />
		<h2>Vital Statistics</h2>
		<div id="info">please wait while information is loaded about this space...</div>
		<button class="spacereset">Reset Space</button>
		<div class="reset-confirm-wrap messageArea">
			<button class="close-btn" title="cancel reset">×</button>
			<p>Are you sure you want to reset the space? You can't go back! This will remove all the content from the space!</p>
			<form class="cf">
				<label for="reset-confirm">Enter the space name to confirm.</label>
				<input type="text" name="reset-confirm" class="reset-confirm-input inputBox" />
				<button type="submit">Reset Now</button>
			<div class="reset-message-area">
				<p class="performing">Resetting...</p>
				<p class="finished">Reset Done!</p>
				<p class="recipe-error-msg">Error removing includes. Please remove manually.</p>
		<div class="right">
		<div class="ts-membership">
				Add Member
				<a href="" title="What is a Member?" class="help">What is a Member?</a>
				<p>Add a new member to your space by entering their name below. Enter a space name instead and prefix with @ to add everyone who is already a member of that space.</p>
				<form class="ts-members">
					<input class="inputBox" type="text" name="username">
					<input type="submit" value="Add Member" class="btn" />
				Existing Members <button class='toggleNext'></button>
				Your space currently has the following members: 
				<ul class="ts-members"></ul>
				Include Space
				<a class="help" href="" title="What is inclusion?">What is Inclusion?</a>
			<form class="ts-includes">
				<input class="inputBox" type="text" name="spacename">
				<input type="submit" value="Include Space" class="btn" />
			<h2>Included Spaces <button class='toggleNext'></button></h2>
			This space includes the following spaces:
			<ul class="ts-includes"></ul>
		<div class="clear"></div>
<script src='/bags/common/tiddlers/backstage.js'></script>
<script src='/bags/common/tiddlers/jquery.js'></script>
<script src='/bags/tiddlyspace/tiddlers/chrjs'></script>
<script src='/bags/common/tiddlers/'></script>
<script src='/bags/common/tiddlers/chrjs.users'></script>
<script src='/bags/common/tiddlers/chrjs.identities'></script>
<script src='/bags/tiddlyspace/tiddlers/TiddlySpaceCSRF'></script>
<script src='/bags/common/tiddlers/jquery-form.js'></script>
<script src="/bags/common/tiddlers/siteiconupload.js"></script>
<script src="/bags/common/tiddlers/ts.js"></script>
<script src="/status.js"></script>
<script src="/bags/common/tiddlers/space.js"></script>
  mete a função h(x)=x^2-3x-1 no google para veres o [[gráfico dela|(]] 
(usa o cursor sobre o eixo x para veres as coordenadas x e h escritas no canto sup direito dele)

$$\lim{(n \to \infty )}=\ 1+\frac{1}{n}=1+\frac{1}{+\infty}$$

colocar a seguinte expressão na janela do link
\lim_{(n \to \infty )}{1+\frac{1}{n}}=1+\frac{1}{+\infty}=1+0\ _+=1_+
e em baixo vês a noção matemática .

1a2) u(1), u(10),u(100),u(1000),
    =  1.1 (>) 1.01 (>) 1.001 
1a3) $$h(u_1), h(u_{10}),h(u_{100}),h(u_{1000})$$

exploring [[wolframalpha|]]
 then [[math examples|]]

clica aqui :  [[calcular limit (1+1/n) as n->infinity  |]]

substituis 1+1/n em x na função h(x) e ficas com h(n), depois calculas o limite 
limit  (1+1/n)^2-3(1+1/n)-1 as n->infinity
[[que fica =-3 ,clica: |]]
agora, sem fazeres batota
substituis o n por 1,10,100,1000 aqui (1+1/n)^2-3(1+1/n)-1 e tens
1.1*1.1 -3*1.1 -1 =  -3.09 , 
1.01*1.01 -3*1.01 -1 =-3.0099,  
1,001*1,001 -3*1,001 -1 = -3.000999   (no google calculator em .pt tive de substituir o . por , ) 

[[igual ao wolfram como podes confirmar 1.0*((1+1/n)^2-3(1+1/n)-1), for n=1,10,100,1000|*%28%281%2B1%2Fn%29%5E2-3%281%2B1%2Fn%29-1%29%2C+for+n%3D1%2C10%2C100%2C1000]] 
(multipliquei por 1.0 para que os resultados viessem em decimal em vez de fracionário)
'' h(u_n) portanto começa em -3 , depois desce e fica mais negativo e depois volta a subir para -3 ''

1b)  \(v(n) = 1-1/n\)  converge para \(1_-\)
lim n-> oo  \(h(v_n))\) = lim \((1-1/n)^2 - 3(1-1/n) - 1\) = (1+0)^2-3(1+0) -1 = -3 
limit  (1-1/n)^2-3(1-1/n)-1 as n->infinity
''só pode dar o mesmo resultado que com a outra série u(n), nota que estamos a calcular o h 
e a série u ou v só serve para escolher os pontos x,  o modo como nos vamos aproximar do ponto x=-1 e o resultado de h(-1) é sempre -3''

1c) lim h, x-> 1  , substituindo x por 1 na função vem  1-3-1 = -3 . 
mas é $$3_{+} ou 3_{-}$$ ? i.e. x aproximando-se de 1 por valores menores do que 1 vê-se que a funço é decrescente  
(experimenta com x=0 vem h(0)=-1, com x=2 vem também h(2)= 4-6-1=-3 logo a função vai ter de passar por um mínimo ou máximo entre x=1 e x=2 porque os h têm o mesmo valor)
derivada de h em ordem a x   $\frac{dh(x)}{dx} = 2x-3$ que tem um zero para x=1.5, logo em x=1.5 tem um mínimo ou máximo. Aqui é um mínimo.




Yes, because of the blueshift of the radiated light received from the past.
To keep the consistency the mass, length, time and charge units are doubled also. Follow me, pls:
Pick an atom and then start the writing of your book of physics: based on that atom define the Units of length, mass, charge and time (light speed c is constant as well as the electromagnetic and gravitational constants of interaction. Idem for the fine-structure constant - alpha).
Mass: 1kg is the mass of a definite bunch of, say, X atoms. The mass of an atom is 1/X kg. What is the 'size' of the atom? It is 1 atom's size! Circular definition valid whatever the size!
Now, all laws in your physics book are identical to the ones based on an atom 1000 larger! The universes are similar except that the wavelengths of the light emitted/absorbed are 1000 larger than the ones we see in our Sun/lab. This is written in the atomic equations (see the dependence of the Rydberg formula/constant on the mass of the electron. Idem to almost all fundamental equations). When I look to the redshifted light of the stars I say: Larger atoms of the past! (Everybody learned the misconception that they are moving away, as a fact without any argument).
Instead of space expansion and because we measure with atomic properties, I say that the atoms are shrinking (and the length/mass/charge/time units are evolving exponentially at H0 rate to maintain the growth of their gravitational and electromagnetic fields).
This matter evolution is undetectable on the lab.
This new model is a pure deduction  and it was formulated without any hypothesis - it should be easy to discard in the case it has any error/inconsistency.
It fits cosmological data and is good at all scales. No Dark energy. No inflation phase, no free lunches ...
The space expands because the matter evanesces.
A self-similar model of the Universe unveils the nature of dark energy
Rydberg formula
Rydberg constant
[[ANU-ASTRO1x|]] Which is changing: Space or the unit of measure ?

Measuring distances is dependent on the unit of measure.  
When science adopted that 'the space expands' how was decided that the unit of measure did not changed?   

In other words:  
Redshift is a measure of the wavelength variation:  
**OR** the received wavelength is larger than our present standard unit of measure of length  
 **OR**  our present standard unit of measure of length is shorter than in the past  
**How can be decided which one, or both, is correct?**

A rephrase of the question:  

 1. In atomic coordinates the space expands, and BByes.   
 1. In comoving coordinates the matter shrinks, and BBnot.

Can someone tell why the comoving coordinates is not the preferred one?

28 days ago
The unit of measurement is basically the speed of light (it is used to define the metre). To what you are saying is - could the speed of light be changing rather than space expanding?
This is hard, because the speed of light depends on the fundamental electric and magnetic constants, as originally worked out by Maxwell. So to change the speed of light you would have to change the working of electricity and magnetism.
And if you change these, you will change lots of other things - like the energy levels of atoms, chemical bonds, magnetic resonance.
We know that the emission lines, chemical bonds etc that we observe in the distant universe are the same as those we see today, to very high precision. So it's very hard to change any of the fundamental electric and magnetic constants.

HV comment

The constants of field interactions $c,\varepsilon,G$ are constants. But if the atom is allowed to change its 'size' thru time then the units of measure will change too. The length unit is circularly defined with the time unit with the help of the constancy of the $c$ i.e. we really do not measure distances but instead the time of ligh flight. In the dimensional eq $[c]=[L]^1[T]^{-1}$ we can scale equally L and T units and we obtain the same measure for $c$.  
Both the time unit and the length unit are tied to the actual atom's size. The same with the mass/charge unit.  
**But we have no guarantee that the atom is invariant. Do we?**  
Afaik no law nor principle can be derived from our experiments that enable us to assert the absolute, invariant, atom's size. We have only a conviction that it must be so (anthropomorphic argument). 
It is easy to show that the gravitational and the electromagnetic interactions are insensitive to the atom's scale.  

Larger atoms in the past should have emitted, for the same physical processes, photons with larger wavelengths. In the first and most obvious interpretation the redshift was associated with a doppler effect and galaxies should be flying away.  
If we can discuss that the atom's size can vary we find very interesting conclusions.  
It's all about a question of choosing a different referential, like the comoving one, applyed not only to length scale but also to mass/charge/time.  
The correct referential to analyse a process should be 'above' the system under observation. We can be busted when we adopted atomic units.  
I will show with an analogy.   
In the lab we have the universe inside a bottle with a scale imprinted on it, and a wall clock.  The bottle/universe is filled with water/vacuum, and the atoms are represented by candies. We define two system of measures :  

 1. one based in the invariant lab units, the scale in the bottle 
 2. the other based on the candie's properties.

They dissolve and its unit length will be shorter and shorter, meaning that in this referential the distances between candies will be greater and greater, revealing a space expansion, leading the bottlenics (the guys inside) to the conclusion that the BB was mandatory in a hot beginning.
But in the lab's referential, the scenario is quite distinct, there is no space expansion, the candies are not in motion, no BB is needed, no DE, nor Inflaction and a flat and cold start is possible. The equations describing the evolution of the universe are simpler: The universe evolution presents a **dilation** feature :  **$e^{-H_0t_S}$** applied to the base units describes the evolution in complete agreement with the visible mass and all the measures we have ($t_S$ is the wall clock invariant unit and $H_0$ is the present value of Hubble constant).  

Back to the main question, the one that must be first answered:  
**We have no guarantee that the atom is invariant. Do we?**  

(note: in a Earth's attached referential the Coriolis effect can not be interpreted. Similar problems arise when we are based in the atomic properties)  

!No Dark Matter and No Super Massive Black Holes: just follow the pictures

''@@color:#B80000;'A VOID is born@@''  explained at 
''From a density perturbation in a cold homogeneous  universe (T=0)  a void form and grow (and now T>0, against 2nd Thermodinamic Law)''
<<image width:400>>

[[V1309 Scorpii: merger of a contact binary|]] explosão solar ?
|''Description''|provides a toolbar command for cloning external tiddlers|
|''Requires''|TiddlySpaceConfig TiddlySpaceFilters|
(function($) {

var cmd = config.commands;
var tiddlyspace = config.extensions.tiddlyspace;

var fieldsCache = {};

cmd.cloneTiddler = {
	text: cmd.editTiddler.text,
	tooltip: "Create a copy of this tiddler in the current space",
	errorMsg: "Error publishing %0: %1",

	isEnabled: function(tiddler) {
		return ! && !readOnly;
	handler: function(ev, src, title) {
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
		if(tiddler) {
			fieldsCache[title] = $.extend({}, tiddler.fields);
			tiddler.fields["server.workspace"] = tiddlyspace.getCurrentWorkspace(config.options.chkPrivateMode ?
		"private" : "public");
			tiddler.fields["server.permissions"] = "read, write, create"; // no delete
			delete tiddler.fields[""];
			delete tiddler.fields["server.title"];
			delete tiddler.fields["server.etag"];
			// special handling for pseudo-shadow tiddlers
			if(tiddlyspace.coreBags.contains(tiddler.fields["server.bag"])) {
		} else { // ensure workspace is the current space
			var el = story.findContainingTiddler(src);
			el = $(el);
			var fields = el.attr("tiddlyfields");
			if(fields) { // inherited via TiddlyLink
				fields = fields.decodeHashMap();
				fields["server.workspace"] = config.
			} else {
				fields = config.defaultCustomFields;
			fields = String.encodeHashMap(fields);
			el.attr("tiddlyfields", fields);
		cmd.editTiddler.handler.apply(this, arguments);
		if(tiddler) {
			tiddler.fields["server.permissions"] += ", delete";
		return false;

cmd.editTiddler.isEnabled = function(tiddler) {
	return !cmd.cloneTiddler.isEnabled.apply(this, arguments);

// hijack cancelTiddler to restore original fields
var _cancelHandler = cmd.cancelTiddler.handler;
cmd.cancelTiddler.handler = function(ev, src, title) {
	var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
	if(tiddler) {
		tiddler.fields = fieldsCache[title] || tiddler.fields;
		delete fieldsCache[title];
	return _cancelHandler.apply(this, arguments);

// hijack saveTiddler to clear unused fields stash
var _saveHandler = cmd.saveTiddler.handler;
cmd.saveTiddler.handler =  function(ev, src, title) {
	delete fieldsCache[title];
	return _saveHandler.apply(this, arguments);

Gauss Law and related 
!''[[Why Maxwell Couldn’t Explain Gravity |]]''  
about the Maxwell version on mathpages:  
>The assumption, therefore, that gravitation arises from the action of the surrounding medium in the way pointed out, leads to the conclusion that every part of this medium possesses, when undisturbed, an enormous intrinsic energy, and that the presence of dense bodies influences the medium so as to diminish this energy wherever there is a resultant attraction. As I am unable to understand in what way a medium can possess such properties, I cannot go any further in this direction in searching for the cause of gravitation.
>This problem helps to explain why it took longer to devise a viable field theory for gravitation than it did for electromagnetism. Of course, in a sense, a field theory for gravity already existed in the form of the classical scalar potential, which satisfies the (Poisson) field equation
>in suitable units, where f is the potential energy and r is the mass density. This equation is identically satisfied by setting f(r) = k/r + C for any constants k and C, positive or negative, but in order for the f field to give an attractive force, we must set k to a negative value. This is entirely consistent with Maxwell’s comments, i.e., the potential gravitational energy associated with a configuration of mass particles must decrease as the particles are brought closer together. The only way in this classical context to avoid actual negative energy (which Maxwell deemed necessary) is to set the “background” constant C to a value greater than the largest magnitude of k/r anywhere in the universe. In pre-relativistic physics, people worked with Poisson’s equation without worrying about the meaning of negative energy, they simply set C = 0, accepting the (apparent) fact that gravitational potential energy is negative. This “works” fine for most applications, but it doesn’t satisfy Maxwell’s desire to form an intelligible conception of the gravitational field in terms of ordinary classical dynamics.
>Remarkably, the expression corresponding to the “potential” in the weak field limit of general relativity actually does correspond to something like what Maxwell suggested. The effective classical “potential” for a spherically symmetrical field surrounding a mass M in the weak field limit is (half of) the time-time component of the metric tensor
>where G is Newton’s gravitational constant and c is the speed of light. The classical pre-relativistic expression for gravitational potential energy per unit mass is -GM/r, so a test particle of mass m is assigned the potential energy -GMm/r. Re-writing gtt in a form that isolates this expression, we have 

>Thus when Maxwell said that the gravitational medium must possess enormous intrinsic energy, and the leading constant term must (to avoid negative energy) equal “the greatest possible value of the intensity of gravitating force in any part of the universe”, he could have been (as we see in retrospect) referring to the field intensity at the Schwarzschild radius of a black hole, where the gravitational “potential” is comparable to the intrinsic “rest” energy of a test particle. In a sense, the enormous background energy corresponds to the “rest” energy \(E=mc^2\) of the test particle, which in turn corresponds to the ratio of proper time to some suitable coordinate time at any location in the field. Of course, there need not always be a “suitable” coordinate time, and hence energy cannot always be unambiguously localized in general relativity. However, in special circumstances such as a spherically symmetric field going to flat Minkowski spacetime at infinity, we have a fairly unambiguous definition of energy.
>As an aside, the attractive nature of gravity is sometimes said to be closely related to (if not a direct consequence of) the equivalence principle, according to which the gravitational “charge” m of a given body is identical to the inertia of that body. In the case of electricity, reversing the sign of a particle’s electrical charge will reverse the direction of the applied force, but not of its inertia, so the resulting acceleration is reversed. In contrast, reversing the sign of the mass of a body would not only reverse the direction of the force, it would also reverse the direction of the resulting acceleration relative to the force, so the acceleration would be in the same direction, regardless of the sign of the mass. On the other hand, it could be argued that the gravitational interaction between two “like” particles involves three applications of the sign of mass: The mass producing the field (active charge), the mass responding to the field (passive charge), and the inertial mass of the responding particle. On this basis, reversing the sign of mass would reverse the direction of acceleration. This kind of superficial algebraic conundrum highlights the importance of energy-based reasoning.
<<tiddler Backstage##Tiddlers>>
[[100s javascript frameworks|]]

[[Compare web frameworks|]]

[[sproutcore - js framwork free nice complete|]]
sproutcore maybe better than angularjs ?

[[best javascript mvc frameworks 2013-2014/|]]

Pyjamas - framework in Python that convert to JavaScript
(function($) {

var cmd = config.commands.refreshTiddler = {
	text: "refresh",
	locale: {
		refreshing: "Refreshing tiddler..."
	tooltip: "refresh this tiddler to be the one on the server",
	handler: function(ev, src, title) {
		var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
		if(!tiddler) {
			tiddler = new Tiddler(title);
			merge(tiddler.fields, config.defaultCustomFields);
		var dirtyStatus = store.isDirty();
		story.loadMissingTiddler(title, {
			"server.workspace": tiddler.fields["server.recipe"]  ? "recipes/" + tiddler.fields["server.recipe"] :
				tiddler.fields["server.workspace"] || "bags/"+tiddler.fields["server.bag"],
			"": tiddler.fields[""],
			"server.type": tiddler.fields["server.type"]
		}, function() {

[[TypeScript|]]  TypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that compiles to plain JavaScript.
[[tsc Tutorial |]]
status 	Alpha   Nov/2012

[[d3 example in ts |]]
 sudo npm install typescript -g
command $tsc
[[Scientists Discover Brightest Quasar Ever Powered by Black Hole, Dating to Dawn of Time|]]
[[Clastic rock|]]
[[ Sandstone|]]
[[siliclastic|]] lithologic modifiers sand-silt-clay
[[Depositional environment|]] -- see Aeolian
[[free access to stratigraphic data|]] [[services|]]

[[Green Sahara |]]
[[usgs Lithostratigraphy|]]

[[49 open questions in geoscience|]]

[[African dust caused red soil in southern Europe|]]

[[Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments|]]  book

[[Why GOE|]]

[[All about water |]]

 [[ triassic climate | ]] 
[[ Franck 2005 - Causes and timing of future biosphere extinctions|]]  biota evolution 

[[mammals and birds adaptation to cold | ]] 

 [[ how-much-biomass thru history |]]
[[total biomass image | ]]
[[human nitrogen input|]]
[[trade winds formation|]]
[[ mapa dos desertos |]]


The strip along the equator receives more solar radiation and hence there is more moisture in the air. This reduces the difference between maximum and minimum temperatures. As there exist more clouds the maximum temperatures are not as high as in other *temperate* regions of the Earth.  
**An *If*:**    
If there is global warming then the equatorial region becomes larger and, in the extreme limit all the earth would have equatorial climate.  
With global cooling the process would be the reverse:
The equatorial area reduces, the air is dryer, increase of the contrast between maximum and minimum temperatures (diurnal and annual), increase the erosion and greater intensity of local winds.
So, in this global cooling scenario deserts get bigger.
Because the maximum temperatures are increasing, most people and also many scientists, get the wrong impression that we are living in a global warming cycle.


About the Sahel:  
Most of the hot deserts extend from latitude 15 to 35º degrees because they depend on the [trade winds][1]. As explained above the long term evolution of the equatorial zone should be shrinking from a global cooling viewpoint and then the [desert land strips][2] will approach the equator invading the Sahel and the south of Angola.   

Q - about the geological record of the oldest desert similar to the Sahara one.

What is the oldest record in the stratigraphic layers of a desert similar to the Sahara one    

|Author|Eric Shulman|
|Description|Documentation for AttachFilePlugin|
Store or link binary files (such as jpg, gif, pdf or even mp3) within your TiddlyWiki document and then use them as images or links from within your tiddler content.
!!!!!Inline interface (live)
>see [[AttachFile]] (shadow tiddler)
><<tiddler AttachFile>>
''To display the attach file control panel, simply view the [[AttachFile]] shadow tiddler that is automatically created by the plugin, and contains an instance of the inline control panel.''.  Or, you can write:
<<attach inline>>
in any tiddler to display the control panel embedded within that tiddler.  Note: you can actually use any unique identifier in place of the "inline" keyword.  Each unique id creates a separate instance of the controls.  If the same ID is used in more than one tiddler, then the control panel is automatically moved to the most recently rendered location.  Or, you can write:
(with no ID parameter) in SidebarOptions.  This adds a command link that opens the controls as a floating panel, positioned directly to the left of the sidebar.
Binary file content can be stored in three different locations:
#embedded in the attachment tiddler (encoded as base64)
#on your filesystem (a 'local link' path/filename)
#on a web server (a 'remote link' URL)
The plugin creates an "attachment tiddler" for each file you attach.  Regardless of where you store the binary content, your document can refer to the attachment tiddler rather than using a direct file or URL reference in your embedded image or external links, so that changing document locations will not require updating numerous tiddlers or copying files from one system to another.
> Important note: As of version 3.6.0, in order to //render// images and other binary attachments created with this plugin, you must also install [[AttachFilePluginFormatters]], which extends the behavior of the TiddlyWiki core formatters for embedded images ({{{[img[tooltip|image]]}}}), linked embedded images ({{{[img[tooltip|image][link]]}}}), and external/"pretty" links ({{{[[label|link]]}}}), so that these formatter will process references to attachment tiddlers as if a normal file reference had been provided. |
When you attach a file, a tiddler (tagged with<<tag attachment>>) is generated (using the source filename as the tiddler's title).  The tiddler contains //''base64 text-encoded binary data''//, surrounded by {{{/%...%/}}} comment markers (so they are not visible when viewing the tiddler).  The tiddler also includes summary details about the file: when it was attached, by whom, etc. and, if the attachment is an image file (jpg, gif, or png), the image is automatically displayed below the summary information.
>Note: although you can edit an attachment tiddler, ''don't change any of the encoded content below the attachment header'', as it has been prepared for use in the rest of your document, and even changing a single character can make the attachment unusable.  //If needed, you ''can'' edit the header information or even the MIME type declaration in the attachment data, but be very careful not to change any of the base64-encoded binary data.//
Unfortunately, embedding just a few moderately-sized binary files using base64 text-encoding can dramatically increase the size of your document.   To avoid this problem, you can create attachment tiddlers that define external local filesystem (file://) and/or remote web server (http://) 'reference' links, without embedding the binary data directly in the tiddler (i.e., uncheck "embed data" in the 'control panel').

These links provide an alternative source for the binary data: if embedded data is not found (or you are running on Internet Explorer, which does not currently support using embedded data), then the plugin tries the local filesystem reference.  If a local file is not found, then the remote reference (if any) is used.  This "fallback" approach also lets you 'virtualize' the external links in your document, so that you can access very large binary content such as PDFs, MP3's, and even *video* files, by using just a 'remote reference link' without embedding any data or downloading huge files to your hard disk.

Of course, when you //do// download an attached file, the local copy will be used instead of accessing a remote server each time, thereby saving bandwidth and allowing you to 'go mobile' without having to edit any tiddlers to alter the link locations...
!!!!!Syntax / Examples
To embed attached files as images or link to them from other tiddlers, use the standard ~TiddlyWiki image syntax ({{{[img[tooltip|filename]]}}}), linked image syntax ({{{[img[tooltip|filename][tiddlername]]}}}) , or "external link" syntax ({{{[[text|URL]]}}}), replacing the filename or URL that is normally entered with the title of an attachment tiddler.

embedded image data:
embedded image data with link to larger remote image:
>{{{[img[click for larger view|AttachFileSample][AttachFileSample2]]}}}
>[img[click for larger view|AttachFileSample][AttachFileSample2]]
'external' link to embedded image data:
>{{{[[click to view attachment|AttachFileSample]]}}}
>[[click to view attachment|AttachFileSample]]
'external' link to remote image:
>{{{[[click to view attachment|AttachFileSample2]]}}}
>[[click to view attachment|AttachFileSample2]]
regular ~TiddlyWiki links to attachment tiddlers:
>{{{[[AttachFileSample]]}}} [[AttachFileSample]]
>{{{[[AttachFileSample2]]}}} [[AttachFileSample2]]
!!!!!Defining MIME types
When you select a source file, a ''[[MIME|]]'' file type is automatically suggested, based on filename extension.  The AttachFileMIMETypes tiddler defines the list of MIME types that will be recognized by the plugin.  Each MIME type definition consists of exactly two lines of text: the official MIME type designator (e.g., "text/plain", "image/gif", etc.), and a space-separated list of file extensions associated with that type.  List entries are separated by "----" (horizontal rules).
!!!!!Known Limitations
Internet Explorer does not support the data: URI scheme, and cannot use the //embedded// data to render images or links.  However, you can still use the local/remote link definitions to create file attachments that are stored externally.  In addition, while it is relatively easy to read local //text// files, reading binary files is not directly supported by IE's FileSystemObject (FSO) methods, and other file I/O techniques are subject to security barriers or require additional MS proprietary technologies (like ASP or VB) that make implementation more difficult.  As a result, you cannot //create// new attachment tiddlers using IE.
Import (or copy/paste) the following tiddlers into your document:
* [[AttachFilePlugin]] (tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>)
* [[AttachFilePluginFormatters]] ("runtime distribution library") (tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>)
* [[AttachFileSample]] and [[AttachFileSample2]] //(tagged with <<tag attachment>>)//
* [[AttachFileMIMETypes]] //(defines binary file types)//
> Important note: As of version 3.6.0, in order to //render// images and other binary attachments created with this plugin, you must also install [[AttachFilePluginFormatters]], which extends the behavior of the TiddlyWiki core formatters for embedded images ({{{[img[tooltip|image]]}}}), linked embedded images ({{{[img[tooltip|image][link]]}}}), and external/"pretty" links ({{{[[label|link]]}}}), so that these formatter will process references to attachment tiddlers as if a normal file reference had been provided. |
2009.06.04 4.0.0 changed attachment storage format to use //sections// instead of embedded substring markers.
2008.07.21 3.9.0 Fixup for FireFox 3: use HTML with separate text+button control instead of type='file' control
2008.05.12 3.8.1 automatically add 'attach' task to backstage (moved from BackstageTweaks)
2008.04.09 3.8.0 in onChangeSource(), if source matches current document folder, use relative reference for local link.  Also, disable 'embed' when using IE (which //still// doesn't support data: URI)
2008.04.07 3.7.3 fixed typo in HTML for 'local file link' so that clicking in input field doesn't erase current path/file (if any)
2008.04.07 3.7.2 auto-create AttachFile shadow tiddler for inline interface
2008.01.08 [*.*.*] plugin size reduction: documentation moved to ...Info
2007.12.04 [*.*.*] update for TW2.3.0: replaced deprecated core functions, regexps, and macros
2007.12.03 3.7.1 in createAttachmentTiddler(), added optional "noshow" flag to suppress display of newly created tiddlers.
2007.10.29 3.7.0 code reduction: removed support for built-in upload to server... on-line hosting of binary attachments is left to the document author, who can upload/host files using 3rd-party web-based services (e.g., ) or stand-alone applications (e.g., FTP).
2007.10.28 3.6.0 code reduction: removed duplicate definition of image and prettyLink formatters.  Rendering of attachment tiddlers now //requires// installation of AttachFilePluginFormatters
2007.03.01 3.5.3 use apply() to invoke hijacked function
2007.02.25 3.5.2 in hijack of "prettyLink", fix version check for TW2.2 compatibility (prevent incorrect use of fallback handler)
2007.01.09 3.5.1 onClickAttach() refactored to create separate createAttachmentTiddler() API for use with FileDropPluginHandlers
2006.11.30 3.5.0 in getAttachment(), for local references, add check for file existence and fallback to remote URL if local file not found.  Added fileExists() to encapsulate FF vs. IE local file test function (IE FSO object code is TBD).
2006.11.29 3.4.8 in hijack for PrettyLink, 'simple bracketed link' opens tiddler instead of external link to attachment
2006.11.29 3.4.7 in readFile(), added try..catch around initWithPath() to handle invalid/non-existent paths better.
2006.11.09 3.4.6 REAL FIX for TWv2.1.3: incorporate new TW2.1.3 core "prettyLink" formatter regexp handling logic and check for version < 2.1.3 with fallback to old plugin code.  Also, cleanup table layout in HTML (added "border:0" directly to table elements to override stylesheet)
2006.11.08 3.4.5 TEMPORARY FIX for TWv2.1.3: disable hijack of wikiLink formatter due to changes in core wikiLink regexp definition.  //Links to attachments are broken, but you can still use {{{[img[TiddlerName]]}}} to render attachments as images, as well as {{{background:url('[[TiddlerName]]')}}} in CSS declarations for background images.//
2006.09.10 3.4.4 update formatters for 2.1 compatibility (use this.lookaheadRegExp instead of temp variable)
2006.07.24 3.4.3 in prettyLink formatter, added check for isShadowTiddler() to fix problem where shadow links became external links.
2006.07.13 3.4.2 in getAttachment(), fixed stripping of newlines so data: used in CSS will work
2006.05.21 3.4.1 in getAttachment(), fixed substring() to extract data: URI (was losing last character, which broken rendering of SOME images)
2006.05.20 3.4.0 hijack core getRecursiveTiddlerText() to support rendering attachments in stylesheets (e.g. {{{url([[AttachFileSample]])}}})
2006.05.20 3.3.6 add "description" feature to easily include notes in attachment tiddler (you can always edit to add them later... but...)
2006.05.19 3.3.5 add "attach as" feature to change default name for attachment tiddlers.  Also, new optional param to specify tiddler name (disables editing)
2006.05.16 3.3.0 completed XMLHttpRequest handling for GET or POST to configurable server scripts
2006.05.13 3.2.0 added interface for upload feature.  Major rewrite of code for clean object definitions.  Major improvements in UI interaction and validation.
2006.05.09 3.1.1 add wikifer support for using attachments in links from "linked image" syntax: {{{[img[tip|attachment1][attachment2]]}}}
2006.05.09 3.1.0 lots of code changes: new options for attachments that use embedded data and/or links to external files (local or remote)
2006.05.03 3.0.2 added {{{/%...%/}}} comments around attachment data to hide it when viewing attachment tiddler.
2006.02.05 3.0.1 wrapped wikifier hijacks in initAttachmentFormatters() function to eliminate globals and avoid FireFox crash bug when referencing globals
2005.12.27 3.0.0 Update for TW2.0.  Automatically add 'excludeMissing' tag to attachments
2005.12.16 2.2.0 Dynamically create/remove attachPanel as needed to ensure only one instance of interface elements exists, even if there are multiple instances of macro embedding.
2005.11.20 2.1.0 added wikifier handler extensions for "image" and "prettyLink" to render tiddler attachments
2005.11.09 2.0.0 begin port from old ELS Design adaptation based on ~TW1.2.33
2005.07.20 1.0.0 Initial release (as adaptation)
!''[[Download all 3-Body simulations - initial perpendicular orbits (7.5Mb xls|]]''

!Experiment 5
|!particle|! position |! velocity |! mass |
| 1 | (0,0,0) | (0 ,0 ,0)  | 1000 |
| 2 | (  -5 ,  -5 ,0) | ( 10, -5 ,0)  | 20 |
| 3 | (  0 ,  5 , -5) | ( 0, 10 ,5)  | 20 |
initial img
<<image width:400>> [img[full|]] 

moment 2
<<image width:400>> [img[]] 

moment 3
<<image width:400>> [img[]] 

moment 4, take 1
<<image width:400>> [img[full|]] 

moment 4, take 2
<<image width:400>> [img[full|]] 

moment 4, take 3
<<image width:400>> [img[full|]] 

moment 4, take 4
<<image width:400>> [img[full|]] 

moment 5, take 1
<<image width:400>> [img[full|]] 

moment 5, take 2
<<image width:400>> [img[full|]] 

moment 5, take 3
<<image width:400>> [img[full|]] 

moment 5, take 4
<<image width:400>> [img[full|]] 

moment 5, take 5
<<image width:400>> [img[full|]] 

moment 5, take 6
<<image width:400>> [img[full|]] 

moment 5, take 7
<<image width:400>> [img[full|]] 

![[Does nature convert mass into energy?|]] Ralph Baierlein

!Einstein - ''a magnetic field was nothing else but an electric field'' 


How can ''complementarity of electric and magnetic forces'' be deduced from: ''a magnetic field was nothing else but an electric field''   ?

> In 1953 ''Albert Einstein'' wrote to the Cleveland Physics Society on the occasion of a commemoration of the Michelson–Morley experiment. In that letter he wrote:[1]
>> What led me more or less directly to the special theory of relativity was the conviction that the electromotive force acting on a body in motion in ''a magnetic field was nothing else but an electric field''.
> This statement by Einstein reveals that he investigated spacetime symmetries to determine the ''complementarity of electric and magnetic forces''.

[[The field of a moving point charge|]]
[img[field of particle in its rest frame|]] [img[field of particle in motion |]]
>In the rest frame of the particle, the point charge can be imagined to be surrounded by a spherical shell which is also at rest. In our reference frame, however, both the particle and its sphere are moving. Length contraction therefore states that the sphere is deformed into an oblate spheroid, as shown

!the radiation field of an accelerated charge is a classic field
[[see PSE|]]

[[Dynamics of Electric Fields and Gravitation|]] harpaz 2006
[[Radiation From an Electric Charge|]] Amos Harpaz & Noam Soker 2001

>The conditions in which electromagnetic radiation is formed are discussed. It is found that the ''main condition for the emission of radiation by an electric charge is the existence of a relative acceleration between the charge and its electric field''. Such a situation exists both for a charge accelerated in a free space, and for a charge supported at rest in a gravitational field. Hence, in such situations, the charges radiate. It is also shown that relating radiation to the relative acceleration between a charge and its electric field, solves several difficulties that existed in earlier approaches, like the “energy balance paradox,” and the “relativistic” nature of the observation of the emitted radiation

[[Equivalence principle and radiation by a uniformly accelerated charged particle|]] 2000
>We address the old question of whether or not a uniformly accelerated charged particle radiates, and consequently, if weak equivalence principle is violated by electrodynamics. We show that radiation has different meanings; some absolute, some relative. ''Detecting photons or electromagnetic waves is NOT absolute'', it depends both on the electromagnetic field and on the state of motion of the antenna. An antenna used by a Rindler observer does not detect any radiation from a uniformly accelerated co-moving charged particle. Therefore, a Rindler observer cannot decide whether or not he is in an accelerated lab or in a gravitational field. We also discuss the general case.

[[Does a Charged Particle in Free Fall Radiate? |]] several links 

[[WP - Paradox of a charge in a gravitational field |]]
> We understand a photon to be the quantum of the electromagnetic radiation field, but the radiation field is a classical concept.

>So a falling charge will appear to radiate to a supported observer, as expected. What about a supported charge, then? Does it not radiate due to the equivalence principle? To answer this question, start again in the falling frame.
>In the falling frame, the supported charge appears to be accelerated uniformly upward. The case of constant acceleration of a charge is treated by Rohrlich [1] in section 5-3. He finds a charge e uniformly accelerated at rate g has a radiation rate given by the Lorentz invariant:

$$R={2\over 3}{e^2\over c^3} g^2$$

>The corresponding electric and magnetic fields of an accelerated charge are also given in Rohrlich section 5-3. To find the fields of the charge in the supported frame, the fields of the uniformly accelerated charge are transformed according to the coordinate transformation previously given. When that is done, one finds no radiation in the supported frame from a supported charge, because the magnetic field is zero in this frame. Rohrlich does note that the gravitational field slightly distorts the Coulomb field of the supported charge, but too small to be observable. So although the Coulomb law was of course discovered in a supported frame, relativity tells us the field of such a charge is not precisely 1/r^2.
>The radiation from the supported charge is something of a curiosity: where does it go? Boulware (1980) [2] finds that the radiation goes into a region of spacetime inaccessible to the co-accelerating, supported observer. In effect, a uniformly accelerated observer has an event horizon, and there are regions of spacetime inaccessible to this observer. de Almeida and Saa (2006) [3] have a more-accessible treatment of the event horizon of the accelerated observer.

[[Alberto Saa, Camila de Almeida |]]
>By exploring some elementary consequences of the covariance of Maxwell’sequations under general coordinate transformations, we show that even though inertial observers can detect electromagnetic radiation emitted from a uniformly accelerated charge, comoving observers will see only a static electric field. This analysis can add insight into one of the most celebrated paradoxes of the last century.

!satellite ranging [[LARES (lense-thirring)|]], LAGEOS missions 

Why there are no news on LARES data since June/2013 ?

[[explain Fig. 8|]]. Along-track deviations from geodesic motion of some laser ranged satellites after
modelling the known orbital perturbations.

[[Testing General Relativity and gravitational physics using the LARES

[[First results from LARES: An analysis - abstract|]]
•The estimated residual along-track LARES acceleration is 4×10-13 ms−2.
•The predicted frame-dragging along-track LARES acceleration is 3×10-14 ms−2.
•The 1PN Schwarzschild along-track LARES effect is indirectly confirmed at 5%.
•The along-track LARES effects of modified gravities are orders of magnitude smaller than 4×10-13 ms−2.
•The estimated geopotential coefficients are less accurate than those by GRACE/GOCE by orders of magnitude.
[[rebound|]] N-body framework integrators


[[An adaptive N-body algorithm of optimal order|]]
[[Polynomial ODEs - Examples, Solutions, Properties James S. Sochacki|]] Example 7
[[Spiking neural network simulation: numerical integration with the Parker-Sochacki method|]] explained
[[Polynomial ODEs - Examples, Solutions, Properties|]]

Handling People

Discrediting a report


Give reasons in terms of the public interest to not publish the

 - Say there are security considerations.

 - Point out report could be used to put unwelcome pressure on your
   group because it might be interpreted.

 - Say it would be better to wait for a wider and more detailed study
   over a longer time scale.

    - If there isn't one, commission one.


Discredit the evidence you are not publishing via press leaks.

 - Say it leaves some important questions unanswered.

 - Say much of the evidence is inconclusive.

 - Say that the figures are open to other interpretations.

 - Say that certain findings are contradictory.

 - Say that some of the main conclusions have been questioned.

    - If they haven't, question them.


Undermine the recommendations.

 - Say that it is not really a basis for long-term decisions.

 - Say that there is not sufficient information on which to base a
   valid assessment.

 - Say that there is not really any need for a fundamental rethink of
   existing policies.

 - Say that broadly speaking, it endorses current practice.


Discredit the man who produced the report, off the record.

 - Say that he is harbouring a grudge against your group.

 - Say that he's a publicity seeker.

 - Say that he used to be a consultant to a multi-national company.

    - If he wasn't, say that he's hoping to be.

 - Say that he's trying for a knighthood, vice-chancellorship, or similar.

(Ref: "Yes, Minister", /The Greasy Pole/. BBC, 1981.)

Ending a report

Courageous: "On the existing evidence, the committee can see no reason
not to proceed".

Careful: "While the committee feel there is no reason not to proceed
on the existing evidence, it must be emphasised that %s is
comparatively recent and it would be irresponsible to deny, that after
further research, it might be proved to be [bad]."

(Ref: "Yes, Minister", /The Greasy Pole/. BBC, 1981.)

Advising ignoring a situation

STAGE 1: There is no situation.

STAGE 2: There is a situation, but nothing needs doing.

STAGE 3: Something needs doing, but nothing can be done.

STAGE 4: Something could have been done, but it is too late.

(Ref: "Yes, Prime Minister", /A Victory For Democracy/. BBC, 1986.)


(See chapter 40 of the second season DVD of Yes, Minister".)

Fighting people

Don't fight people on battle-fields of their choosing. Use the areas
they have no control over to fight them. Even if your real reason for
bringing someone down is X, use reason Y if X is that person's prime
concern -- so long as it gets them down, the official reason doesn't
matter. Invent new battlefields if necessary. People are always better
at defending themselves on their own grounds. (q.v. FBI vs Al Capone.)

Gettings things approved

If you want people to agree to something they don't want to agree to,
then insert it surreptitiously into a much larger work at the last
minute and then have people vote on the larger work. (q.v. inserting
riders into legislation in the US.)

Ignoring rules

If you don't agree with a rule you are told to follow, announce your
agreement to it in a statement, and in that statement, assert that you
intend to follow it in a manner consistent with some other set of
rules; or that you will consider certain passages as merely being
"advisory". (q.v. signing statements by the Bush administration.)


(1) Insist on doing everything through "channels." Never permit
short-cuts to be taken in order to expedite decisions.

(2) Make "speeches." Talk as frequently as possible and at great
length. Illustrate your "points" by long anecdotes and accounts of
personal experiences. Never hesitate to make a few appropriate
"patriotic" comments.

(3) When possible, refer all matters to committees, for "further study
and consideration." Attempt to make the committees as large as
possible -- never less than five.

(4) Bring up irrelevant issues as frequently as possible.

(5) Haggle over precise wordings of communications, minutes,

(6) Refer back to matters decided upon at the last meeting and attempt
to re-open the question of the advisability of that decision.

(7) Advocate "caution." Be "reasonable" and urge your fellow-conferees
to be "reasonable" and avoid haste which might result in
embarrassments or difficulties later on.

(8) Be worried about the propriety of any decision -- raise the
question of whether such action as is contemplated lies within the
jurisdiction of the group or whether it might conflict with the policy
of some higher echelon.

(Ref: Strategic Services Field Manual No. 3; "Simple Sabotage Field
Manual, Strategic Services (Provisional)"; Office of Strategic
Services, Washington, D. C., 17 January 1944; page 28)

Bertrand Russell’s 10 Commandments of Teaching

1. Do not feel absolutely certain of anything.

2. Do not think it worth while to proceed by concealing evidence, for
the evidence is sure to come to light.

3. Never try to discourage thinking for you are sure to succeed.

4. When you meet with opposition, even if it should be from your
husband or your children, endeavor to overcome it by argument and not
by authority, for a victory dependent upon authority is unreal and

5. Have no respect for the authority of others, for there are always
contrary authorities to be found.

6. Do not use power to suppress opinions you think pernicious, for if
you do the opinions will suppress you.

7. Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now
accepted was once eccentric.

8. Find more pleasure in intelligent dissent than in passive
agreement, for, if you value intelligence as you should, the former
implies a deeper agreement than the latter.

9. Be scrupulously truthful, even if the truth is inconvenient, for it
is more inconvenient when you try to conceal it.

10. Do not feel envious of the happiness of those who live in a fool’s
paradise, for only a fool will think that it is happiness.
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
	<meta charset="UTF-8">
	<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="IE=edge,chrome=1">
	<link rel="stylesheet" href="//">
		body {
			overflow: hidden;
			background-color: transparent;

		#container {
			/* prevent a fouc if no images present */
			display: none;

		.modal-header {
			border-bottom: none;
			padding: 5px 0 0;
			position: absolute;
			width: 100%;
			background-color: #e0e0e0;
			-webkit-border-radius: 6px 6px 0 0;
			-moz-border-radius: 6px 6px 0 0;
			border-radius: 6px 6px 0 0;
			cursor: move;

		.form-actions {
			position: absolute;
			bottom: 0;
			box-sizing: border-box;
			-moz-box-sizing: border-box;
			width: 100%;
			margin: 0;
			border-radius: 0 0 6px 6px;
			background-color: #e0e0e0;
			border-top: 1px solid gray;

		.form-actions input.btn {
			width: auto;
			float: right;
			margin: 0 0.2em;

		.closeBtn {
			background-color: #DCE7F1 !important;

		.primary {
			background-color: #09F !important;

		h1 {
			margin-bottom: 9px;
			margin-top: 9px;

		body {
			width: 100%;
			height: 100%;
			position: absolute;

		.modal {
			margin: 10px;
			top: 0;
			left: 0;
			bottom: 0;
			width: 510px;
			position: absolute;
			box-shadow: #444 0px 0px 10px 2px;
			border-radius: 6px;
			background-color: white;
			border: 1px solid gray;
			background-color: #F0F4F8;

		label em {
			cursor: pointer;

		.modal-body {
			overflow: auto;
			position: absolute;
			top: 0;
			bottom: 0;
			left: 0;
			right: 0;
			margin: 65px 20px 67px;
			background-color: transparent;

		.nav-tabs {
			padding-left: 1%;
			margin: 0;
			width: 99%;
			border-color: gray;

		.nav-tabs > li {
			cursor: pointer;

		.nav-tabs > li > a {
			line-height: 2.4em;
			font-weight: bold;
			font-size: 100%;

		.nav-tabs > > a{
			background-color: #F0F4F8;
			border-color: gray;
			border-bottom-color: #F0F4F8;

		.active {
			display: block;

		.uneditable-input {
			color: #606060;

		.imagePicker {
			-moz-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.1);
			-webkit-box-shadow: inset 0 1px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.1);
			box-shadow: inset 0 1px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.1);
			border: 1px solid #CCC;
			height: 110px;
			overflow: auto;
			-webkit-border-radius: 3px;
			-moz-border-radius: 3px;
			border-radius: 3px;
			margin-left: 0;

		.imagePicker img {
			margin: 5px;
			border: 2px solid transparent;

		.imagePicker .current {
			border: 2px dotted #555;

		label {
			font-weight: bold;

		.form-actions label {
			float: left;
			margin-top: 0.75em;

		fieldset input,
		fieldset textarea {
			width: 90%;
			border-color: gray;

		@media all and (max-width: 550px) {
			.modal {
				width: 95%;

		#help {
			position: absolute;
			border: 0;
			right: 4px;
			top: 5px;
			text-indent: -9999px;
			color: transparent;
			height: 16px;
			width: 16px;
			background: none;
			background-image: url(/bags/common/tiddlers/help.png);
			background-repeat: no-repeat;
			background-color: white;
			z-index: 2;
			border-radius: 10px;

		#help-info {
			padding: 0;
			border: 1px solid gray;
			width: 60%;
			height: 50px;
			color: #404040;
			background-color: white;
			position: absolute;
			top: 5px;
			right: 5px;
			z-index: 1;
			cursor: auto;
			border-radius: 5px;


		#help-info p {
			padding: 10px 25px;
			margin-bottom: 0;
	<div id="container">
		<form action="#" class="modal">
			<div class="modal-header">
				<button id="help">help</button>
				<div id="help-info" style="display:none;"><p>
				Found something interesting? Write about it in your own space. <a href="// to this Tiddler" target="_blank">Find out more</a>
				<ul class="nav nav-tabs" data-tabs="tabs">
					<li class="active" data-tab-name="post"><a href="#postForm">Reply</a></li>

			<fieldset id="postForm" class="modal-body">
					<input type="text" name="title">
				<input type="hidden" name="url">
					<textarea name="text" rows="8"></textarea>
					<input type="text" name="tags" value="">

			<div class="form-actions">
				<label class="checkbox">
					<input type="checkbox" name="private" val="private">
					keep private
				<input type="submit" class="btn primary btn-large" value="Done">
				<input type="button" class="btn btn-large closeBtn" value="Cancel">

	<script type="text/javascript"
	<script type="text/javascript" src="/bags/tiddlyspace/tiddlers/chrjs"></script>
	<script type="text/javascript" src="/bags/common/tiddlers/_reply.js"></script>
oDesk   remote workers
oDesk is a global job marketplace with a series of tools targeted at businesses that intend to hire and manage remote workers. Based in Redwood City, CA, oDesk was founded in 2005 by Greek entrepreneurs Odysseas Tsatalos and Stratis K


def r(theta):
    return (a-f^2/a)/(1+e*math.cos(theta))
## find the configuration at emission such that at Reflection produces an ellipse

#height at Reflection (= at emission)
def h_R(theta):
    return r(theta)*math.sin(math.pi-theta)
#theta at emission = theta at reflection + 370
def x_E(theta):
    return r(theta)*math.cos(math.pi-theta)+370
R=parametric_plot([x_E,h_R], (theta, 0, math.pi), fill = True, aspect_ratio=1)

## theoric position at emission
def th_E(theta):
    return a*math.sin(math.pi-theta)
def tx_E(theta):
    return a*math.cos(math.pi-theta)+2*f
T=parametric_plot([tx_E,th_E], (theta, 0, math.pi), fill = True, aspect_ratio=1)

# error theoric -real
def ex_E(theta):
    return tx_E(theta)-x_E(theta)
def eh_E(theta):
    return th_E(theta)-h_R(theta)
def e_a(theta):
    return sqrt(ex_E(theta)^2+eh_E(theta)^2)/a
def e_a_2(theta):
    return (ex_E(theta)^2+eh_E(theta)^2)/a^2
R=plot(r,(theta, 0, math.pi))
P=plot(e_a_2,(theta, 0, math.pi))


The angular error in the distance measure to spacecrafs
  We measure the distance to a spacecraft by sending a time encoded signal that it is reflected on it back to Earth. The assigned distance is half of the travel time.

We assume that a stable clock is used to encode the timed signals.

We are certain that all spacecrafts that are, for instance, at a distance of 1 light-second apart of the Earth are all at the same distance of the Earth center, and the loci are at a circunference of radius 1 light-sec.

Emission, Reflection and Reception are the moments relevant to the analysis of the geometry  of the problem of measure.

The motion of the the Earth in relation to the Solar System baricenter ( 29.77 km/s)  and the spacecraft velocity are both considered in the calculation (Pioneer 10 has 12 km/s) of the position at the moment of the beam reflection.

The geometry is no longer a circunference but an ellipse because of its peculiarity: the sum of the distances from any point of it to both focus is equal to the length of the major axis.

In the moment of the emission the Earth occupy one focus and in the moment of the reception define the locus of the other focus. In between the moments of emission and reception the Earth moved the distance between both focus.

Thus we can define: the objects that are one light-sec apart of the Earth are those that at the moment of the reflection lie on the ellipse that has those focus. The major axis is in the direction of the motion of the Earth and its size is 1 light-sec.

The analisys of the CMB radiation quantified the collective motion of the Solar System, and the Earth, in direction to ... (coords),  with a velocity of $\pm370 km/s$. The dispersion of velocity of the Earth torough space vary between 340 km/s to 400 km/s and we cannot disregard it in the computation of the positions of the spacecrafs.

The errors associated to this fact will be calculated now, for the first time, in function of the angle $\theta$ between the direction of motion (CMB dipole vector) and the direction of the spacecraft.

Geometry for spacecrafs 1 light-sec apart of Earth:
Ellipse with the major axis in the direction of Solar System motion :

* angle $\theta$ between the direction of motion and the spacecraft at reflection moment
* major axis :  a=300000 km
* distance between focus : f=400 km
* eccentricity e=f/a
* total path length of light between emission(E) and reception(R) : 2*a
* at the moment of beam reflection on the spacecraft
 * distance between reception(R) and reflection(r) $d_Rr=(a-f^2/a)/(1+e*\cos(\theta))$
 * distance between  reflection(r) and major axis
 * projection of $d_Rr$ in the major axis $x_ra=d_Rr*\cos{(\pi-\theta)}$

#height at Reflection (= at emission)
def h_R(theta):
    return r(theta)*math.sin(math.pi-theta)
#theta at emission = theta at reflection + 370
def x_E(theta):
    return r(theta)*math.cos(math.pi-theta)+370
R=parametric_plot([x_E,h_R], (theta, 0, math.pi), fill = True, aspect_ratio=1)
@@Please do not modify this tiddler; it was created automatically upon space creation.@@
|''Description''|adaptor for interacting with TiddlyWeb|
|''Contributors''|Chris Dent, Martin Budden|
|''Keywords''|serverSide TiddlyWeb|
This plugin includes [[jQuery JSON|]].
!To Do
* createWorkspace
* document custom/optional context attributes (e.g. filters, query, revision) and tiddler fields (e.g. server.title, origin)
(function($) {

var adaptor = config.adaptors.tiddlyweb = function() {};

adaptor.prototype = new AdaptorBase();
adaptor.serverType = "tiddlyweb";
adaptor.serverLabel = "TiddlyWeb";
adaptor.mimeType = "application/json";

adaptor.parsingErrorMessage = "Error parsing result from server";
adaptor.noBagErrorMessage = "no bag specified for tiddler";
adaptor.locationIDErrorMessage = "no bag or recipe specified for tiddler"; // TODO: rename

// retrieve current status (requires TiddlyWeb status plugin)
adaptor.prototype.getStatus = function(context, userParams, callback) {
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams, callback);
	var uriTemplate = "%0/status";
	var uri = uriTemplate.format([]);
	var req = httpReq("GET", uri, adaptor.getStatusCallback, context,
		null, null, null, null, null, true);
	return typeof req == "string" ? req : true;

adaptor.getStatusCallback = function(status, context, responseText, uri, xhr) {
	context.status = responseText ? status : false;
	try {
		context.statusText = xhr.statusText;
	} catch(exc) { // offline (Firefox)
		context.status = false;
		context.statusText = null;
	context.httpStatus = xhr.status;
	if(context.status) {
		context.serverStatus = $.evalJSON(responseText); // XXX: error handling!?
	if(context.callback) {
		context.callback(context, context.userParams);

// retrieve a list of workspaces
adaptor.prototype.getWorkspaceList = function(context, userParams, callback) {
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams, callback);
	context.workspaces = [];
	var uriTemplate = "%0/recipes"; // XXX: bags?
	var uri = uriTemplate.format([]);
	var req = httpReq("GET", uri, adaptor.getWorkspaceListCallback,
		context, { accept: adaptor.mimeType }, null, null, null, null, true);
	return typeof req == "string" ? req : true;

adaptor.getWorkspaceListCallback = function(status, context, responseText, uri, xhr) {
	context.status = status;
	context.statusText = xhr.statusText;
	context.httpStatus = xhr.status;
	if(status) {
		try {
			var workspaces = $.evalJSON(responseText);
		} catch(ex) {
			context.status = false; // XXX: correct?
			context.statusText = exceptionText(ex, adaptor.parsingErrorMessage);
			if(context.callback) {
				context.callback(context, context.userParams);
		context.workspaces = { return { title: itm }; });
	if(context.callback) {
		context.callback(context, context.userParams);

// retrieve a list of tiddlers
adaptor.prototype.getTiddlerList = function(context, userParams, callback) {
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams, callback);
	var uriTemplate = "%0/%1/%2/tiddlers%3";
	var params = context.filters ? "?" + context.filters : "";
	if(context.format) {
		params = context.format + params;
	var workspace = adaptor.resolveWorkspace(context.workspace);
	var uri = uriTemplate.format([, workspace.type + "s",
		adaptor.normalizeTitle(, params]);
	var req = httpReq("GET", uri, adaptor.getTiddlerListCallback,
		context, merge({ accept: adaptor.mimeType }, context.headers), null, null, null, null, true);
	return typeof req == "string" ? req : true;

adaptor.getTiddlerListCallback = function(status, context, responseText, uri, xhr) {
	context.status = status;
	context.statusText = xhr.statusText;
	context.httpStatus = xhr.status;
	if(status) {
		context.tiddlers = [];
		try {
			var tiddlers = $.evalJSON(responseText); //# NB: not actual tiddler instances
		} catch(ex) {
			context.status = false; // XXX: correct?
			context.statusText = exceptionText(ex, adaptor.parsingErrorMessage);
			if(context.callback) {
				context.callback(context, context.userParams);
		for(var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			var tiddler = adaptor.toTiddler(tiddlers[i],;
	if(context.callback) {
		context.callback(context, context.userParams);

// perform global search
adaptor.prototype.getSearchResults = function(context, userParams, callback) {
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams, callback);
	var uriTemplate = "%0/search?q=%1%2";
	var filterString = context.filters ? ";" + context.filters : "";
	var uri = uriTemplate.format([, context.query, filterString]); // XXX: parameters need escaping?
	var req = httpReq("GET", uri, adaptor.getSearchResultsCallback,
		context, { accept: adaptor.mimeType }, null, null, null, null, true);
	return typeof req == "string" ? req : true;

adaptor.getSearchResultsCallback = function(status, context, responseText, uri, xhr) {
	adaptor.getTiddlerListCallback(status, context, responseText, uri, xhr); // XXX: use apply?

// retrieve a particular tiddler's revisions
adaptor.prototype.getTiddlerRevisionList = function(title, limit, context, userParams, callback) {
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams, callback);
	var uriTemplate = "%0/%1/%2/tiddlers/%3/revisions";
	var workspace = adaptor.resolveWorkspace(context.workspace);
	var uri = uriTemplate.format([, workspace.type + "s",
		adaptor.normalizeTitle(, adaptor.normalizeTitle(title)]);
	var req = httpReq("GET", uri, adaptor.getTiddlerRevisionListCallback,
		context, merge({ accept: adaptor.mimeType }, context.headers), null, null, null, null, true);
	return typeof req == "string" ? req : true;

adaptor.getTiddlerRevisionListCallback = function(status, context, responseText, uri, xhr) {
	context.status = status;
	context.statusText = xhr.statusText;
	context.httpStatus = xhr.status;
	if(status) {
		context.revisions = [];
		try {
			var tiddlers = $.evalJSON(responseText); //# NB: not actual tiddler instances
		} catch(ex) {
			context.status = false; // XXX: correct?
			context.statusText = exceptionText(ex, adaptor.parsingErrorMessage);
			if(context.callback) {
				context.callback(context, context.userParams);
		for(var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
			var tiddler = adaptor.toTiddler(tiddlers[i],;
		var sortField = "";
		context.revisions.sort(function(a, b) {
			return a.fields[sortField] < b.fields[sortField] ? 1 :
				(a.fields[sortField] == b.fields[sortField] ? 0 : -1);
	if(context.callback) {
		context.callback(context, context.userParams);

// retrieve an individual tiddler revision -- XXX: breaks with standard arguments list -- XXX: convenience function; simply use getTiddler?
adaptor.prototype.getTiddlerRevision = function(title, revision, context, userParams, callback) {
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams, callback);
	context.revision = revision;
	return this.getTiddler(title, context, userParams, callback);

// retrieve an individual tiddler
//# context is an object with members host and workspace
//# callback is passed the new context and userParams
adaptor.prototype.getTiddler = function(title, context, userParams, callback) {
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams, callback);
	context.title = title;
	if(context.revision) {
		var uriTemplate = "%0/%1/%2/tiddlers/%3/revisions/%4";
	} else {
		uriTemplate = "%0/%1/%2/tiddlers/%3";
	if(!context.tiddler) {
		context.tiddler = new Tiddler(title);
	context.tiddler.fields["server.type"] = adaptor.serverType;
	context.tiddler.fields[""] = AdaptorBase.minHostName(;
	context.tiddler.fields["server.workspace"] = context.workspace;
	var workspace = adaptor.resolveWorkspace(context.workspace);
	var uri = uriTemplate.format([, workspace.type + "s",
		adaptor.normalizeTitle(, adaptor.normalizeTitle(title),
	var req = httpReq("GET", uri, adaptor.getTiddlerCallback, context,
		merge({ accept: adaptor.mimeType }, context.headers), null, null, null, null, true);
	return typeof req == "string" ? req : true;

adaptor.getTiddlerCallback = function(status, context, responseText, uri, xhr) {
	context.status = status;
	context.statusText = xhr.statusText;
	context.httpStatus = xhr.status;
	if(status) {
		try {
			var tid = $.evalJSON(responseText);
		} catch(ex) {
			context.status = false;
			context.statusText = exceptionText(ex, adaptor.parsingErrorMessage);
			if(context.callback) {
				context.callback(context, context.userParams);
		var tiddler = adaptor.toTiddler(tid,;
		tiddler.title = context.tiddler.title;
		tiddler.fields["server.etag"] = xhr.getResponseHeader("Etag");
		// normally we'd assign context.tiddler = tiddler here - but we can't do
		// that because of IE, which triggers getTiddler in putTiddlerCallback,
		// and since ServerSideSavingPlugin foolishly relies on persistent
		// object references, we need to merge the data into the existing object
		$.extend(context.tiddler, tiddler);
	if(context.callback) {
		context.callback(context, context.userParams);

// retrieve tiddler chronicle (all revisions)
adaptor.prototype.getTiddlerChronicle = function(title, context, userParams, callback) {
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams, callback);
	context.title = title;
	var uriTemplate = "%0/%1/%2/tiddlers/%3/revisions?fat=1";
	var workspace = adaptor.resolveWorkspace(context.workspace);
	var uri = uriTemplate.format([, workspace.type + "s",
		adaptor.normalizeTitle(, adaptor.normalizeTitle(title)]);
	var req = httpReq("GET", uri, adaptor.getTiddlerChronicleCallback,
		context, { accept: adaptor.mimeType }, null, null, null, null, true);
	return typeof req == "string" ? req : true;

adaptor.getTiddlerChronicleCallback = function(status, context, responseText, uri, xhr) {
	context.status = status;
	context.statusText = xhr.statusText;
	context.httpStatus = xhr.status;
	if(status) {
		context.responseText = responseText;
	if(context.callback) {
		context.callback(context, context.userParams);

// store an individual tiddler
adaptor.prototype.putTiddler = function(tiddler, context, userParams, callback) {
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams, callback);
	context.title = tiddler.title;
	context.tiddler = tiddler; = || this.fullHostName(tiddler.fields[""]);
	var uriTemplate = "%0/%1/%2/tiddlers/%3";
	try {
		context.workspace = context.workspace || tiddler.fields["server.workspace"];
		var workspace = adaptor.resolveWorkspace(context.workspace);
	} catch(ex) {
		return adaptor.locationIDErrorMessage;
	var uri = uriTemplate.format([, workspace.type + "s",
	var etag = adaptor.generateETag(workspace, tiddler);
	var headers = etag ? { "If-Match": etag } : null;
	var payload = {
		type: tiddler.fields["server.content-type"] || null,
		text: tiddler.text,
		tags: tiddler.tags,
		fields: $.extend({}, tiddler.fields)
	delete payload.fields.changecount;
	$.each(payload.fields, function(key, value) {
		if(key.indexOf("server.") == 0) {
			delete payload.fields[key];
	payload = $.toJSON(payload);
	var req = httpReq("PUT", uri, adaptor.putTiddlerCallback,
		context, headers, payload, adaptor.mimeType, null, null, true);
	return typeof req == "string" ? req : true;

adaptor.putTiddlerCallback = function(status, context, responseText, uri, xhr) {
	context.status = [204, 1223].contains(xhr.status);
	context.statusText = xhr.statusText;
	context.httpStatus = xhr.status;
	if(context.status) {
		var loc = xhr.getResponseHeader("Location");
		var etag = xhr.getResponseHeader("Etag");
		if(loc && etag) {
			var bag = loc.split("/bags/").pop().split("/")[0];
			context.tiddler.fields["server.bag"] = bag;
			context.tiddler.fields["server.workspace"] = "bags/" + bag;
			var rev = etag.split("/").pop().split(/;|:/)[0];
			context.tiddler.fields[""] = rev;
			context.tiddler.fields["server.etag"] = etag;
			if(context.callback) {
				context.callback(context, context.userParams);
		} else { // IE
			context.adaptor.getTiddler(context.tiddler.title, context,
				context.userParams, context.callback);
	} else if(context.callback) {
		context.callback(context, context.userParams);

// store a tiddler chronicle
adaptor.prototype.putTiddlerChronicle = function(revisions, context, userParams, callback) {
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams, callback);
	context.title = revisions[0].title;
	var headers = null;
	var uriTemplate = "%0/%1/%2/tiddlers/%3/revisions";
	var host = || this.fullHostName(tiddler.fields[""]);
	var workspace = adaptor.resolveWorkspace(context.workspace);
	var uri = uriTemplate.format([host, workspace.type + "s",
	if(workspace.type == "bag") { // generate ETag
		var etag = [adaptor.normalizeTitle(,
			adaptor.normalizeTitle(context.title), 0].join("/"); //# zero-revision prevents overwriting existing contents
		headers = { "If-Match": '"' + etag + '"' };
	var payload = $.toJSON(revisions);
	var req = httpReq("POST", uri, adaptor.putTiddlerChronicleCallback,
		context, headers, payload, adaptor.mimeType, null, null, true);
	return typeof req == "string" ? req : true;

adaptor.putTiddlerChronicleCallback = function(status, context, responseText, uri, xhr) {
	context.status = [204, 1223].contains(xhr.status);
	context.statusText = xhr.statusText;
	context.httpStatus = xhr.status;
	if(context.callback) {
		context.callback(context, context.userParams);

// store a collection of tiddlers (import TiddlyWiki HTML store)
adaptor.prototype.putTiddlerStore = function(store, context, userParams, callback) {
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams, callback);
	var uriTemplate = "%0/%1/%2/tiddlers";
	var host =;
	var workspace = adaptor.resolveWorkspace(context.workspace);
	var uri = uriTemplate.format([host, workspace.type + "s",
	var req = httpReq("POST", uri, adaptor.putTiddlerStoreCallback,
		context, null, store, "text/x-tiddlywiki", null, null, true);
	return typeof req == "string" ? req : true;

adaptor.putTiddlerStoreCallback = function(status, context, responseText, uri, xhr) {
	context.status = [204, 1223].contains(xhr.status);
	context.statusText = xhr.statusText;
	context.httpStatus = xhr.status;
	if(context.callback) {
		context.callback(context, context.userParams);

// rename an individual tiddler or move it to a different workspace -- TODO: make {from|to}.title optional
//# from and to are objects with members title and workspace (bag; optional),
//# representing source and target tiddler, respectively
adaptor.prototype.moveTiddler = function(from, to, context, userParams, callback) { // XXX: rename parameters (old/new)?
	var self = this;
	var newTiddler = store.getTiddler(from.title) || store.getTiddler(to.title); //# local rename might already have occurred
	var oldTiddler = $.extend(true, {}, newTiddler); //# required for eventual deletion
	oldTiddler.title = from.title; //# required for original tiddler's ETag
	var _getTiddlerChronicle = function(title, context, userParams, callback) {
		return self.getTiddlerChronicle(title, context, userParams, callback);
	var _putTiddlerChronicle = function(context, userParams) {
		if(!context.status) {
			return callback(context, userParams);
		var revisions = $.evalJSON(context.responseText); // XXX: error handling?
		// change current title while retaining previous location
		for(var i = 0; i < revisions.length; i++) {
			delete revisions[i].revision;
			if(!revisions[i].fields.origin) { // NB: origin = "<workspace>/<title>"
				revisions[i].fields.origin = ["bags", revisions[i].bag, revisions[i].title].join("/");
			revisions[i].title = to.title;
		// add new revision
		var rev = $.extend({}, revisions[0]);
		$.each(newTiddler, function(i, item) {
			if(!$.isFunction(item)) {
				rev[i] = item;
		rev.title = to.title;
		rev.created = rev.created.convertToYYYYMMDDHHMM();
		rev.modified = new Date().convertToYYYYMMDDHHMM();
		delete rev.fields.changecount;
		if(to.workspace) {
			context.workspace = to.workspace;
		} else if(context.workspace.substring(0, 4) != "bags") { // NB: target workspace must be a bag
			context.workspace = "bags/" + rev.bag;
		var subCallback = function(context, userParams) {
			if(!context.status) {
				return callback(context, userParams);
			context.adaptor.getTiddler(newTiddler.title, context, userParams, _deleteTiddler);
		return self.putTiddlerChronicle(revisions, context, context.userParams, subCallback);
	var _deleteTiddler = function(context, userParams) {
		if(!context.status) {
			return callback(context, userParams);
		$.extend(true, newTiddler, context.tiddler);
		context.callback = null;
		return self.deleteTiddler(oldTiddler, context, context.userParams, callback);
	callback = callback || function() {};
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams); = || oldTiddler.fields[""];
	context.workspace = from.workspace || oldTiddler.fields["server.workspace"];
	return _getTiddlerChronicle(from.title, context, userParams, _putTiddlerChronicle);

// delete an individual tiddler
adaptor.prototype.deleteTiddler = function(tiddler, context, userParams, callback) {
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams, callback);
	context.title = tiddler.title; // XXX: not required!?
	var uriTemplate = "%0/bags/%1/tiddlers/%2";
	var host = || this.fullHostName(tiddler.fields[""]);
	var bag = tiddler.fields["server.bag"];
	if(!bag) {
		return adaptor.noBagErrorMessage;
	var uri = uriTemplate.format([host, adaptor.normalizeTitle(bag),
	var etag = adaptor.generateETag({ type: "bag", name: bag }, tiddler);
	var headers = etag ? { "If-Match": etag } : null;
	var req = httpReq("DELETE", uri, adaptor.deleteTiddlerCallback, context, headers,
		null, null, null, null, true);
	return typeof req == "string" ? req : true;

adaptor.deleteTiddlerCallback = function(status, context, responseText, uri, xhr) {
	context.status = [204, 1223].contains(xhr.status);
	context.statusText = xhr.statusText;
	context.httpStatus = xhr.status;
	if(context.callback) {
		context.callback(context, context.userParams);

// compare two revisions of a tiddler (requires TiddlyWeb differ plugin)
//# if context.rev1 is not specified, the latest revision will be used for comparison
//# if context.rev2 is not specified, the local revision will be sent for comparison
//# context.format is a string as determined by the TiddlyWeb differ plugin
adaptor.prototype.getTiddlerDiff = function(title, context, userParams, callback) {
	context = this.setContext(context, userParams, callback);
	context.title = title;

	var tiddler = store.getTiddler(title);
	try {
		var workspace = adaptor.resolveWorkspace(tiddler.fields["server.workspace"]);
	} catch(ex) {
		return adaptor.locationIDErrorMessage;
	var tiddlerRef = [workspace.type + "s",, tiddler.title].join("/");

	var rev1 = context.rev1 ? [tiddlerRef, context.rev1].join("/") : tiddlerRef;
	var rev2 = context.rev2 ? [tiddlerRef, context.rev2].join("/") : null;

	var uriTemplate = "%0/diff?rev1=%1";
	if(rev2) {
		uriTemplate += "&rev2=%2";
	if(context.format) {
		uriTemplate += "&format=%3";
	var host = || this.fullHostName(tiddler.fields[""]);
	var uri = uriTemplate.format([host, adaptor.normalizeTitle(rev1),
		adaptor.normalizeTitle(rev2), context.format]);

	if(rev2) {
		var req = httpReq("GET", uri, adaptor.getTiddlerDiffCallback, context, null,
			null, null, null, null, true);
	} else {
		var payload = {
			title: tiddler.title,
			text: tiddler.text,
			modifier: tiddler.modifier,
			tags: tiddler.tags,
			fields: $.extend({}, tiddler.fields)
		}; // XXX: missing attributes!?
		payload = $.toJSON(payload);
		req = httpReq("POST", uri, adaptor.getTiddlerDiffCallback, context,
			null, payload, adaptor.mimeType, null, null, true);
	return typeof req == "string" ? req : true;

adaptor.getTiddlerDiffCallback = function(status, context, responseText, uri, xhr) {
	context.status = status;
	context.statusText = xhr.statusText;
	context.httpStatus = xhr.status;
	context.uri = uri;
	if(status) {
		context.diff = responseText;
	if(context.callback) {
		context.callback(context, context.userParams);

// generate tiddler information
adaptor.prototype.generateTiddlerInfo = function(tiddler) {
	var info = {};
	var uriTemplate = "%0/%1/%2/tiddlers/%3";
	var host = || tiddler.fields[""]; // XXX: obsolete?
	host = this.fullHostName(host);
	var workspace = adaptor.resolveWorkspace(tiddler.fields["server.workspace"]);
	info.uri = uriTemplate.format([host, workspace.type + "s",
	return info;

// create Tiddler instance from TiddlyWeb tiddler JSON
adaptor.toTiddler = function(json, host) {
	var created = Date.convertFromYYYYMMDDHHMM(json.created);
	var modified = Date.convertFromYYYYMMDDHHMM(json.modified);
	var fields = json.fields;
	fields["server.type"] = adaptor.serverType;
	fields[""] = AdaptorBase.minHostName(host);
	fields["server.bag"] = json.bag;
	fields["server.title"] = json.title;
	if(json.recipe) {
		fields["server.recipe"] = json.recipe;
	if(json.type && json.type != "None") {
		fields["server.content-type"] = json.type;
	fields["server.permissions"] = json.permissions.join(", ");
	fields[""] = json.revision;
	fields["server.workspace"] = "bags/" + json.bag;
	var tiddler = new Tiddler(json.title);
	tiddler.assign(tiddler.title, json.text, json.modifier, modified, json.tags,
		created, json.fields, json.creator);
	return tiddler;

adaptor.resolveWorkspace = function(workspace) {
	var components = workspace.split("/");
	return {
		type: components[0] == "bags" ? "bag" : "recipe",
		name: components[1] || components[0]

adaptor.generateETag = function(workspace, tiddler) {
	var revision = tiddler.fields[""];
	var etag = revision == "false" ? null : tiddler.fields["server.etag"];
	if(!etag && workspace.type == "bag") {
		if(typeof revision == "undefined") {
			revision = "0";
		} else if(revision == "false") {
			return null;
		etag = [adaptor.normalizeTitle(,
			adaptor.normalizeTitle(tiddler.title), revision].join("/");
		etag = '"' + etag + '"';
	return etag;

adaptor.normalizeTitle = function(title) {
	return encodeURIComponent(title);


 * jQuery JSON Plugin
 * version: 1.3
 * source:
 * license: MIT (
(function($){function toIntegersAtLease(n)
{return n<10?'0'+n:n;}
{return this.getUTCFullYear()+'-'+
toIntegersAtLease(this.getUTCDate());};var escapeable=/["\\\x00-\x1f\x7f-\x9f]/g;var meta={'\b':'\\b','\t':'\\t','\n':'\\n','\f':'\\f','\r':'\\r','"':'\\"','\\':'\\\\'};$.quoteString=function(string)
{var c=meta[a];if(typeof c==='string'){return c;}
{var type=typeof(o);if(type=="undefined")
return"undefined";else if(type=="number"||type=="boolean")
return o+"";else if(o===null)
{return $.quoteString(o);}
if(type=="object"&&typeof o.toJSON=="function")
return o.toJSON(compact);if(type!="function"&&typeof(o.length)=="number")
{var ret=[];for(var i=0;i<o.length;i++){ret.push($.toJSON(o[i],compact));}
return"["+ret.join(", ")+"]";}
if(type=="function"){throw new TypeError("Unable to convert object of type 'function' to json.");}
var ret=[];for(var k in o){var name;type=typeof(k);if(type=="number")
name='"'+k+'"';else if(type=="string")
continue;var val=$.toJSON(o[k],compact);if(typeof(val)!="string"){continue;}
ret.push(name+": "+val);}
return"{"+ret.join(", ")+"}";};$.compactJSON=function(o)
{return $.toJSON(o,true);};$.evalJSON=function(src)
{return eval("("+src+")");};$.secureEvalJSON=function(src)
{var filtered=src;filtered=filtered.replace(/\\["\\\/bfnrtu]/g,'@');filtered=filtered.replace(/"[^"\\\n\r]*"|true|false|null|-?\d+(?:\.\d*)?(?:[eE][+\-]?\d+)?/g,']');filtered=filtered.replace(/(?:^|:|,)(?:\s*\[)+/g,'');if(/^[\],:{}\s]*$/.test(filtered))
return eval("("+src+")");else
throw new SyntaxError("Error parsing JSON, source is not valid.");};})(jQuery);
[[digital lecttures|p://]]
[[ an automated recording system for mobile devices under Android OS.|]]
capture system 
for Android OS

Automated lecture capture system for
traditional chalkboards
.tiddler .originButton div {
	display: inline-block;

.tiddler .spaceSiteIcon .siteIcon {
	_display: inline; /* IE doesn't like inline-block */

.tiddler .originButton {
	display: block;

.selected .tagging,
.selected .tagging:hover {
	border: none;
	background: none;

.tagging {
	float: none;
	background: none;
	border: none;

.tagging li.listTitle {
	margin-left: 0px;
.tagging li {
	margin: 0 8px;

.tagging .tiddlyLink {
	-webkit-border-radius: 3px;
	-moz-border-radius: 3px;
	-o-border-radius: 3px;
	border-radius: 3px;
	padding: 1px 2px;
	line-height: 1.2em;

/* for following */
#popup .siteIcon {
	float: left;
	height: 25px;

.content {
	width: 100%; /* IE */
	font-size: 0.9em;

.editorHeading {
	height: 48px;

.heading {
	left: 0;
	margin-bottom: 40px;
	position: relative;
	top: 32px;

.followButton a {
	display: block;
	margin-top: -20px;

.tiddler .followPlaceHolder {
	display: block;
	position: absolute;
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/* creates the larger triangle */
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.toolbar svg .glyph {
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.toolbar a:hover .glyph {
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.toolbar a:active .glyph {
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.editSpaceSiteIcon .originButton {
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.tiddler .subtitle:hover {
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.originButton img,
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[[Ubuntu HOW TO: SmartCard authentication Smart Card |]]
[[Supported Hardware|[]]
[[Supported applications|]]
[[crypto shop|]]

[[truecrypt|]] secure data
1. Crust: 100-300 km thick
2. Mantle: 600 km thick
3. Core: 1,800 km radius

[[Martian dichotomy |]]
> The average thickness of the Martian crust is 45 km, with 32 km in the northern lowlands region, and 58 km in the southern highlands.

[[Mars should have a magnetic field, but doesn't|]] suspicious motivations (Creationism Examiner) but nonetheless if offers interesting links
> Planetary scientist familiar with the problem all agree that Mars had a much stronger magnetic field than it has today. What they don't agree on is why it no longer has a magnetic field.
[img[Mars: magnetic field and inner core |]] 

[[Magnetic field images|'+magnetic+field%22&hl=pt-PT&prmd=imvns&source=lnms&tbm=isch&ei=-kiETo4GyarRBYr2xPgP&sa=X&oi=mode_link&ct=mode&cd=2&ved=0CA0Q_AUoAQ&biw=1066&bih=800]]
[img[Mag. field |]] 
[[from The Solar Wind at Mars (NASA)|]]
> The northern and southern hemispheres of Mars are strikingly different from each other in topography and physiography.

[img[radial magnetic field |]]

Mars ''orbit inclination  to Sun's equator 5.65° ''
Axis tilt ''Axial tilt 	                            25.19° ''
[[Geology of Mars|]]
> The extreme massiveness of Tharsis has placed tremendous stresses on the planet’s lithosphere. As a result, immense extensional fractures (grabens and rift valleys) radiate outward from Tharsis, extending halfway around the planet.

[[Valles marineris|]] 


> At more than 4,000 km long, 200 km wide and up to 7 km deep

[[Asteroid Crash May Have Demagnetized Mars|]] ( Arkani-Hamed and colleagues work)

[[google smart lens to measure glucose|]]

[[oomph|]] -- setup eclipse custom environments
[[Xtext|]]    -- easy define DSL languages ([[1m video|]]) ([[local doc file on vaio|]]

[[5 simple steps to Fowler's DSL with Xtext 2.0|]] with 3 videos:
>Creating the project and defining the language
>Defining the code generator and see its integration (Xtend > java)
>Features, Features, Features


[[5 good videos|]]
[[FXdiagram|]] -- integrate with xtext
[[CDO|]] - CDO Model Repository Overview ; integrate with xtext  for [[colaborative work|]]

[[sapphire dev ide|]] Sapphire - develop UI without wiring individual widgets
[[scout dev ide|]] Future proof Business Applications
Exploring ! Inner Planets magnetism by piezoelectricity?  The answer will be yes (I hope) and everything goes in this direction

[[WP Piezoelectricity|]]

 The dipole density or polarization (dimensionality [Cm/m3] ) may easily be calculated for crystals by summing up the dipole moments per volume of the crystallographic unit cell.[5] As every dipole is a vector, the dipole density P is also a vector or a directed quantity. Dipoles near each other tend to be aligned in regions called Weiss domains. The domains are usually randomly oriented, but can be aligned using the process of poling (not the same as magnetic poling), a process by which a strong electric field is applied across the material, usually at elevated temperatures. Not all piezoelectric materials can be poled.[6]

Of decisive importance for the piezoelectric effect is the change of polarization P when applying a mechanical stress. This might either be caused by a re-configuration of the dipole-inducing surrounding or by re-orientation of molecular dipole moments under the influence of the external stress. Piezoelectricity may then manifest in a variation of the polarization strength, its direction or both, with the details depending on 1. the orientation of P within the crystal, 2. crystal symmetry and 3. the applied mechanical stress. The change in P appears as a variation of surface charge density upon the crystal faces, i.e. as a variation of the electrical field extending between the faces, since the units of surface charge density and polarization are the same, [C/m2] = [Cm/m3]. However, piezoelectricity is not caused by a change in charge density on the surface, but by dipole density in the bulk. For example, a 1 cm3 cube of quartz with 2 kN (500 lbf) of correctly applied force can produce a voltage of 12500 V.[7]
Piezoelectric materials also show the opposite effect, called converse piezoelectric effect, where the application of an electrical field creates mechanical deformation in the crystal.
Mathematical description
Piezoelectricity is the combined effect of the electrical behavior of the material:
where D is the electric charge density displacement (electric displacement), ε is permittivity and E is electric field strength, and
''Hooke's Law:''
where S is strain, s is compliance and T is stress.
These may be combined into so-called coupled equations, of which the strain-charge form is:

''mechanism for reversals of the planetary magnetic field'' 
[[from WP-crystal oscilator |]]
Quartz exists in sevaral phases. At 573 ºC at 1 atmosphere (and at higher presures) the $\alpha$-quartz undergoes quartz inversion, transforms reversibly to $\betha$-quartz. ...tridymite cristalobite, are not significant for oscilators. All quartz oscillator crystals are the $\alpha$-quartz type.

[[PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS: BASIC MODELS|]] modelling of piezoceramics

[[Modelica Piezo model|]] 4 files attached there

[[Thesis Dynamic modeling of thermo-fluid systems|]] modelica model
[[Piezo-University Tutorial: Piezoelectrics in Nanopositioning, Designing with Piezoelectric Actuators|]]


[[How could a Rotating Body such as the Sun become a Magnet?|]] ''Joseph Larmor 1919''
(3) ''A crystal possesses permanent intrinsic electric polarisation, because its polar molecules are orientated'' : and if this natural orientation is pronounced, the polarisation must be nearly complete, so that if the crystal were of the size of the earth it would produce an enormous electric field. But, great or small, this field will become annulled by masking electric charge as above. The explanation of pyro-electric phenomena by Lord Kelvin was that change of temperature alters the polarisation, while the masking charge has not had opportunity to adapt itself : and piezo-electric phenomena might have been anticipated on the same lines. Thus, as there is not complete compensation magnetically, an electrically neutralised crystalline body moving with high speed of rotation through the æther would be expected to produce a magnetic field and a planet whose materials have crystallised out in some rough relation to the direction of gravity, or of its rotation, would possess a magnetic field.

But ''relativity forbids that a crystalline body translated without rotation at astronomical speeds should exhibit any magnetic field relative to the moving system.'' The very extraordinary feature of the earth's magnetic field is its great and rapid changes, comparable with its whole amount. Yet the almost absolute fixity of length of the astronomical day shows extreme stability of the earth as regards its material structure. ''This consideration would seem to exclude entirely theories of terrestrial magnetism of the type of (2) and (3)''. But the type (1), which appears to be reasonable for the case of the sun, would account for magnetic change, sudden or gradual, on the earth merely by change of internal conducting channels though, on the other hand, it would require fluidity and residual circulation in deepseated regions. In any case, in a celestial body residual circulation would be extremely permanent, as the large size would make effects of ordinary viscosity nearly negligible.

[[Quartz oscillator|]] 

[[50 years Progress in Crystal Growth|]]
>  These have been designed to elucidate the influence of gravity on crystal growth processes,  pag 214

[[Crystal-field  induced dipoles  in heteropolar  crystals  I:  concept |]] 


[[PIA02008: Magnetic Strips Preserve Record of Ancient Mars |]]
[img[Mars mag field |]]
[[Present day mag field|]]
[[PDS Data Dictionary Document|]]  long pdf
[[posted by codeschool|]] very clean site to learn:

Very good videos
Uau, detailed and at the same time concised .

http servers, frameworks, MVC
[[youtube Server-side web programming (part 1 of 7)|]] 
http servers, proxy, reverse proxy, mod_cgi, ... 
use mod_wsgi instead of mod_python

[[youtube Server-side web programming (part 2 of 7)|]]
[[cross-correlation-to-prove-two-audio-files-are-similar |]]
Refer cp 
[[Infrasound arduino solutio